City Hall MRT station
City Hall MRT station is an underground Mass Rapid Transit interchange station on the East West Line and North South Line in Downtown Core, Singapore. It is one of the five MRT interchange stations in Singapore to feature cross-platform interchange. City Hall station took its name from the national monument of City Hall, within walking distance from the station. Other landmarks in the area include Raffles City, the Padang, St Andrew's Cathedral and The Cenotaph. City Hall is connected to Esplanade MRT station via CityLink Mall. Due to its location at the heart of the Civic District and the numerous landmarks within its vicinity, City Hall station is one of the busiest MRT stations in Singapore. Prior to the building of the station, it was called St Andrew's, it was renamed to City Hall for historical significance reasons in 1984. On 4 May 1984, the contractor Nishimatsu-Lum Chang Joint Venture awarded the construction of the station where it began on June 1984 together with the tunnels to Bugis MRT station, under Contract 107.
On December 10, 1985, a foreman died at City Hall MRT station. On June 5, 2008, 280 youths spent the night at City Hall to learn how to deal with an emergency in a train tunnel. There was a simulated bomb explosion during this exercise and they have to know how to activate the detrainment ramps at both ends of the train, evacuate to safety via an escape shaft; the students used the items from their Ready Bags to "survive" the attack. This station was part of the series of 2011 MRT train disruptions on 15 and 17 December 2011, caused by a misalignment between the trains' current collector shoes, which collect power from the third rail, the third rail itself; these were Singapore's two largest MRT disruptions at the time of occurrence. A power failure and blackout occurred at the station on 6 July 2012 at about 1.30 pm, causing the platforms for north and west-bound trains to turn pitch black. Air-conditioning and escalators stopped functioning. Emergency lighting was turned on after the incident occurred.
However, train services were not affected by the incident. Lighting was progressively restored from 2 pm, was back to normal at 3.15 pm. All escalators have been turned on. SMRT has apologised for any inconvenience caused. There is a mural along the wall of the station called Vitreous Enamelled Mural by Simon Wong. However, this art piece is not under the Art in Transit scheme. City Hall is one of the four MRT stations to appear in the "Uniquely Singapore Edition" of the board game Monopoly, it was mentioned in the 2009 film Whiteout. City Hall Peranakan Museum The Padang St Andrew's Cathedral National Gallery Singapore Old Supreme Court Building Supreme Court of Singapore The Cenotaph Official website Changi Airport to City Hall MRT station route
A pedestrian is a person travelling on foot, whether walking or running. In some communities, those travelling using tiny wheels such as roller skates and scooters, as well as wheelchair users are included as pedestrians. In modern times, the term refers to someone walking on a road or pavement, but this was not the case historically; the meaning of pedestrian is displayed with the morphemes ped- and -ian. This word was first used during the 18th century, it was used, can still be used today, as an adjective meaning plain or dull. However, in this article it refers to someone who walks; the word pedestrian may have been used in middle french in the Recueil des Croniques et Anchiennes Istories de la Grant Bretaigne, à présent nommé Engleterre. Walking has always been the primary means of human locomotion; the first humans to migrate from Africa, about 60,000 years ago, walked. They walked along the coast of India to reach Australia, they walked across Asia to reach the Americas, from Central Asia into Europe.
During the 18th and 19th centuries, pedestrianism was a popular spectator sport just as equestrianism still is in places such as the United Kingdom and the United States. One of the most famous pedestrians of that period was Captain Robert Barclay Allardice, known as "The Celebrated Pedestrian", of Stonehaven in Scotland, his most impressive feat was to walk 1 mile every hour for 1000 hours, which he achieved between 1 June and 12 July 1809. This feat captured many people's imagination, around 10,000 people came to watch over the course of the event. During the rest of the 19th century, many people tried to repeat this feat, including Ada Anderson who developed it further and walked a half-mile each quarter-hour over the 1,000 hours. Since the 20th century, interest in walking as a sport has dropped. Racewalking fails to catch public attention as it did; however major walking feats are still performed, such as the Land's End to John o' Groats walk in the United Kingdom, the traversal of North America from coast to coast.
The first person to walk around the world was Dave Kunst who started his walk travelling east from Waseca, Minnesota on 20 June 1970 and completed his journey on 5 October 1974, when he re-entered the town from the west. These feats are tied to charitable fundraising and are undertaken by celebrities such as Sir Jimmy Savile and Ian Botham as well as by others. Regular walking is important both for the natural environment. Frequent exercise such as walking tends to reduce the chance of obesity and related medical problems. In contrast, using a car for short trips tends to contribute both to obesity and via vehicle emissions to climate change: internal combustion engines are more inefficient and polluting during their first minutes of operation. General availability of public transportation encourages walking, as it will not, in most cases, take one directly to one's destination. Safety is an important issue; because pedestrians are not protected by their vehicle while car occupants are, pedestrians are classified in the vulnerable road user category in Canada.
