Marilyn Manson is an American industrial metal band formed by namesake lead singer Marilyn Manson and guitarist Daisy Berkowitz in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, in 1989. Named Marilyn Manson & the Spooky Kids, they gained a local cult following in South Florida in the early 1990s with their theatrical live performances. In 1993, they were the first act signed to Trent Reznor's Nothing Records label; until 1996, the name of each member was created by combining the first name of a female sex symbol and the last name of a serial killer, for example Marilyn Monroe and Charles Manson. Their lineup has changed between many of their album releases. In the past, band members dressed in outlandish makeup and costumes, engaged in intentionally shocking behavior both onstage and off, their lyrics received criticism for their anti-religious sentiment and references to sex and drugs, while their live performances were called offensive and obscene. On several occasions and petitions led to the group being blocked from performing, with at least three US states passing legislation banning the group from performing at state-owned venues.
They released a number of platinum-selling albums, including Antichrist Superstar and Mechanical Animals. These albums, along with their stylized music videos and worldwide touring, brought public recognition to Marilyn Manson. In 1999, news media falsely blamed the band for influencing the Columbine High School massacre; as this controversy began to wane throughout the 2000s, so did the band's mainstream popularity. Despite this, Jon Wiederhorn of MTV, in June 2003, referred to Marilyn Manson as "the only true artist today". Marilyn Manson is regarded as being one of the most iconic and controversial figures in rock music, with the band and its lead singer influencing numerous other groups and musicians, both in metal-associated acts and in wider popular culture. VH1 ranked Marilyn Manson as the seventy-eighth best rock band on their 100 Great Artists of Hard Rock, they were inducted into the Kerrang! Hall of Fame in 2000, have been nominated for four Grammy Awards. In the U. S. the band has seen eight of its releases debut including two number-one albums.
Marilyn Manson have sold in excess of 50 million records worldwide. In 1989, Brian Warner was a college student working towards a degree in journalism at Broward College, gaining experience by writing music articles for the South Florida lifestyle magazine 25th Parallel, it was in this capacity that he met several of the musicians to whom his own band would be compared, including My Life with the Thrill Kill Kult and Trent Reznor of Nine Inch Nails. That December, he met Scott Putesky, who proposed that the two form a band together after reading some lyrics and poems written by Putesky, who wanted to be the vocalist of the proposed band. Warner, guitarist Putesky and bassist Brian Tutunick recorded their first demo tape as Marilyn Manson & the Spooky Kids in 1990, taking on the stage names of Marilyn Manson, Daisy Berkowitz and Olivia Newton Bundy, respectively. Bundy left the band soon after, was replaced by Gidget Gein, born Brad Stewart, they were joined on keyboard by Stephen Bier, who called himself Madonna Wayne Gacy.
In 1991, drummer Fred Streithorst joined the band under the name Sara Lee Lucas. The stage names adopted by each member were representative of a concept the band considered central: the dichotomy of good and evil, the existence of both, together, in every whole. "Marilyn Monroe had a dark side", explained Manson in his autobiography, "just as Charles Manson has a good, intelligent side." Over the next six years, all of the band's members would adopt names that combined the first name of a female sex symbol and the surname of a serial killer. Images of both Monroe and Manson, as well as of other famous and infamous figures, were common in the band's early promotional materials; the Spooky Kids' popularity in the area grew and because of the band's visual concerts, which drew from performance art and used many shock techniques such as "naked women nailed to a cross, a child in a cage, or bloody animal body parts." Band members variously performed in bizarre costumes. The band would contrast these theatrics with elements drawn from their youth: characters from 1970s and'80s children's television made regular grotesquely altered, appearances on band flyers and newsletters, were sampled in their music.
