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Marimba

The marimba is a percussion instrument consisting of a set of wooden bars struck with yarn or rubber mallets to produce musical tones. Resonators or pipes suspended underneath the bars amplify their sound; the bars of a chromatic marimba are arranged like the keys of a piano, with the groups of two and three accidentals raised vertically, overlapping the natural bars to aid the performer both visually and physically. This instrument is a type of idiophone, but with a more resonant and lower-pitched tessitura than the xylophone. A person who plays the marimba is called a marimba player. Modern uses of the marimba include solo performances and brass ensembles, marimba concertos, jazz ensembles, marching band and bugle corps, indoor percussion ensembles, orchestral compositions. Contemporary composers have used the unique sound of the marimba more in recent years. Xylophones are used in music of Asia and west and central Africa. In Latin America, enslaved Africans recreated them in the 17th centuries.

The name marimba stems from Bantu marimba or malimba,'xylophone'. According to some Western sources, the word'marimba' is formed from ma'many' and rimba'single-bar xylophone,' however the use of the term marimba and/or derivative terms is not present in any West African language; the instrument itself is present, but is called balafon or heri in Mali and/or Guinea, while it is known as gyil among the Gur peoples in and around northern Ghana and Burkina Faso. The word marimba and derivative words is used in East and Southern Africa. A survey of the literature on the African marimba and related instruments, like the Xylorimba and ilimba indicate a relationship between the word marimba and the various lamellaphones found all over Central and East Africa. Other sources credit the creation of the marimba and the kalimba to Queen Marimba of the Wakambi people, who live south of Lake Victoria. In the Shona language "imba" means song. Kuimba is to sing. Marimba, is said to be the "mother of song" and the creator of all the instruments, including the marimba.

Mama means mother in Kiswahili, so it makes perfect sense that the word mother would be combined with the word "imba", the unconjugated verb for'sing'. The karimba is said to have been created by Queen Marimba. In much of East & Central Africa the karimba is seen as a hand-held version of the marimba. Diatonic xylophones were introduced to Central America in the 17th century; the first historical record of Mayan musicians using gourd resonator marimbas in Guatemala was made in 1680, by the historian Domingo Juarros. It became more widespread during the 18th and 19th centuries, as Mayan and Ladino ensembles started using it on festivals. In 1821, the marimba was proclaimed the national instrument of Guatemala in its independence proclamation. In 1850, Mexican marimbist Manuel Bolán Cruz, modified the old bow marimba, by the wooden straight one, lengthening the legs so that the musicians could play in a standing mode, expanded the keyboard and replaced the gourd resonators by wooden boxes. In 1892, Mexican musician Corazón de Jesús Borras Moreno expanded marimba to include the chromatic scale by adding another row of sound bars, akin to black keys on the piano.

The name marimba was applied to the orchestra instrument inspired by the Latin American model. In the United States, companies like Deagan and Leedy company adapted the Latin American instruments for use in western music. Metal tubes were used as resonators, fine-tuned by rotating metal discs at the bottom; the marimbas were first used for light dance, such as Vaudeville theater and comedy shows. Clair Omar Musser was a chief proponent of marimba in the United States at the time. French composer Darius Milhaud made the ground-breaking introduction of marimbas into Western classical music in his 1947 Concerto for Marimba and Vibraphone. Four-mallet grip was employed enhancing interest for the instrument. In the late 20th century and contemporary composers found new ways to use marimba: notable examples include Leoš Janáček, Carl Orff, Karl Amadeus Hartmann, Hans Werner Henze, Pierre Boulez, Steve Reich, Ney Rosauro, Akira Miyoshi; the Marimba sound has become recognizable through its role as the default ringtone in Apple's iOS mobile operating system.