Pedestrian fatalities are much more common in accident situations in the European Union than in the USA. In the European Union countries, more than 200,000 pedestrians and cyclists are injured annually; each year, more than 270 000 pedestrians lose their lives on the world’s roads. At a global level pedestrians constitute 22% of all road deaths, but might be two thirds in some countries. Pedestrian fatalities, in 2016, are 2.6 per million population in the Netherlands, 4.3 in Sweden, 4.5 per million population in Wales, 5.3 in New Zealand, 6.0 in Germany. While both the pedestrian and the driver should be aware of road traffic condition to avoid such an accident, crash might occur with factors such as vehicle speed, pedestrian unseen by the driver by night, distraction, or misunderstanding and drugs and alcohol. Drivers and pedestrians share some responsibility for improving safety of road users. Road traffic crashes, are not inevitable. Key risks for pedestrians are well known. Among the well documented factors are: driver behaviour,.
Most of pedestrian are injured at crossing a street/road. Most of pedestrian crash occur by night. Most of pedestrians are killed by a frontal impact. In such a situation, a pedestrian is struck by a car front; the head hits the windscreen with the velocity of the striking car. The victim falls to the ground; some special interest groups consider pedestrian fatalities on American roads a carnage. Five state, California, Florida and Texas produce 46% of all pedestrians deaths in the country. Speculation of the causes for the increase in the USA include population growth, driver distraction with mobile phone, popularity
Clifford Pier is a former pier located beside Collyer Quay at Marina Bay within the Downtown Core of the Central Area, Singapore. It had since renovated and serves as a restaurant under the same namesake "The Clifford Pier", offering a selection of local and Western dishes under the operations of The Fullerton Bay Hotel since then. Before the Tanjong Pagar wharves were built in the 1850s, Johnston's Pier was the chief landing place. By the 1930s, the pier was worn out and Governor of the Straits Settlements Sir Cecil Clementi decided to build a new one to replace the old pier. Clifford Pier was built between 1927 and 1933, was named after Sir Hugh Clifford, the former Governor of the Straits Settlements between 1927 and 1929, its opening on 3 June 1933 was boycotted by merchants because they wanted the old name, Johnston's Pier, reinstated. The Scottish Alexander Laurie Johnston was one of the earliest distinguished European residents, in Singapore at about the same time as Sir Stamford Raffles.
A friend of the latter, Johnston was one of Singapore's first businessmen and the founder of the Chamber of Commerce. He was a popular and well-respected citizen whose business was directly connected in those days with imports and exports to and from Europe, ships' victualling and supplies; this meant that ships' captains called on Johnston, well known for his kindness and hospitality. Johnston established his company on the site of Whiteaway's Building and in 1848 moved to the present Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank site. In order to facilitate the transportation of import and export goods from boats, a pier was built by the company and named after Johnston; the Hoklos called it ang theng beh thow, meaning "red lamp harbour", referring to a red beacon which shone over the pier at night as a warning to ships. Sir Hugh Clifford, on the other hand, although a regarded man, had no connection with the port of Singapore or its amenities other than the fact that he was the governor, his activities were occupied with his visits to the Malay States and in particular Pahang, the scene of much of his earlier service.
Clifford Pier was a landing point for other sea passengers. A red oil lamp used to hang from the pier as a guide to seafarers, earning the pier the name Red Lamp Pier; the pier was used as a terminal for tourists and day trippers who boarded small boats and ferries heading for the Southern Islands. During the annual pilgrimage season to Kusu Island, regular ferries departed from Clifford Pier to the island. Clifford Pier ceased operations on 1 April 2006, was replaced by the Marina South Pier. Clifford Pier was designed by the Public Works Department, where Frank Dorrington Ward was the Chief Architect in the 1930s; the pier has a simple but unique architecture with a roof structure comprising concrete arched trusses in a riband form. Details, such as brackets and the fire hose cabinets, were evidently designed with much consideration. With the construction of the Marina Barrage, a dam across the Marina Channel which will convert the existing Marina Bay into a reservoir, the existing Clifford Pier has ceased operations on 1 April 2006.