They continued to perform and release cassettes – shortening their name to Marilyn Manson in 1992 – until the summer of 1993, when they drew the attention of Reznor, who had just founded his own label, Nothing Records. Reznor offered the band a contract with the label, as well as an opening slot supporting Nine Inch Nails on their upcoming "Self Destruct Tour". After accepting both offers, recording sessions for their debut studio album began in July 1993 with Swans producer Roli Mosimann at Criteria Studios in Miami, Florida. Recording a selection of new songs along with material from their Spooky Kids repertoire, the first version of their debut, titled The Manson Family Album, was completed by the end of the month. However, it was not well received; the band's members, along with Reznor, criticized Mosimann's production as being flat and poorly representative of the band's live performances. At the same time, Gidget Gein had begun to lose control of his addiction to heroin. Before reworking the album, the band played two shows in Florida under the name Mrs. Scabtree.
Francis Asbury Roe was an admiral in the United States Navy who served during the American Civil War. Born in Elmira, New York, Roe entered the United States Navy as a midshipman on October 19, 1841, graduated from the United States Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland in 1848. Roe left the Navy for eleven months, from June 1848 to May 1849, serving aboard the mail steamer SS Georgia. After he returned to the Navy, he was assigned to the brigantine Porpoise and served in an expedition to chart the North Pacific. Cape Roe on the Japanese island of Tanegashima was named for him during this expedition. In 1854, while serving in Porpoise on the Asiatic Station, he participated in an engagement with 13 Chinese armored junks off Macau. Six of the junks were sunk and the others were scattered. Roe received his commission as Master on August 8, 1855, as Lieutenant on September 14 of the same year. From 1857 to 1858 he served in the U. S. Coast Survey. During the Civil War, in April 1862, he was recommended for promotion for gallantry for his actions on board the screw steamer Pensacola while serving as executive officer, as that ship led Admiral David Farragut's starboard column past Fort Jackson and Fort St. Philip.
He was promoted to Lieutenant Commander on July 16, 1862, placed in command of the gunboat Katahdin on the Mississippi River. While commanding Katahdin, Roe defeated Confederate general John C. Breckinridge's attack on Louisiana. Roe was ordered to command the side-wheel steamer Sassacus on the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron in September 1863, captured and destroyed several blockade runners in the sounds of North Carolina. Eight months he was again commended for gallantry for engaging the Confederate ram Albemarle and capturing the gunboat Bombshell on May 5, 1864. After the end of the war, Roe commanded the iron-hulled warship Michigan on the Great Lakes, he was promoted to Commander on July 25, 1866, given command of the steamer Tacony on a special mission to Mexico. Roe served as fleet captain for the Asiatic Station from 1868 to 1871. Roe was promoted to Captain on April 1, 1872, commanded the screw sloop Lancaster on the Brazil Station from 1874 to 1875, he was promoted to Commodore on November 26, 1880, to Rear Admiral on November 3, 1884 while serving as governor of the Naval Asylum at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
He was transferred to the retired list on October 4, 1885. Roe died in Washington, D. C. on December 28, 1901, aged 78, is buried in Arlington National Cemetery. The United States Navy has named two destroyers USS Roe in his honor; this article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here. Park Benjamin, Jr. Francis Asbury Roe
Edward Marshall Boehm was an American figurative expressionist sculptor, known for his porcelain figures of birds and other wildlife. Boehm explained his choice of porcelain as the medium for his art as follows:"Porcelain is a permanent creation. If properly processed and fired, its colors will never change, it is a medium in which one can portray the everlasting beauty of form and color of wildlife and nature." He and his wife founded an eponymous company, E. M. Boehm Studios, in 1950. Edward Marshall Boehm was born in Baltimore, Maryland in 1913, his surname is pronounced "Beam". His parents separated before his birth, his mother, died when he was seven years old. Friends enrolled him in an all-boys school for orphans and the poor, the McDonogh School, where he remained until he was 16 years old, when he left to work as a farmhand, he studied animal husbandry at the University of College Park. From 1934-42, he managed Longacres Farm on the Eastern Shore of Maryland, specializing in Guernsey cattle.
