Headquarters and Headquarters Squadron
A Headquarters & Headquarters Squadron, abbreviated as H&HS or HQHQSQDN, is the headquarters entity for a United States Marine Corps aviation facility. A H&HS consists of the headquarters group, the squadron headquarters, public affairs and journalism, facilities planning & maintenance, a motor pool, air traffic control, fuels, other aviation support, Aircraft Rescue and Firefighting, a Provost Marshal, the Station Judge Advocate's Office, some sort of United States Navy medical facility, Marine Corps Community Service, which hosts things like a post exchange, a commissary, gas stations, barber shops, movie theater, family services, Single Marine Program, the like. List of United States Marine Corps installations United States Marine Corps aviation List of active United States Marine Corps aircraft squadrons List of inactive United States Marine Corps aircraft squadrons List of United States Marine Corps aviation support units
North Carolina is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It borders South Carolina and Georgia to the south, Tennessee to the west, Virginia to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the east. North Carolina is the 28th-most extensive and the 9th-most populous of the U. S. states. The state is divided into 100 counties; the capital is Raleigh, which along with Durham and Chapel Hill is home to the largest research park in the United States. The most populous municipality is Charlotte, the second-largest banking center in the United States after New York City; the state has a wide range of elevations, from sea level on the coast to 6,684 feet at Mount Mitchell, the highest point in North America east of the Mississippi River. The climate of the coastal plains is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean. Most of the state falls in the humid subtropical climate zone. More than 300 miles from the coast, the western, mountainous part of the state has a subtropical highland climate. Woodland-culture Native Americans were in the area around 1000 BCE.
During this time, important buildings were constructed as flat-topped buildings. By 1550, many groups of American Indians lived in present-day North Carolina, including Chowanoke, Pamlico, Coree, Cape Fear Indians, Waxhaw and Catawba. Juan Pardo explored the area in 1566–1567, establishing Fort San Juan in 1567 at the site of the Native American community of Joara, a Mississippian culture regional chiefdom in the western interior, near the present-day city of Morganton; the fort lasted only 18 months. A expedition by Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe followed in 1584, at the direction of Sir Walter Raleigh. In June 1718, the pirate Blackbeard ran his flagship, the Queen Anne's Revenge, aground at Beaufort Inlet, North Carolina, in present-day Carteret County. After the grounding her crew and supplies were transferred to smaller ships. In November, after appealing to the governor of North Carolina, who promised safe-haven and a pardon, Blackbeard was killed in an ambush by troops from Virginia.
In 1996 Intersal, Inc. a private firm, discovered the remains of a vessel to be the Queen Anne's Revenge, added to the US National Register of Historic Places. North Carolina became one of the English Thirteen Colonies and with the territory of South Carolina was known as the Province of North-Carolina; the northern and southern parts of the original province separated in 1729. Settled by small farmers, sometimes having a few slaves, who were oriented toward subsistence agriculture, the colony lacked cities or towns. Pirates menaced the coastal settlements. Growth was strong in the middle of the 18th century, as the economy attracted Scots-Irish, Quaker and German immigrants. A majority of the colonists supported the American Revolution, a smaller number of Loyalists than in some other colonies such as Georgia, South Carolina, New York. During colonial times, Edenton served as the state capital beginning in 1722, New Bern was selected as the capital in 1766. Construction of Tryon Palace, which served as the residence and offices of the provincial governor William Tryon, began in 1767 and was completed in 1771.
In 1788 Raleigh was chosen as the site of the new capital, as its central location protected it from coastal attacks. Established in 1792 as both county seat and state capital, the city was named after Sir Walter Raleigh, sponsor of Roanoke, the "lost colony" on Roanoke Island; the population of the colony more than quadrupled from 52,000 in 1740 to 270,000 in 1780 from high immigration from Virginia and Pennsylvania plus immigrants from abroad. North Carolina made the smallest per-capita contribution to the war of any state, as only 7,800 men joined the Continental Army under General George Washington. There was some military action in 1780–81. Many Carolinian frontiersmen had moved west over the mountains, into the Washington District, but in 1789, following the Revolution, the state was persuaded to relinquish its claim to the western lands, it ceded them to the national government so that the Northwest Territory could be organized and managed nationally. After 1800, cotton and tobacco became important export crops.
