The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant. Although the sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, it is identified as a separate body of water. Geological evidence indicates that around 5.9 million years ago, the Mediterranean was cut off from the Atlantic and was or desiccated over a period of some 600,000 years, the Messinian salinity crisis, before being refilled by the Zanclean flood about 5.3 million years ago. It covers an approximate area of 2.5 million km2, representing 0.7 % of the global ocean surface, but its connection to the Atlantic via the Strait of Gibraltar-the narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Spain in Europe from Morocco in Africa- is only 14 km wide. In oceanography, it is sometimes called the Eurafrican Mediterranean Sea or the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere.
The Mediterranean Sea has an average depth of 1,500 m and the deepest recorded point is 5,267 m in the Calypso Deep in the Ionian Sea. The sea is bordered on the north by Europe, the east by Asia, in the south by Africa, it is located between latitudes 30° and 46° N and longitudes 6° W and 36° E. Its west-east length, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun, on the southwestern coast of Turkey, is 4,000 km; the sea's average north-south length, from Croatia's southern shore to Libya, is 800 km. The sea was an important route for merchants and travellers of ancient times that allowed for trade and cultural exchange between emergent peoples of the region; the history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of many modern societies. The countries surrounding the Mediterranean in clockwise order are Spain, Monaco, Slovenia, Croatia and Herzegovina, Albania, Turkey, Lebanon, Egypt, Tunisia and Morocco. In addition, the Gaza Strip and the British Overseas Territories of Gibraltar and Akrotiri and Dhekelia have coastlines on the sea.
The Ancient Greeks called the Mediterranean ἡ θάλασσα or sometimes ἡ μεγάλη θάλασσα, ἡ ἡμέτερα θάλασσα, or ἡ θάλασσα ἡ καθ'ἡμᾶς. The Romans called it Mare Mare Internum and, starting with the Roman Empire, Mare Nostrum; the term Mare Mediterrāneum appears later: Solinus used it in the 3rd century, but the earliest extant witness to it is in the 6th century, in Isidore of Seville. It means'in the middle of land, inland' in Latin, a compound of medius, -āneus; the Latin word is a calque of Greek μεσόγειος, from μέσος and γήινος, from γῆ. The original meaning may have been'the sea in the middle of the earth', rather than'the sea enclosed by land'; the Carthaginians called it the "Syrian Sea". In ancient Syrian texts, Phoenician epics and in the Hebrew Bible, it was known as the "Great Sea" or as "The Sea". Another name was the "Sea of the Philistines", from the people inhabiting a large portion of its shores near the Israelites. In Modern Hebrew, it is called HaYam HaTikhon'the Middle Sea'. In Modern Arabic, it is known as al-Baḥr al-Mutawassiṭ'the Middle Sea'.
In Islamic and older Arabic literature, it was Baḥr al-Rūm'the Sea of the Romans' or'the Roman Sea'. At first, that name referred to only the Eastern Mediterranean, but it was extended to the whole Mediterranean. Other Arabic names were Baḥr al-šām'the Sea of Syria' and Baḥr al-Maghrib'the Sea of the West'. In Turkish, it is the Akdeniz'the White Sea'; the origin of the name is not clear, as it is not known in earlier Greek, Byzantine or Islamic sources. It may be to contrast with the Black Sea. In Persian, the name was translated as Baḥr-i Safīd, used in Ottoman Turkish, it is the origin of the colloquial Greek phrase Άσπρη Θάλασσα. Johann Knobloch claims that in Classical Antiquity, cultures in the Levant used colours to refer to the cardinal points: black referred to the north, yellow or blue to east, red to south, white to west; this would explain both the Turkish Akdeniz and the Arab nomenclature described above. Several ancient civilizations were located around the Mediterranean shores and were influenced by their proximity to the sea.
It provided routes for trade and war, as well as food for numerous communities throughout the ages. Due to the shared climate and access to the sea, c
Senija is a village in the province of Alicante and autonomous community of Valencia, Spain. The municipality covers an area of 4.8 square kilometres and as of 2011 had a population of 661 people
La Vall d'Ebo
La Vall d'Ebo is a municipality in the province of Alicante and autonomous community of Valencia, Spain. The municipality covers an area of 32.4 square kilometres and as of 2011 had a population of 284 people
Xàbia or Jávea is a coastal town in the comarca of Marina Alta, in the province of Alicante, Spain, by the Mediterranean Sea. Situated on the back side of the Montgó, behind a wide bay and sheltered between two rocky headlands, the town has become a popular small seaside resort and market town. Half of its resident population and over two thirds of its annual visitors are foreigners; the area was first inhabited in prehistoric times, 30,000 years ago by cave dwellers on Montgó. Subsequent residents have included Stone and Bronze-age peoples, Greeks, Visigoths, Germanic and Moors. Roman fishing boats used the port, there is evidence that dates the Roman occupation of Xàbia to the 2nd century BC, it makes Xàbia the oldest known Roman site on the coast with a commercial port for fish and minerals. In the 6th century AD, Christian Visigoth monks came to Xàbia and founded the monastery of Sant Martí, which gave its name to the cape in the area named Cap San Martí. Hermenegild, son of the Visigoth king Leovigild of Toledo, sought refuge in the Monastery after angering his father by marrying a Christian girl.
