Marine expeditionary unit

Marine expeditionary units are the smallest air-ground task forces in the United States Fleet Marine Force. Each MEU is an expeditionary quick reaction force and ready for immediate response to any crisis, whether it be natural disaster or combat missions. Marine amphibious unit was the name used until the late 1980s. An MEU is composed of: a reinforced USMC infantry battalion as the ground combat element, a composite medium tiltrotor squadron forming the aviation combat element, a combat logistics battalion providing the logistics combat element, a company-size command element serving as the MEU headquarters group. Troop strength is about 2,200 members and commanded by a colonel, is deployed from amphibious assault ships. An MEU embarks personnel and equipment onto the amphibious warfare ships of an expeditionary strike group which includes escort warships and submarines to protect them from air and submarine threats. For further protection and strong air support, an ESG is deployed along with one or more carrier strike groups.

The MEU is unique in that its air and ground combat elements are combined with a logistics combat element under one commander. The MEU's ground combat element combines artillery, light armor and tanks at a much lower level than was common in the Army until the development of the brigade combat team early in the War on Terror, with a similar concept, the combat command, being utilized in World War II; this air-ground task force concept is designed to exploit the combat power inherent in air and ground assets by integrating them into a single force. The MEU brings all the supplies and logistical support it needs to sustain itself for quick mission accomplishment or to pave the way for any follow-up forces; this self-sustainment allows more flexibility in disposition and operations of forces, allows the MEU to initiate operations sooner and let support catch up without having to wait for external logistical support to begin a mission. Deployments on U. S. Navy amphibious assault ships allows MEUs to seabase around the globe, ready for deployment at short notice.

A typical MEU has 2,200 members, including navy sailors. It is equipped with: Many types of equipment are, or will soon, undergo a transitory phase as they are replaced; some examples include the Amphibious Combat Vehicle replacing the AAV-7, the F-35 Lightning II replacing the AV-8B Harrier, the CH-53K Super Stallion replacing the CH-53E. The ground combat element is based on the battalion landing team, an infantry battalion reinforced with an artillery battery, amphibious assault vehicle platoon, combat engineer platoon, light armored reconnaissance company, tank platoon, reconnaissance platoon, other units as the mission and circumstances require; the total strength is 1,100 members, including navy sailors. The reconnaissance platoon provides the basic element for the Maritime Special Purpose Force; this force consists of four elements. The assault platoon, security and surveillance assets, a headquarters section; the total strength is 350 members, including navy sailors. The aviation combat element is a USMC composite squadron composed of a medium tiltrotor squadron augmented with detachments of heavy and attack helicopters, one detachment of amphibious flight-deck-capable jets, a Marine air control group detachment with tactical air command, air traffic control, direct air support, anti-aircraft assets, as well as wing headquarters, wing communications, wing support squadron personnel.

Total strength is 600 troops. The logistics combat element is based on the MEU combat logistics battalion, it contains all the logistics specialists and equipment necessary for the MEU to support and sustain itself for up to 15 days in an austere expeditionary environment. It includes service support, dental, intermediate maintenance, intermediate supply, explosive ordnance disposal, utilities production and distribution, bulk fuels, internal communications, various other technical experts, it consists of 300 members, including navy sailors. The command element, which includes the MEU commander and his supporting staff, provides command and control over the other three elements, it includes specialized detachments for air naval gunfire liaison, surveillance, specialized communications, radio reconnaissance, electronic warfare and counterintelligence, law enforcement, public affairs missions. The overall strength is about 200 members, including navy sailors. MEUs have been deployed within an expeditionary strike group in the Mediterranean, the Western Pacific, periodically, the Atlantic and Indian Oceans.

An ESG is composed of three amphibious ships that embark the necessary troops and equipment and are escorted by a guided missile cruiser and guided missile destroyers and submarine support. Before the ESG, MEUs were deployed as part of an amphibious ready group. MEUs maintain their subordinate elements in fifteen month cycles: a nine months stateside, a six-month deployment aboard ship; these cycles e

Gorkha Airlines

Gorkha Airlines Pvt. Ltd. was an airline based in Kathmandu, Nepal. It operated scheduled and charter flights to domestic destinations, as well as daily mountain flights in the Himalayas, its main base was Tribhuvan International Airport in Kathmandu. The airline was established in 1996 and started operations on 8 July 1996, it began operations with two Mil Mi-17 helicopters and moved on to scheduled flights using fixed-wing aircraft. Gorkha Airlines had suspended its operation in 2010, The company received the approval from Civil Aviation Ministry to reoperate the Airline in April 2017 and plans to operate two ERJ twin-engine regional jets produced by Embraer, a Brazilian aerospace company, two Dornier aircraft in the domestic sector. Gorkha Airlines served the following destinations, which were cancelled either at the closure of operations or before: Gorkha Airlines operated scheduled mountain sightseeing flights from Kathmandu to Mount Everest range; the flights departed in the early morning hours and return to the airport one hour later.