The eastern half of the state the Tidewater region, developed a slave society based on a plantation system and slave labor. Many free people of color migrated to the frontier along with their European-American neighbors, where the social system was looser. By 1810, nearly 3 percent of the free population consisted of free people of color, who numbered more than 10,000; the western areas were dominated by white families Scots-Irish, who operated small subsistence farms. In the early national period, the state became a center of Jeffersonian and Jacksonian democracy, with a strong Whig presence in the West. After Nat Turner's slave uprising in 1831, North Carolina and other southern states reduced the rights of free blacks. In 1835 the legislature withdrew their right to vote. On May 20, 1861, North Carolina was the last of the Confederate states to declare secession from the Union, 13 days after the Tennessee legislature voted for secession; some 125,000 North Carolinians served in the military.
Marine Air Control Group 28
Marine Air Control Group 28 is a United States Marine Corps aviation command and control unit based at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, composed of 4 squadrons and a battalion that provide the 2nd Marine Aircraft Wing with airspace coordination, air control, immediate air support, fires integration, air traffic control, radar surveillance, aviation combat element communications support, an integrated ACE command post in support of the II Marine Expeditionary Force. The mission of the MACG is to provide and maintain the MACCS; the MACG contains subordinate units that provide the major facilities of the MACCS. It consists of a Marine tactical air command squadron, a Marine air support squadron, one Marine air control squadron, a low-altitude air defense battalion, an Marine wing communication squadron. 2nd Low Altitude Air Defense Battalion Marine Air Control Squadron 2 Marine Air Support Squadron 1 Marine Tactical Air Command Squadron 28 Marine Wing Communications Squadron 28 Marine Air Control Group 28 was activated in January 1956 at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina.
At the time of activation, it was designated as the Marine Wing Headquarters Group 2 of the 2nd Marine Aircraft Wing. Its composition at that time included Headquarters and Headquarters Squadron 2 and Marine Air Control Squadron 7; the fledgling organization began to grow when, in 1963, it was administratively assigned the 3rd Light Anti Aircraft Missile Battalion. Its growth was short lived however, for in 1965 MACS-7 was directed to deploy to Okinawa and subsequently saw duty in the Republic of Vietnam. Upon completing its service in Vietnam, MACS-7 was reassigned for duty with the 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing at Marine Corps Air Station El Toro, California. In May 1966, the Group was again re-designated, it was this year that the 3rd LAAM Battalion became administratively and operationally under the control of the Group. Re-designation occurred once more when in 1967 the Group was assigned its present-day identification as Marine Air Control Group 28. With its new designation canme additional support and control organizations in the form of Marine Air Support Squadron 1 and Marine Air Control Squadron 5.
MACS-5 was activated and assigned to support Fleet Marine Force Aviation operation at Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort, South Carolina. MCAS Beaufort has remained the home of MACS-5 since its activation; the Group's expanding support and control responsibilities were examined and in 1971 it was determined that the critical function of Wing communications would be added to that of the Group's communications capabilities. This consolidation joined the organizational colors of Marine Wing Communications Squadron-28 with those of H&HS-28, Third LAAM Battalion, MASS-1, MACS-5, MACS-6 under the senior banner of MACG-28. In 1973, the capability of a shoulder-launched missile was introduced into the Group. A Forward Area Air Defense platoon was activated and placed under the administrative and operational control of the Third LAAM Battalion; the activation of the FAAD platoon would enhance air defense of aviation vital areas and introduce a close-in air defense capability for maneuver units or security missions.
April 1976 introduced the consolidation of air traffic control assets within the Marine Air Wing and a new squadron. Marine Air Traffic Control Squadron 28, joined ranks as the newest member of the Marine Air Command and Control System; the tactical advantages, increased capabilities and innovative employment offered by shoulder-launched missiles led to the creation of a FAAD Battery. This enhanced capability was formally introduced in October 1983 as the Second Forward Area Air Defense Battery stood-up and took its place in the organizational structure of MACG-23. Following September 11, 2001 MACG-28 Marines were sent immediately to augment the Combined Air Operations Center at Prince Sultan Air Base, Saudi Arabia and were manning tactical positions on the CAOC floor when the first bombs fell in Afghanistan. Notably, MACS-2 deployed an Early Warning and Control site to assist with data collection on Iraq in the months building to Operation Iraqi Freedom. During OIF all subordinate units of MACG-28 deployed Marines with the I Marine Expeditionary Force.
