Marine biology

Marine biology is the scientific study of marine life, organisms in the sea. Given that in biology many phyla and genera have some species that live in the sea and others that live on land, marine biology classifies species based on the environment rather than on taxonomy. A large proportion of all life on Earth lives in the ocean; the exact size of this large proportion is unknown, since many ocean species are still to be discovered. The ocean is a complex three-dimensional world covering 71% of the Earth's surface; the habitats studied in marine biology include everything from the tiny layers of surface water in which organisms and abiotic items may be trapped in surface tension between the ocean and atmosphere, to the depths of the oceanic trenches, sometimes 10,000 meters or more beneath the surface of the ocean. Specific habitats include coral reefs, kelp forests, seagrass meadows, the surrounds of seamounts and thermal vents, muddy and rocky bottoms, the open ocean zone, where solid objects are rare and the surface of the water is the only visible boundary.

The organisms studied range from microscopic phytoplankton and zooplankton to huge cetaceans 25–32 meters in length. Marine ecology is the study of how marine organisms interact with the environment. Marine life is a vast resource, providing food and raw materials, in addition to helping to support recreation and tourism all over the world. At a fundamental level, marine life helps determine the nature of our planet. Marine organisms contribute to the oxygen cycle, are involved in the regulation of the Earth's climate. Shorelines are in part shaped and protected by marine life, some marine organisms help create new land. Many species are economically important to humans, including shellfish, it is becoming understood that the well-being of marine organisms and other organisms are linked in fundamental ways. The human body of knowledge regarding the relationship between life in the sea and important cycles is growing, with new discoveries being made nearly every day; these cycles include those of matter and of air.

Large areas beneath the ocean surface still remain unexplored. The study of marine biology dates back to Aristotle, who made many observations of life in the sea around Lesbos, laying the foundation for many future discoveries. In 1768, Samuel Gottlieb Gmelin published the Historia Fucorum, the first work dedicated to marine algae and the first book on marine biology to use the new binomial nomenclature of Linnaeus, it included elaborate illustrations of seaweed and marine algae on folded leaves. The British naturalist Edward Forbes is regarded as the founder of the science of marine biology; the pace of oceanographic and marine biology studies accelerated during the course of the 19th century. The observations made in the first studies of marine biology fueled the age of discovery and exploration that followed. During this time, a vast amount of knowledge was gained about the life that exists in the oceans of the world. Many voyages contributed to this pool of knowledge. Among the most significant were the voyages of HMS Beagle where Charles Darwin came up with his theories of evolution and on the formation of coral reefs.

Another important expedition was undertaken by HMS Challenger, where findings were made of unexpectedly high species diversity among fauna stimulating much theorizing by population ecologists on how such varieties of life could be maintained in what was thought to be such a hostile environment. This era was important for the history of marine biology but naturalists were still limited in their studies because they lacked technology that would allow them to adequately examine species that lived in deep parts of the oceans; the creation of marine laboratories was important because it allowed marine biologists to conduct research and process their specimens from expeditions. The oldest marine laboratory in the world, Station biologique de Roscoff, was established in France in 1872. In the United States, the Scripps Institution of Oceanography dates back to 1903, while the prominent Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute was founded in 1930; the development of technology such as sound navigation ranging, scuba diving gear and remotely operated vehicles allowed marine biologists to discover and explore life in deep oceans, once thought to not exist.

As inhabitants of the largest environment on Earth, microbial marine systems drive changes in every global system. Microbes are responsible for all the photosynthesis that occurs in the ocean, as well as the cycling of carbon, nitrogen and other nutrients and trace elements. Microscopic life undersea is diverse and still poorly understood. For example, the role of viruses in marine ecosystems is being explored in the beginning of the 21st century; the role of phytoplankton is better understood due to their critical position as the most numerous primary producers on Earth. Phytoplankton are categorized into cyanobacteria, various types of algae, dinoflagellates, coccolithophorids, chrysophytes, chlorophytes and silicoflagellates. Zooplankton tend to be somewhat larger, not all are microscopic. Many Protozoa are zooplankton, including dinoflagellates, zooflagellates and radiolarians; some of these are phytoplankton.