At the time of closure, Gorkha Airlines operated the following aircraft: On 30 June 2005, a Dornier Do 228 aircraft carrying nine passengers and three crew members en route from Kathmandu skidded off the runway while attempting to land at Lukla Airport. The passengers suffered only minor injuries, after the accident, the aircraft was withdrawn from service and written off. Official website via Wayback Machine

The History of Rock and Roll

The History of Rock & Roll is a US radio documentary on rock and roll music syndicated in 1969. One of the lengthiest documentaries of any medium, The History of Rock & Roll is a definitive history of the Rock and Roll genre, stretching from the early 1950s to its day; the "rockumentary," as producers Bill Drake and Gene Chenault called it, features hundreds of interviews and comments from numerous rock artists and people involved with rock and roll. Notable features introduced in the 1978 edition of this documentary include the "chart sweep," featuring a montage of #1 songs and notable hits from a given year or artist, a "time sweep" for each one-hour segment providing a montage of the major hits for each year or individual artist, closing with a special climactic time sweep featuring a montage of every #1 hit from 1955 to the year of the latest version. While the documentary focuses on Rock & Roll and its variants, some songs and artists from other genres are represented as they became major hits on stations that played Rock & Roll.

A revised version of the series is syndicated to internet networks as a short-form segment hosted by Gary Theroux, writer of the 1978 and 1981 editions. The History of Rock & Roll first aired on the weekend of February 21–23, 1969 on 93 KHJ Los Angeles, hosted by Robert W. Morgan, it aired for 48 hours and was syndicated. That year, with slight modifications to the script, another version was aired hosted by Humble Harve Miller; the program was syndicated nationally in the fall of 1969 by parent company RKO General. KHJ repeated this in 12-hour blocks; this version was syndicated throughout the early 1970s, was sent to stations on large 10​1⁄2" reels of 1/4" tape, in full-track mono. Stations were required to return the tapes after airing, though several stations offered copies of the show as prizes; the original KHJ show carried promos awarding copies of the show as prizes to a handful of listeners, on reel-to-reel tape AND a tape recorder to play it on. Writer Pete Johnson said that "I included nearly every record I rember hearing".

The History of Rock and Roll billed itself as "modern music's first rockumentary" when it first aired on February 21, 1969. However, it had some competition for that title from the Pop Chronicles which began airing on February 9, 1969, on rival Los Angeles AM station KRLA, but since The History of Rock and Roll completed its first broadcast that weekend, it was the first of these rockumentaries to be broadcast in full. In 1975, Drake-Chenault began the process of updating the documentary. Finding that the 1969 script contained inaccuracies and omissions, programmer/DJ/music historian Gary Theroux researched and rebuilt the program from scratch; the new version expanded the story with fresh interviews, insightful narration, more music, a host of innovations—all in a modular format which allowed stations more programming flexibility. Drake knew that the rising popularity of stereo FM rock stations made it necessary to redo the show in stereo; the revised show was completely remixed and re-edited from scratch, using a homebuilt control room assembled together by engineer Mark Ford at the company headquarters in Canoga Park, a library of thousands of LPs and 45 singles.

The program employed a systematic approach covering each year with a focused half-hour as well as separate segments devoted to key artists or trends. The result, hosted by Bill Drake, was an enormously successful ratings hit. Drake replaced previous host Humble Harve Miller. Since the documentary was in development at the time Elvis Presley died in August 1977, Drake-Chenault was able to produce and distribute material from the documentary as "Elvis: A Three Hour Special". Among other things, Theroux had Drake-Chenault chief engineer Mark Ford assemble two kinds of annual montages: one of each chart-topping hit of a given year and the other of other key songs there was no time to play in full; those #1 hit montages were reprised for the climactic final hour of the show—edited together back to back to create a fast-moving 45-minute medley of every chart-topping hit from 1955 to the fall of 1977. The riveting nature of Theroux's much-bootlegged ending inspired a series of hits medleys by many artists including Elvis Presley, The Beatles, Stars on 45, Jive Bunny & the Mixmasters.

The 1978 edition of "The History of Rock & Roll" debuted as a marathon broadcast over more than 400 domestic stations and another 400 overseas, won Billboard magazine's "Top Special Program of the Year" award. That led Theroux to host his own version of "The History of Rock'n' Roll" as a syndicated daily 2​1⁄2-minute feature. Following the success of the 1978 release, Drake-Chenault created a shorter, edited version, marketed as "The History of Rock & Roll: The Early Years." It was targeted to oldies stations. The final Drake-Chenault version was released in the spring of 1981, named the Silver Anniversary Edition of the History of Rock & Roll, so-called as it was released 25 years after Elvis Presley's first #1 hit. Not wishing to increase the size of the program, with an attempt to place greater emphasis on the current musical trends, the controversial decision was made to cut back the sections devoted to the 1950s and early 1960s. All of the pre-1978 content in the "Silver Anniversary Edition," therefore, was a recycled cut-down of Theroux and Drake's award-winning work.

Only their two-hour profile of Elvis Presley remained intact. The half-hour recaps of chart highlights from each year between 1956 and 1963 were