MASS-1, MWCS-28, VMU-2 sent their entire squadrons, while 2nd LAAD deployed a battery, MACS-2 an EW/C detachment, MTACS-28 critical augments for the 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing Tactical Air Command Center At the conclusion of major offensive operations, most elements of MACG-28 redeployed home. In early 2004, MACG-28 deployed VMU-2 and an Air Traffic Control Detachment from MACS-2, B CO, MWCS-28 to Al Taqqadum Airfield in Al Anbar Province, Iraq. At the start of 2005, MACG-28 deployed its Headquarters, MTACS-28, MACS-2, 2nd LAAD, MASS-1, MWCS-28 back to Iraq; the units of MACG-28 maintained air command and control, wing communications, ISR of the MEF battlespace for the duration of 2005 the majority redeployed back to the states. In January 2007, MACG-28 again tactical agencies once again to Iraq. For the foreseeable future, MACG-28 will stand ready to go wherever called in order to provide tactical aviation command and control across the MEF battlespace, integrated UAV ISR, communications support to 2D Marine Aircraft Wing.
In January 2009, MACG-28 deployed all units to Operation Iraqi Freedom. They were the last Marine units. Several detachments of the group have deployed to Operation Enduring Freedom as part of Marine Aircraft Group 40. In January 2013, MACG-28 again d
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Marine Aircraft Group 14
Marine Aircraft Group 14 is a United States Marine Corps aviation unit based at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina, composed of four AV-8B Harrier squadrons, four EA-6B Prowler squadrons, one KC-130 squadron, a maintenance and logistics squadron, a wing support squadron. Conduct offensive air support, anti-air warfare, electronic warfare, assault support, air reconnaissance operations in support of the Marine Air-Ground Task Force or joint and coalition forces, conduct fleet replacement program training in order to provide combat capable aircrews to operational squadrons. AV-8B Harrier squadrons VMA-223 "Bulldogs" VMA-231 "Ace of Spades" VMA-542 "Tigers" VMAT-203 "Hawks"EA-6B Prowler squadrons VMAQ-2 "Death Jesters"UAV squadron VMU-2KC-130J Squadron VMGR-252 "Otis" Maintenance squadron MALS-14 Wing support squadron MWSS-271 "Workhorses" Marine Aircraft Group 14 was formed under the command of Lieutenant colonel Albert D. Cooley at Camp Kearny, California on 1 March 1942.
The nucleus for the new aircraft group came from Marine Aircraft Group 11 which had just arrived from Marine Corps Air Station Quantico following the 7 December 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor. They remained there training until they deployed for the Pacific Theater in October 1942; the Group soon arrived at Guadalcanal relieving Marine Aircraft Group 23 on 16 October 1942 to become part of the Cactus Air Force. The group would take part in the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands just 10 days later. In November 1942 they took part in the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal and continued to fight in the skies over the island until 4 April 1943 when they were sent to Auckland, New Zealand to rest and refit. MAG-14 set up the Fighter Command at Munda; the next month part of the group was moved to Ondonga and on more units were sent to Vella Lavella. From these locations they supported the Marines and American and Allied soldiers during the Battle of New Georgia and the Battle of Bougainville. On 15 February 1944 New Zealand troops captured the Green Islands in Papua New Guinea.
Less than two weeks aircraft from MAG-14 were operating from the airstrip here known as Lagoon Field. From here, MAG-14 units would continue to keep pressure on the isolated Japanese garrisons of Rabaul and Kavieng. By 24 January 1945, four fighter squadrons from MAG-14 were operating from Guiuan in the northern Philippines province of Eastern Samar. During fighting in the Philippines the Group was responsible for covering convoys and supporting Army and Filipino guerillas on the islands of Negros, Mindanao and Leyte. Following the war the Group returned to Marine Corps Auxiliary Airfield Oak Grove in February 1946 and was deactivated. During Operation Desert Storm, MAG-14 flew night combat missions deep into Iraq and Kuwait and provided artillery destruction of the Iraqi Republican Guard. VMA-231 and VMA-542 provided more than 2,000 offensives in conjunction with delivering close to 4.5 million pounds of ordnance during January and February 1991. In November 1999, Marine Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Squadron-2, which operates the RQ-2A Pioneer Unmanned Aerial Vehicle was reassigned from MAG-14 to Marine Air Control Group 28 at the decision of the USMC Force Structure Planning Group.