During World War II Boehm was in charge of a rehabilitation program for the Air Force at Pawling, New York. After World War II, Boehm apprenticed for six months with sculptor Herbert Haseltine. Boehm studied draftsmanship three times a week and taught himself the ancient process of porcelain making. In 1944, he married Helen Franzolin, they moved to Trenton, New Jersey, where they founded their business in 1950. The following year, the American Wing of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York ordered two statues for the museum's collection; the marriage childless. The couple remained together until Edward's death in 1969, aged 55. Boehm kept a large collection of exotic birds in extensive aviaries and tropical houses at his home in Trenton; these birds became some of inspiration for his sculptures. Many of these species were bred 12 were recognised as being for the first time in captivity anywhere in the world. For these breeding successes Edward Boehm received a number of commemorative plaques."
Edward Marshall Boehm died from a heart attack on January 29, 1969, aged 55. His widow, Helen Boehm, died in 2010, aged 89; the couple is interred at Saint Mary's Cemetery, Mercer County, New Jersey. Boehm was accorded his highest honor in 1992 when a wing of the Vatican Museums in Rome was named in his memory; this was the first time in its 500-year history that one of the 13 museums in the Vatican was named for an American citizen, as the twelve other museums are named for popes and royal families. ”The image and likeness of God's world is seen at once in the work of Edward Marshall Boehm. It is not an esoteric expression like so much of contemporary art. Clarity is its first quality, its grandeur is in its perfection. It is a disciplined art, mastering the demands of the ancient and distinguished craft of porcelain making” Frank J. Cosentino, president of Edward Marshall Boehm, Inc. explained the importance of Boehm's hard-paste porcelain sculpture: "Prior to Edward Marshall Boehm's venture in 1950s, few, if any, American firms had made hard-paste porcelain sculpture that compared with the fine centuries-old production of Europe and Asia."
Today Boehm porcelain is in the permanent collections of one hundred thirty-four institutions globally including: White House, Washington, D. C. Buckingham Palace, England Elysѐe Palace, France The Vatican Museum, Vatican City Hermitage, Russia Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City Museum of Fine Arts, Houston John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, Washington, D. C. New Jersey State Museum, New Jersey Los Angeles County Museum of Art The Brooks Museum of Art, Tennessee The Louisiana State Museum The Smithsonian Institution Bellingrath Gardens and Home, Alabama University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio The American Camellia Society at Massee Lane Gardens in Fort Valley, Georgia Future Business Leaders of America-Phi Beta Lambda of Reston, Virginia Terrebonne Historical & Cultural Society Wichita Art Museum, Kansas, U. S. Frank J. Cosentino, Boehm's birds. S. Edward Marshall Boehm, sculpture image at askart.com. Marshall Boehm American Figurative Expressionist Porcelain Sculptor of the 1950s at Google Photos
The Soviet Army was the main land-based branch of the Soviet Armed Forces between February 1946 and December 1991, when it was replaced with the Russian Ground Forces, although it was not abolished until 25 December 1993. Until 25 February 1946, it was known as the Red Army, established by decree on 15 January 1918 "to protect the population, territorial integrity and civil liberties in the territory of the Soviet state." The Strategic Missile Forces, Air Defence Forces and Air Forces were part of the Soviet Army in addition to the Ground Forces. The former official name Red Army continued to be used as a nickname by both sides throughout the Cold War. At the end of World War II the Red Army had over 500 rifle divisions and about a tenth that number of tank formations, their experience of war gave the Soviets such faith in tank forces that the infantry force was cut by two-thirds. The Tank Corps of the late war period were converted to tank divisions, from 1957 the rifle divisions were converted to motor rifle divisions.