When his father's troops arrived to arrest him all but one monk fled to Portichol. Several people with Visigoth names still live in the area. There is little left of the Moors and their culture, other than some inscribed gravestones and ceramics, they had controlled the area from about 714 AD until they were expelled from the Alicante region in 1609. The hermitage of Popol dates to the 14th century. In the 16th and 17th centuries pirate raids were prevalent, so a wall was built around the town for protection; the wall was torn down, today a replica exists in its place in certain sections. Xàbia is situated on the easternmost point of the Mediterranean coast; the island of Ibiza lies some 90 kilometres to the east, it can be seen on clear days. Flat, fertile agricultural land stretches for miles inland, criss-crossed by small streams and used for growing citrus and olive trees; the coastline of Xàbia features four capes. The Montgó Massif, which shelters Xàbia, is the highest summit of the region standing at a height of over 750m.
The Parque natural del Macizo del Montgó was declared in 1987, stretching across the area of La Plana to the cape of Sant Antoni. Cape San Antonio is located nearby; the port has a gravel beach and marina, known as Duanes de la Mar. Whilst the history of the harbour stretches back to the 15th century, the first jetty was built in 1871 and it became an important gateway for the export of raisins; the raisin trade collapsed at the end of the 19th century, the settlement became only a fishing harbour. The modern harbour was built in the 1960s; the nautical club has been in the central area of the harbour since 1963. The landmark is the church of Mare de Déu de Loreto, built in 1967 in the shape of an oval boat keel, to resemble a fishing vessel bursting through the waves. David Ferrer, tennis player Sergio Hernández, racing car driver Tomas Morato, politician Adrián Ortolá, footballer Xavi Torres, footballer Cristóbal Balenciaga, fashion designer Media related to Xàbia at Wikimedia Commons Xàbia travel guide from Wikivoyage Official Xàbia website, English News and Features about Jávea
Ondara is a village in the province of Alicante and autonomous community of Valencia, Spain. The municipality covers an area of 10.4 square kilometres and as of 2011 had a population of 6644 people
Benigembla located in the Pop Valley within the district of Marina Alta in eastern Spain. The town is 314 m above sea level, it is only 50 km away from Benidorm, 88 km from Alicante, 105 km from Valencia, 23 km from Dénia. Just 7.5 km from the town, in the direction of La Vall d'Ebo in an ancient Morisco site, Pla de Petracos, there are paintings over 8000 years old and UNESCO has designated it a protected world site of cultural interest. The town of Benigembla is of Moorish origin, like most towns in the Pop Valley. In 1609 more than 14,000 Moors of the Pop Valley that resisted the decree of expulsion, they gathered in the mountain of El Cavall Verd or el Pop. At the end, the Moors gave up because they were running out of food and basic supplies. After giving up, most of the Moors were expelled after suffering high casualties. After the decree of expulsion of the Moors from the year 1609, the village was repopulated by Majorcan and western Catalan people; the village still retains many traditions and customs of these settlers, the language spoken by the villagers.
At the summit of "El Cavall Verd" known as "La Muntanya del Pop", there are still some remains of an ancient castle called ´´El Castell de Pop´´. ´´El Castell de Pop´´ was owned by Al-Azraq by Pere d'Altafulla. Since 1329 was owned by Vidal de Vilanova and his successors. During the final period it was handed to ´´Jaume I el conqueridor´´ by the Jovada pact by Al-Azraq. Peter the Great ordered its destruction, today there are few traces left. ´´El Castell de Pop´´gives its name to this enchanted valley in the Marina Alta. In 1615 the town had a population of only 99 inhabitants, it reached its peak in 1860 with 900 inhabitants. From the 1900s to 1960 the town lost 34% of its population, since most of the locals migrated to the U. S. France and Algeria Today the village has 606 inhabitants, according to the latest municipal census of the year 2011. About 45% percent of the population is foreign British, these newcomers which started to settle in the 1980s and in the year 2009 they represented 36% of the population.