The Marina South Pier has been constructed at Marina South and was opened in April 2006 to replace the existing Clifford Pier. The existing 26,000 square metre Clifford Pier site including its adjacent former Customs Harbour Branch building has been safeguarded for conservation, its surrounding land parcels are being developed into a retail, leisure and hotel centre. After 18 months of renovation costing S$6 million, the premises was leased to Calvin Yeung, a famed Hong Kong restaurateur, his upscale Chinese restaurant One On The Bund was opened on the former pier in 11 December 2008. Yeung's restaurant was closed in early 2014. On May 2014, a new restaurant was reopened on the former pier under the same namesake The Clifford Pier, was part of The Fullerton Bay Hotel dining concept offering a wide selection of local and Western dishes; the Fullerton Heritage The Fullerton Hotel Singapore The Fullerton Bay Hotel The Fullerton Waterboat House Marina Bay Marina Barrage National Heritage Board, Singapore's 100 Historic Places, Archipelago Press, ISBN 981-4068-23-3 Victor R Savage, Brenda S A Yeoh, Toponymics - A Study of Singapore Street Names, Eastern Universities Press, ISBN 981-210-205-1 Norman Edwards, Peter Keys, Singapore - A Guide to Buildings, Places, Times Books International, ISBN 9971-65-231-5 Lianhe Zaobao, Marina South New Clifford Pier to start operations in Apr 2006, 3 Jan 2006
Downtown MRT station
Downtown MRT station is an underground Mass Rapid Transit station on the Downtown Line, located in Downtown Core, Singapore. Situated underneath Central Boulevard, it serves the Marina Bay Financial Centre and the future commercial developments in the Marina Bay area, it is within walking distance to Raffles Place MRT station on the North East West lines. During the Circle Line Stage 1 planning, the Circle Line Extension was planned to terminate at Chinatown, was used by both Circle Line and Eastern Region Line all the way until 2007. Now, the section between Bayfront and Chinatown is used by the current Downtown Line Stage 1; the station was renamed from Landmark to Downtown on 11 January 2011. Illustrations on the walls of the station titled, "Leaves" by Jason Lim shows a connection of dense cell network of bamboo leaves and the business and financial services in the vicinity. A: The Lawn @ Marina Bay B: Marina Bay Link Mall C: Marina Bay Financial Centre D: One Raffles Quay E: Central Boulevard F: Marina Bay Suites Official website
Promenade MRT station
Promenade MRT station is an underground Mass Rapid Transit interchange station on the Downtown Line and Circle Line in Downtown Core, Singapore. At this station, the Circle Line branches out into two routes, similar to the situation at Tanah Merah MRT station; the first route, the Circle Line Extension, goes towards Marina Bay MRT station via Bayfront MRT station. The second route is the main route which goes towards Dhoby Ghaut MRT station via Bras Basah MRT station and Esplanade MRT station. With the construction of the Downtown Line platforms below the Circle Line platforms, this station is one of the deepest stations in the entire MRT network, behind Bras Basah MRT station, its deepest platform is at a depth of 42 metres below ground, where the platform is for Downtown Line trains bound for Bukit Panjang MRT station. Before the station was built, it was tentatively named Millenia. However, the naming rights for Millenia expired in 2005 and the name was thus selected to be Promenade, which reflects the area's heritage.
During the construction of the Promenade MRT station for the Circle Line, on 25 March 2003, the section of Rochor Road was realigned. On 27 November 2003, Temasek Avenue was realigned; the station was opened on 17 April 2010 along with the rest of Stages 2 of the Circle Line. On 14 January 2012, Circle Line Extension was opened and this station became an interchange for the extension. On 22 December 2013, this station became an interchange with the Downtown Line, it is the only station to have four separated stacked side platforms on its own levels - Basement 2: Circle Line towards Dhoby Ghaut or Marina Bay Basement 4: Circle Line towards HarbourFront Basement 5: Downtown Line towards Expo Basement 7: Downtown Line towards Bukit PanjangThis is due to lack of space and the tight corridor at Temasek Avenue area. The Circle Line part of the station features giant drips of disco balls suspended from the ceiling; this artwork is by:phunk and is titled "Dreams in a Social Cosmic Odyssey". The Downtown Line platforms of the station features an artwork that depicts the grounds of tiers of Singapore's history, culture and development.