MRDs had three motorized rifle regiments and a tank regiment, for a total of ten motor rifle battalions and six tank battalions. The Land Forces Chief Command was created for the first time in March 1946. Four years it was disbanded, only to be formed again in 1955. In March 1964 the Chief Command was again disbanded but recreated in November 1967. Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov became Chief of the Soviet Ground Forces in March 1946, but was succeeded by Ivan Konev in July, who remained as such until 1950, when the position of Chief of the Soviet Ground Forces was abolished for five years, an organisational gap that "probably was associated in some manner with the Korean War". From 1945 to 1948, the Soviet Armed Forces were reduced from about 11.3 million to about 2.8 million men, a demobilisation controlled first, by increasing the number of military districts to 33 reduced to 21 in 1946. The personnel strength of the Ground Forces was reduced from 9.8 million to 2.4 million. To establish and secure the USSR's eastern European geopolitical interests, Red Army troops who liberated eastern Europe from Nazi rule, in 1945 remained in place to secure pro-Soviet régimes in Eastern Europe and to protect against attack from Europe.
Elsewhere, they may have assisted the NKVD in suppressing anti-Soviet resistance in Western Ukraine and the Baltic states. Soviet troops, including the 39th Army, remained at Port Arthur and Dalian on the northeast Chinese coast until 1955. Control was handed over to the new Chinese communist government. Soviet Army forces on USSR territory were apportioned among military districts. There were 32 of them in 1945. Sixteen districts remained from the mid-1970s to the end of the USSR. Yet, the greatest Soviet Army concentration was in the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany, which suppressed the anti-Soviet Uprising of 1953 in East Germany. East European Groups of Forces were the Northern Group of Forces in Poland, the Southern Group of Forces in Hungary, which put down the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. In 1958, Soviet troops were withdrawn from Romania; the Central Group of Forces in Czechoslovakia was established after Warsaw Pact intervention against the Prague Spring of 1968. In 1969, at the east end of the Soviet Union, the Sino-Soviet border conflict, prompted establishment of a 16th military district, the Central Asian Military District, at Alma-Ata, Kazakhstan.
In 1979, the Soviet Union entered Afghanistan, to support its Communist government, provoking a 10-year Afghan mujahideen guerrilla resistance. Throughout the Cold War, Western intelligence estimates calculated that the Soviet strength remained ca. 2.8 million to ca. 5.3 million men. To maintain said strength range, Soviet law minimally required a three-year military service obligation from every able man of military age, until 1967, when the Ground Forces reduced it to a two-year draft obligation. By the middle of the 1980s, the Ground Forces contained about 210 divisions. About three-quarters were the remainder tank divisions. There were a large number of artillery divisions, separate artillery brigades, engineer formations, other combat support formations. However, only few formations were war ready. Three readiness categories, A, B, V, after the first three letters of the Cyrillic alphabet, were in force; the Category A divisions were certified combat-ready and were equipped. B and V divisions were 50 -- 75 % and 10 -- 33 % respectively.
The internal military districts contained only one or two A divisions, with the remainder B and V series formations. Soviet planning for most of the Cold War period would have seen Armies of four to five divisions operating in Fronts made up of around four armies. In February 1979, the first of the new High Commands in the Strategic Directions were created at Ulan-Ude; these new headquarters controlled multiple Fronts, a Soviet Navy Fleet. In September 1984, three more were established to control multi-Front operations in Europe and at Baku to handle southern operations. In 1955, the Soviet Union signed the Warsaw Pact with its East European socialist allies, establishing military coordination between Soviet forces and their socialist counterparts; the Soviet Army created and directed the Eastern European armies in its image for the
Jules Joseph Pire was a Belgian career soldier and a leading figure in the Belgian Resistance during World War II. In this capacity, he led the Secret Army, the largest faction of the resistance, from January 1944. Pire was born in Hannut in the Province of Liège on 29 March 1878, he enlisted in the Belgian Army in 1897 as a non-commissioned officer and subsequently as an officer. He was admitted to the Ecole de Guerre and served in the staff of the 3rd Brigade during the German invasion of Belgium in World War I. Transferring to the infantry, Pire rose through the ranks during the war and in its aftermath; the culmination of his career was as commander of the newly created Corps of Chasseurs Ardennais from 1936 to 1939. He retired in April 1939 as a lieutenant general, before being recalled in September when the outbreak of World War II led to the mobilisation of the Belgian Army, despite its neutral status. During the 18 Days' Campaign, Pire commanded the 10th Division of Chasseurs Ardennais.