But there are Germans and North Americans in town. The district of Vernissa Park is English speaking, since most of the people that settled in the urbanisation are British, it is a flat town surrounded by mountains, which one can find enjoyable and relaxing. The main language spoken by its local inhabitants is the Catalan language known locally as Valencian, which the majority of the population speak and use as their main language. After the decree of the expelling of the Moors in 1609, the town was populated by inhabitants from Catalonia, the Balearic Islands. Most of the traditions of these settlers are still carried out today, together with the Catalan language that they brought with them. In the table below we can see the different changes in Benigembla's population from the year 1857 to 2007, according to the National Institute of Statistics; the population has been increasing since 1998, since more of the newcomers started to register in the municipal town's census. Today the population of Benigembla is the most diverse population, since the existence of the town.
There are two major festivities during the year. In the 3rd week of January, the town celebrates its winter festivities in honour of Sant Honorat and Sant Antoni with its fayre, the blessing of house pets and other animals, other activities. During the summer in August, the town celebrates its major festivity from 12 August to 17 August. During the summer festivity there are concerts, fireruns, Valencian handball, running with the bulls, religious celebrations. In autumn, there is a craft fair on the last weekend of October. Nestled in the Valley of Pop, on the River Gorgos at the foot of the mountains of El Cavall Verd, its relief is wary and holds places worth visiting force throughout the municipal area of 18.4 km2, as the climb of "El Cocoll" or to "El Cavall Verd", a mountain that looks like the face of a woman, the recreational area of the "Safareig", the camping area of "la Vall de Pop" just 750 m from the town. The town is known from around the area for its many trails, spectacular mountain views.
The highest mountain peak of Benigembla is represented by "El Morro d'en Serra" with 1,001 m. One of the walking trails of interest in town is The Route of "El Mirabó". Other known mountains of Benigembla are: "El Cavall Verd" or "el Pop", "La Penya de l'Altar", "La Solana", "El Mirabó". An interesting hiking trail is the climb to the top of "Cocoll", it is a marked trail that starts in the Camí del Corral Nou, about 350 m from the town of Benigembla towards the road to Castell de Castells. We pass by over the well of el "l' Aljub del Frare" and by the cliff "Barrancs dels Bous"". A zigzag draw us closer to "El Corral de Malea", to a more open space called la "Corona". We arrived at the "Pla d'en Moragues" where there are planes and helicopters of the forest services. We followed a forest track that leads to the top of Cocoll, close; the views when the weather permits it, are magnificent and we can see clearly: El Cavall Verd, Carrascal d'Ebo, the Pla de Petracos, Xortà, Carrascal de Parcent. There is a rare colony of the plant Caralluma mumbyana in the mountain of the Cavall Verd, a type of cactus with bright pink flowers, indigenous to south-eastern Spain, at risk of extinction.
There are only three other known colonies of the plant in the Valencian Country, it is under the protection o
Llíber is a village in the province of Alicante and autonomous community of Valencia, Spain. The municipality covers an area of 21.9 square kilometres and as of 2011 had a population of 1070 people. Lady Elizabeth School, a British international school, has its senior school campus in Llíber. Llíber is a municipality of Spain, it is located within the region of the Marina Alta. It has 1,099 inhabitants. Lliber is bordered by the neighbourhood Penya Roja to the north. Lloma Llarga and Tossal del Cau light further to the south. Liber is accessed, by highway, through N-332 which leads in Benisa to the CV-745. Lliber borders the municipalities of Alcalalí, Gata de Gorgos, Jalón, Pedreguer and Senija. Located to the north of the municipal area, is the Iberian town of Pozo de Gata; the Iberians used to build their settlements in high places in order to obtain a better defence against their enemies. For this same reason, they walled them. Llíber and the surrounding lands were conquered in 1256 by King James I of Aragon.
The lady Constance of Sicily enjoyed the Llíber incomes until November 1300, when James II transferred the incomes to those of those of Pego and Vall de Uxó. From 1413 until 1444 Liber was part of the dominion of the Martorell, lineage to which belonged the famous novelist, Joanot Martorell. In 1444 the town of Llíber was sold at auction at the request of the creditors of Galceran Martorell; the purchasers were Gonzalo de Híjar, Comendador de Montalbán, his wife, Inés de Portugal. On September 12 1444, Gonzalo de Hijar, sold Llíber to his son Pedro, it belonged to the Duke of Almodóvar. In 1609, Lliber was an annex of Xaló which became independent; until 1707 Lliber belonged to the government of Xàtiva, Which until 1833 was part of the government of Dénia. More than half of the term remains uncultivated, with dryland agriculture predominating in the cultivated areas, cereals and almonds being the most prominent crops