It is "Earthcake" by Ana Prvacki. Suntec City Singapore Flyer Marina Bay Street Circuit Millenia Walk Shopping Centre Marina Centre Bus Terminal SBS Transit's Promenade MRT station official website SMRT's Promenade MRT station official website Promenade to Changi Airport MRT station route
The Float @ Marina Bay
The Float at Marina Bay, stylised as The Float@Marina Bay and known as the Marina Bay Floating Platform, is the world's largest floating stage. It is located in Marina Bay, Singapore. Made of steel, the floating platform on Marina Bay measures 120 by 83 metres, 5% larger than the soccer field at the National Stadium; the platform can bear up to 1,070 tonnes, equivalent to the total weight of 9,000 people, 200 tonnes of stage props and three 30-tonne military vehicles. The gallery at the stadium has a seating capacity of 30,000 people; the floating stadium will be a venue for events on the waters of Marina Bay for five years from 2007. These events may include sports, concerts and the arts and cultural performances; the National Day Parade was held there annually for five years, as a temporary venue in place of the National Stadium in Kallang, demolished to be rebuilt as part of the Singapore Sports Hub. This stadium is part of the Marina Bay Street Circuit Turns 17 and 18, which hosted the Formula One Singapore Grand Prix.
More infamously, it was where Nelson Piquet, Jr. crashed his car which led to the Renault Formula One crash controversy. Following Singapore's successful bid to host the inaugural 2010 Summer Youth Olympics, the floating stadium was under the spotlight during the Games, as the venue for the Games' opening and closing ceremonies; the idea of a floating platform was conceived by the organising committee of the National Day Parade, 2007. In 2004, Colonel Teo Jing Siong, the chairman of the committee, was asked to source for a new venue for the National Day Parade as the National Stadium would be demolished to make way for the new Singapore Sports Hub. Teo had considered Jalan Besar Stadium, the Singapore Turf Club and Marina South before settling on Marina Bay because of the city skyline that would form a backdrop for the parade; the Singapore Government evaluated that the temporary stadium is a cost effective solution in lieu of the closure of the National Stadium, under renovation for 8 years.
In 2005, Teo's committee worked with the Urban Redevelopment Authority and the Singapore Sports Council on the design of the floating platform, which could be used to host other major events. After the design was finalised, the contractor, SembCorp Marine, started construction of the floating platform in March 2006; the stage took 13 months to build, by April 2007, the platform and seating gallery were completed and opened by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. Many considerations were taken into account during the design phase for the construction of the floating platform; the Defence Science and Technology Agency, the platform's chief planner and developer, had to keep in mind not just its size and the load it could bear, but make sure the structure can be relocated and reconfigured to meet the requirements of different events. As a result, the platform is made of smaller platforms of pontoons, each comprising hundreds of parts. 200 pontoons were envisioned, but a unique system of connectors allowed this number to be reduced to 15, which interlock like a jigsaw puzzle.
These took one month to assemble. The connectors were designed to be robust. Six pylons fixed into the seabed act as the structure's foundation. Heavy-duty rubber rollers were used to guide the stage vertically to keep it from being rocked by tides and currents. Three linkways, which connect the floating platform to the land, have special integrated joints to keep them steady; the floating platform had to be aesthetically pleasing to fit the scenic backdrop of the belt of hotels in Marina Centre. This limited the height of the seating gallery; the existing structures and the area's development plans capped the number of seats at 30,000. The platform has been equipped with numerous innovative features, like an internal drainage system, cabling structures and lightning rods; the first major event, held at the floating stadium is the National Day Parade in 2007. This was followed by the Singapore Fireworks Celebrations held on 17 and 18 August 2007. On 25 August 2007, the stadium was used to launch the six-week-long Waterfest Singapore 2007, which showcases stunts and performances by a water ski team and wakeboard professionals.
On 2 September 2007, the platform was the start and finish point for the Aviva Ironman 70.3 Singapore triathlon. From 15 September 2007 to 16 April 2008, the floating stadium was closed for Formula One works in preparation for the Singapore Grand Prix in September 2008; the National Day Parade continues to be held at the floating platform from 2007 to 2017, excluding 2010,2015 and 2016 where it was held at Sports Hub and Padang respectively. The Urban Redevelopment Authority had explored the area of making the 30,000-seat gallery available for the public to view fireworks during the New Year's Eve countdown at Marina Bay in December 2007, following that it used this stadium in each of the countdown parties till 2015 and shifted to Suntec City. In November 2008, The Singapore Cup final between SAFFC and Woodlands Wellington FC was supposed to take place at the stadium. However, problem relating to the metal beams casting a shadow on the pitch forced the match to be played at the Jalan Besar Stadium instead.