With Belgium under German Occupation, Pire became involved in the resistance. In 1941, he was involved in the creation of the Belgian Legion, a group in the Belgian Resistance with right-wing political sympathies, he became the group's commander in Wallonia. The Belgian Legion subsequently merged with other groups becoming the Secret Army in 1944. Following the arrest of Jules Bastin and his successor's escape to the United Kingdom, Pire became head of the Secret Army in January 1944. In this role, he led the group's mobilisation after the Normandy Landings and during the Liberation of Belgium from June to September 1944, he subsequently supervised the group's demobilisation before retiring. He died on 29 January 1953. Bernard, Henri. "Jules Pire". Biographie nationale. 37. Brussels: Académie royale de Belgique. P. 655-8
The Mauritius Scout Association is a Scouting organisation in Mauritius. The association was founded in 1971 and became a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement in 1971; the coeducational association had 2,782 members. In 1912, 17 year old Samuel Blunt de Burgh Edwards formed the first patrol of Scouts in Mauritius and became the first leader, he is regarded as the founder of Scouting in Mauritius. A number of Scout troops developed. In 1913, The Boy Scouts Association of the United Kingdom established its Mauritian Local Association which became its Mauritian Branch; this branch consisted of different affiliated associations, separated by faiths. Upon the independence of Mauritius in 1968, two reports were launched to ensure the development of Scouting in Mauritius. In 1971, The Mauritius Scout Association was constituted as an autonomous organisation and single successor to The Scout Association's Mauritian Branch and the different religious Scout associations; the association was admitted to WOSM in the same year.
The association was incorporated in 1976. The aim of the Mauritius Scout Association is "to encourage the physical, social and spiritual development of young people so that they may take a constructive place in society". Self-reliance and adventure and Scout craft are major features of the program. Proficiency badges are divided into four categories, pursuit and instructor. Most Scout groups are sponsored by religious bodies, schools and others institutions. All Scouts help during religious processions, regardless of creed, carry sick people at the Fête Annuelle des Malades. Community services including helping to evacuate flooded areas during cyclones, assisting in refugee centers, cleaning roads and repairing houses. Scouts are involved in a variety of community development projects; the association is divided in four sections: Cub Scouts Scouts Venture Scouts Rover Scouts As most Mauritians speak French, the French version of Scout Law and Motto are more used than the English ones. Both versions are part of the association's constitution.
The Scout Motto is Be Prepared. Sur mon honneur je promets de faire de mon mieux, pour servir Dieu et mon pays, d'aider les autres, et d'observer la Loi Scoute. On my honour, I promise that I will do my best, to do my duty to God and to my country, to help other people and to keep the Scout Law. Un Scout inspire confiance. - A Scout is to be trusted. Un Scout est loyal. - A Scout is loyal. Un Scout est amical et chevalresque. - A Scout is considerate. Un Scout est le frère de tout autre Scouts. - A Scout is a brother to all Scouts. Un Scout affronte les difficultés avec courage. - A Scout has courage in all difficulties. Un Scout fait bon usage de son temps et prend soin de ses biens et ceux des autres. - A Scout is careful of his possessions and property. Un Scout se respecte et respecte les autres. - A Scout has respect for others. The Mauritius Girl Guides Association World Scout Bureau, Scouting'Round the World. 1979 edition. ISBN 2-88052-001-0 World Organization of the Scout Movement, Scouting'Round the World.
1990 edition. ISBN 2-88052-001-0 Official website