Lin Chi-chan

Lin Chi-chan is a Taiwanese former swimmer, who specialized in long-distance freestyle but competed in backstroke. She represented Chinese Taipei in two editions of the Olympic Games, earned two medals each in the 4 × 100 m freestyle relay, 4 × 200 m freestyle relay at the 1998 Asian Games in Bangkok, Thailand. Lin made her first Chinese Taipei team, as a 16-year-old teen, at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta. There, she failed to medal in any of her individual events, finishing eleventh in the 400 m freestyle, ninth in the 800 m freestyle, thirty-third in the 200 m backstroke. A member of the Chinese Taipei team, she placed eighteenth in the 4 × 100 m freestyle relay, nineteenth in the 4 × 200 m freestyle relay. At the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Lin drastically shortened her program, swimming only in a long-distance freestyle double, she achieved FINA B-standards of 8:53.44 from the National University Games in Taipei. On the second day of the Games, Lin placed twenty-fifth in the 400 m freestyle.

Swimming in heat two, she raced to the fourth seed in 4:17.76, sufficiently enough for her lifetime best. Five days in the 800 m freestyle, Lin participated in heat one against three other swimmers Ivanka Moralieva of Bulgaria, Patricia Villarreal of Mexico, Cecilia Biagioli of Argentina. Leading the first 250 metres of the race, she faded down the stretch over the remaining laps to pick up a third seed and twenty-fourth overall at 9:01.09

National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology

National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology was a national coeducational university in Nanzih District, Taiwan. It was colloquially known as Gaoxiongkeda, its campus is on 750,000 m2. In 2018, NKFUST merged with National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences and National Kaohsiung Marine University to form National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology; the university consists of the colleges of Engineering, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Management and Banking and Foreign Languages with 15 departments and 27 graduate institutes. Around 269 teachers and 7,804 students are engaged in academic activities. NKFUST known as National Institute of Technology at Kaohsiung, was established on July 1, 1995 by the Ministry of Education to educate students to develop Taiwan into an Asia-Pacific Regional Operations Center; the Ministry of Education approved the upgrade of its status to university on July 1, 1998 and it was renamed National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, the first higher education institution of technical and vocational education system in Kaohsiung.

Chia-hung Ku: July 1995–July 1998 Chia-hung Ku: July 1998–July 2004 I-chang Jou: August 2004–July 2009 Jyh-Horng Chou: August 2009–February 2010 Meng-Hsiang Hsu: March 2010–April 2010 Roger C. Y. Chen: May 2010–February 2018 National Institute of Technology at Kaohsiung was established on July 1, 1995 by the Ministry of Education. Dr. Chia-hung Ku was the first president. In July 1998, the NITK received the approval from the Ministry of Education to rename as National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology as the first higher education institution of technical and vocational education system in the Kaohsiung area. NKFUST has a 75-hectare area in Kaohsiung City in southern Taiwan; the university is divided by National Highway No. 1 into the West campuses. The East campus is for teaching activities and the West campus for student residence and recreation; the campuses cover 750,000 square meters, with 191,533 square meters of building area. The library has a collection of 284,921 items including audiovisual material and journals.

There are electronic journals and 200 databases. College of Engineering Ph. D. Program, Institute of Engineering Science and Technology Institute of Systems and Control Engineering Department of Construction Engineering Department of Safety and Environmental Engineering Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, Institute of Industrial Design College of Management Ph. D. Program, Institute of Management Institute of Business Management International Master of Business Administration Institute of Law in Science and Technology Department of Logistics Management Department of Information Management, Institute of Electronic Business Department of Marketing and Distribution Management, Institute of Service Science and Management College of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Program of Engineering Department of Computer and Communication Engineering Department of Electronic Engineering College of Finance and Banking Ph.

D. Program, Institute of Finance and Banking Department of Money and Banking, Institute of Financial Planning Department of Risk Management and Insurance Department of Finance Department of Accounting and Information Systems College of Foreign Languages Department of English, Institute of Interpreting and Translation Department of Japanese Language Department of German Language The objectives of the Language Center provides a modernized and individualized environment for language learning; the Language Center offers a non-credited Chinese language program for students wishing to improve their Chinese. The course emphasizes pronunciation, communication skills for daily situations, simple writing; the Language Center provides courses for many foreign languages, such as Japanese, French and Korean. The university fosters students' ability to think independently and to lead and work in teams, it encourages students to set up clubs according to their interests. There are 65 clubs; the university promotes sports in hope of fostering students’ lifelong interest and to promote students' mental and physical fitness.

Every year, there are campus-wide sports activities such as cheering competition, jogging on campus, anniversary sport competitions. Hung Tzu-yung, member of Legislative Yuan Pong Cheng-sheng, Deputy Mayor of Taipei Wu Hong-mo, Minister of Public Construction Commission List of universities in Taiwan Official Website | Department of English at the NKFUST History of the NKFUST