The first football match to be played on the platform was a Sunday League ESPZEN amateur match between Tuan Gemuk Athletic and VNNTU FC. In August 2010, the stadium was the main stadium for the 2010 Summer Youth Olympic Games. On 2 October 2010, the stadium became the venue for the graduation parade of the recruits from the Singapore Armed Forces Basic Military Training Centre; the pass out parade was held on Pulau Tekong itself. On 23 November 2012, S. M. Entertainment artists including Kangta, BoA, TVXQ, Supe
2010 Summer Youth Olympics
The 2010 Summer Youth Olympics were the first edition of the Youth Olympic Games, an international multi-sport and cultural event for youths based on the tradition of the Olympic Games. Held in Singapore from 14 to 26 August 2010, it was the first International Olympic Committee-sanctioned event held in Southeast Asia; the Games featured about 3,600 athletes aged 14–18 from 204 nations, who competed in 201 events in 26 sports. No official medal tables were published, but the most successful nation was China, followed by Russia. Most unique features of the YOG, such as mixed-NOCs teams and the Culture and Education Programme, made their debut at the 2010 Games. Although the concept dates back to 1998, formal plans for the YOG were only announced at the 119th IOC session on 6 July 2007. On 21 February 2008, Singapore was selected as the host city after defeating Moscow 53-44 in a postal vote by 105 International Olympic Committee members; the Singapore Youth Olympic Games Organising Committee prepared eighteen competition venues and twelve training venues.
The Float@Marina Bay hosted the opening and closing ceremonies and the Youth Olympic Village was located at Nanyang Technological University. The committee selected Games mascots Lyo and Merly, the Spirit of Youth emblem and the theme song "Everyone", performed by five singers representing each major continent, combining North and South America. Online media, Asian newspapers and 166 television broadcasters provided extensive coverage of the Games; the torch relay, which began on 23 July 2010, comprised a thirteen-day world tour of five cities, each representing a continent, a six-day domestic leg. Highlights of the opening and closing ceremonies include performances about Singaporean history and culture, a 32-metre Olympic cauldron, flags being brought onto stage and items featuring YOG symbols; the Games were marred by discrepancies in the budget and attendance figures, two wrestlers caught doping, a walkover in the taekwondo final and allegations that Bolivian footballers were overage. The concept of the YOG was developed in 1998 by Johann Rosenzopf in response to concerns over childhood obesity and declining youth participation in sports.
IOC President Jacques Rogge formally announced plans for the YOG at the 119th IOC session in Guatemala City on 6 July 2007. Singapore, which had hosted the 117th session, made its first formal bid to host a multi-disciplinary sporting event of this magnitude. Positive factors in its bid included its high connectivity with the world, its youthfulness as an independent country, its positive reputation for excellence and multiracial harmony; the city-state rolled out a high-publicity campaign which included being amongst the first to launch its official website, bid logo and a bid tagline "Blazing the Trail" on 16 October 2007. It got the local population to support its bid, including an effort by students to collect 1 million signatures. Eleven cities expressed interest in hosting the Games, nine of which applied. Five cities amongst the nine were selected for the shortlist: Athens, Moscow and Turin; the list was further shortened to two finalists and Moscow. On 21 February 2008, Rogge announced that Singapore had won the postal vote 53-44 and was thus selected as the host for the Games.
There were concerns over whether two new venues, planned – a Youth Olympic Village and an equestrian complex – would be ready in time for the Games. A construction expert believed the US$423 million plan for an Olympic Village at the National University of Singapore was feasible, that the equestrian venue could be delivered on time. In spite of the expert's findings, the Youth Olympic Village at the NUS's University Town did run into difficulties owing to increasing construction costs, it was subsequently decided that existing student halls of residence at Nanyang Technological University in Jurong West would be used for the Olympic Village. The Singapore Youth Olympic Games Organising Committee was tasked with organising the inaugural Games, it was aided by a panel of advisors composed of Cabinet ministers and Senior Parliamentary Secretary Teo Ser Luck. In addition, an Inter-Ministry Committee was established with Niam Chiang Meng, Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Community Development and Sports as its chairman.
Singapore received some international support for the Games preparations. The People's Republic of China, host of the 2008 Summer Olympics, expressed its desire to assist Singapore in its preparations. Sebastian Coe, Lord Coe, Chairman of the London Organising Committee for the 2012 Summer Olympics, announced that members of his organising team, including coaches and administrators, planned to attend the event; the Bid Committee secured 4,310 guaranteed rooms in 36 hotels. The official hotel partner for the Games was the Fairmont Singapore; the IOC projected in 2007 the Youth Olympic Games would cost US$30 million to stage. Singapore won its bid in 2008 with a budget of US$75.5 million with strong government support. The budget was increased to U$284 million, thrice the original amount, which the organisers attributed to major revisions in the scope and scale of the Games. Costs were increased for logistics and transport and upgrades of various sports venues and