In 2012 MWSS-271 was transferred to MAG-14. List of United States Marine Corps aircraft squadrons List of United States Marine Corps aircraft groups United States Marine Corps Aviation This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Marine Corps. Bibliography Web
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Afghanistan the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in South-Central Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east, its territory covers 652,000 square kilometers and much of it is covered by the Hindu Kush mountain range, which experiences cold winters. The north consists of fertile plains, while the south-west consists of deserts where temperatures can get hot in summers. Kabul serves as its largest city. Human habitation in Afghanistan dates back to the Middle Paleolithic Era, the country's strategic location along the Silk Road connected it to the cultures of the Middle East and other parts of Asia; the land has been home to various peoples and has witnessed numerous military campaigns, including those by Alexander the Great, Muslim Arabs, British and since 2001 by the United States with NATO-allied countries. It has been called "unconquerable" and nicknamed the "graveyard of empires"; the land served as the source from which the Kushans, Samanids, Ghaznavids, Khaljis, Hotaks and others have risen to form major empires.
The political history of the modern state of Afghanistan began with the Hotak and Durrani dynasties in the 18th century. In the late 19th century, Afghanistan became a buffer state in the "Great Game" between British India and the Russian Empire, its border with British India, the Durand Line, was formed in 1893 but it is not recognized by the Afghan government and it has led to strained relations with Pakistan since the latter's independence in 1947. Following the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919 the country was free of foreign influence becoming a monarchy under King Amanullah, until 50 years when Zahir Shah was overthrown and a republic was established. In 1978, after a second coup Afghanistan first became a socialist state and a Soviet Union protectorate; this evoked the Soviet–Afghan War in the 1980s against mujahideen rebels. By 1996 most of Afghanistan was captured by the Islamic fundamentalist group the Taliban, who ruled most of the country as a totalitarian regime for over five years.
The Taliban were forcibly removed by the NATO-led coalition, a new democratically-elected government political structure was formed, but they still control a significant portion of the country. Afghanistan is a unitary presidential Islamic republic with a population of 31 million composed of ethnic Pashtuns, Tajiks and Uzbeks, it is a member of the United Nations, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Group of 77, the Economic Cooperation Organization, the Non-Aligned Movement. Afghanistan's economy is the world's 108th largest, with a GDP of $64.08 billion. The name Afghānistān is believed to be as old as the ethnonym Afghan, documented in the 10th-century geography book Hudud ul-'alam; the root name "Afghan" was used in reference to a member of the ethnic Pashtuns, the suffix "-stan" means "place of" in Persian. Therefore, Afghanistan translates to land of the Afghans or, more in a historical sense, to land of the Pashtuns. However, the modern Constitution of Afghanistan states that "he word Afghan shall apply to every citizen of Afghanistan."
Excavations of prehistoric sites by Louis Dupree and others suggest that humans were living in what is now Afghanistan at least 50,000 years ago, that farming communities in the area were among the earliest in the world. An important site of early historical activities, many believe that Afghanistan compares to Egypt in terms of the historical value of its archaeological sites; the country sits at a unique nexus point where numerous civilizations have interacted and fought. It has been home to various peoples through the ages, among them the ancient Iranian peoples who established the dominant role of Indo-Iranian languages in the region. At multiple points, the land has been incorporated within large regional empires, among them the Achaemenid Empire, the Macedonian Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, the Islamic Empire. Many empires and kingdoms have risen to power in Afghanistan, such as the Greco-Bactrians, Hephthalites, Kabul Shahis, Samanids, Ghurids, Kartids, Timurids and the Hotak and Durrani dynasties that marked the political origins of the modern state.
Archaeological exploration done in the 20th century suggests that the geographical area of Afghanistan has been connected by culture and trade with its neighbors to the east and north. Artifacts typical of the Paleolithic, Neolithic and Iron ages have been found in Afghanistan. Urban civilization is believed to have begun as early as 3000 BCE, the early city of Mundigak may have been a colony of the nearby Indus Valley Civilization. More recent findings established that the Indus Valley Civilisation stretched up towards modern-day Afghanistan, making the ancient civilisation today part of Pakistan and India. In more detail, it extended from what today is northwest Pakistan to northwest India and northeast Afghanistan. An Indus Valley site has been found on the Oxus River at Shortugai in northern Afghanistan. There are several smaller IVC colonies to be found in Afghanistan as well. After 2000 BCE, successive waves of semi-nomadic