Marimba bars are made of either wood or synthetic material. Rosewood is the most desirable. Bars made from synthetic materials fall short in sound quality in comparison to wooden bars, but are less expensive and yield added durability and weather resistance, making them suitable for outdoor use. Bubinga and mahogany have been cited as comparable to rosewood in quality for use as marimba bars; the specific rosewood, Dalbergia stevensonii, only grows in Southern Guatemala and Belize the British Honduras. This wood has a Janka rating of 2200, about three times harder than Silver Maple; the bars are wider and longer at the lowest pitched notes, get narrower and shorter as the notes get higher. During the tuning, wood is taken from the middle underside of the bar to lower the pitch; because of this, the bars are thinner in the lowest pitch register and thicker in the highest pitch register. In Africa, most marimbas are made by local artisans from locally available materials. Marimba bars produce their fullest sound when str

Sir Isaac Brock Bridge

The Sir Isaac Brock Bridge is a steel Warren truss bridge in Toronto, Canada. It carries four lanes for motor vehicles with Toronto Transit Commission's streetcar tracks along Bathurst Street over the railway tracks south of Front Street; the Bridge was named The Bathurst Street Bridge before changing names and being named after Isaac Brock. The steel truss bridge was built in 1903 and used for the Great Western Railway over the Humber River, it was converted for road traffic. The bridge served to connect Bathurst Street at Front Street to Fort York. In 1931, the bridge was moved and re-aligned to support streetcar service south of the railway tracks at that location. A new bridge south of the bridge was constructed to connect the south end of the bridge, connecting Bathurst to Fleet Street. Fort York lost its road access in the change, a footbridge to the east entrance was constructed; the Tywn River Drive Bridge, Queen Street Viaduct, the Old Eastern Avenue Bridge are other examples of steel bridges in Toronto.

Lawrence Avenue Bridge was a truss bridge that took traffic over Don River, but it was replaced by the current overpass over the Don River and Don Valley Parkway in the 1960s. In 2007, the bridge was given the official name of the "Sir Isaac Brock Bridge" by the City of Toronto and East York Community Council; this was done at the instigation of the "Friends of Fort York" organization. The bridge is owned by Metrolinx, it was owned by the Canadian National railway

Fumi Nikaidō

Fumi Nikaidō is a Japanese actress and fashion model. Starting as a model in Naha, Nikaidō made her film debut in 2009 in Toad's Oil, directed by Kōji Yakusho, she and Shota Sometani received the Marcello Mastroianni Award for Best Young Actor and Actress Award for their work in Shion Sono's Himizu at the 68th Venice International Film Festival in 2011. In 2014, she was introduced in Variety as an "Int'l Star You Should Know" and New York Asian Film Festival awarded her as an "International Rising Star". Sorasoi Toad's Oil Ringing in Their Ears - Michico Narita Looking for a True Fiancee - Emi Himizu - Keiko Chazawa The Warped Forest The Boy Inside - Kie Lesson of the Evil - Reika Katagiri Brain Man - Noriko Midorikawa Why Don't You Play in Hell? - Michico Mourning Recipe - Imo My Man - Hana Kusarino The World of Kanako Au revoir l' ete - Noriko Hibi Rock - Saki Utagawa Farewell, Money Misono Universe This Nation's Sky - Satoko Bitter Honey - Akago Wolf Girl and Black Prince - Erika Shinohara Kako: My Sullen Past - Kako Somebody - Rika Scoop!

- Nobi Namekawa Inuyashiki - Shion Watanabe River's Edge - Haruna Wakakusa Tonde Saitama - Momomi Dan'noura Tezuka's Barbara - Barbara No Longer Human Seiri-chan Ito - Toshiko Yamada Atami no Sousakan - Remi Amari The Tempest - Omoedo Future Diary - Megumi Fuwa Taira no Kiyomori - Taira no Tokuko Woman - Shiori Uesugi Gunshi Kanbei - Lady Chacha Henshin - Megumi Hamura A Far Promise ~ The Children Who Became Stars Mondai no Aru Restaurant - Yumi Nitta Soshite, dare mo inakunatta - Sanae Kuramoto Teacher Gappa - Aiko Muramoto Shiawase no Kioku - Fuyuka Tsushima Sumu Sumu - Fumi Nikaido Frankenstein's Love - Tsugumi Tsuguru Segodon - Aikana In This Corner of the World - Rin Shiraki Yell - Oto Sekiuchi Official website Fumi Nikaido on Instagram Fumi Nikaidō on IMDb