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Marinid Sultanate

The Marinid Sultanate covered present-day Morocco and, parts of North Africa and southern Spain around Gibraltar, from the mid-13th to the 15th century. It was ruled by the Marinid dynasty, or Banu Abd al-Haqq, a Sunni Muslim family of Zenata Berber descent. In 1244, the Marinid rulers overthrew the Almohad Caliphate, which had controlled present-day Morocco; the Marinid dynasty held sway over all the Maghreb in the mid-14th century. It supported the Kingdom of Granada in al-Andalus in 14th centuries; the Marinids were overthrown after the 1465 Moroccan revolt. The Wattasid dynasty, a related ruling house, came to power in 1472; the Marinids were a branch of the Wassin, a nomadic Zenata Berber tribe that lived in the Zibans before being driven towards Tlemcen by the Arab invasion in the 11th century. The tribe had first frequented the area between Figuig, present-day Morocco. Following the arrival of Arab tribes in the area in the 11th-12th centuries, Marinids moved to the north-west of present-day Algeria, before settling into northern present-day Morocco by the beginning of the 13th century.

The Marinids took their name from Marin ibn Wartajan al-Zenati. After arriving in present-day Morocco, they submitted to the Almohad dynasty, at the time the ruling house. After contributing to the Battle of Alarcos, in central Spain, the tribe started to assert itself as a political power. Starting in 1213, they began to tax farming communities of today's north-eastern Morocco; the relationship between them and the Almohads became strained and starting in 1215, there were regular outbreaks of fighting between the two parties. In 1217 they tried to occupy the eastern part of present-day Morocco, but they were expelled, pulling back and settling in the eastern Rif mountains. Here they remained for nearly 30 years. During their stay in the Rif, the Almohad state suffered huge blows, losing large territories to the Christians in Spain, while the Hafsids of Ifriqia broke away in 1229, followed by the Zayyanid dynasty of Tlemcen in 1235. Between 1244 and 1248 the Marinids were able to take Taza, Salé, Meknes and Fes from the weakened Almohads.

The Marinid leadership installed in Fes declared war on the Almohads, fighting with the aid of Christian mercenaries. Abu Yusuf Yaqub captured Marrakech in 1269. After the Nasrids ceded Algeciras to the Marinids, Abu Yusuf went to Al-Andalus to support the ongoing struggle against the Kingdom of Castile; the Marinid dynasty tried to extend its control to include the commercial traffic of the Strait of Gibraltar. It was in this period that the Spanish Christians were first able to take the fighting to mainland present-day Morocco: in 1260 and 1267 they attempted an invasion, but both attempts were defeated. After gaining a foothold in Spain, the Marinids became active in the conflict between Muslims and Christians in Iberia. To gain absolute control of the trade in the Strait of Gibraltar, from their base at Algeciras they started the conquest of several Spanish towns: by the year 1294 they had occupied Rota and Gibraltar. In 1276 they founded Fes Jdid, which they made their military centre. While Fes had been a prosperous city throughout the Almohad period becoming the largest city in the world during that time, it was in the Marinid period that Fes reached its golden age, a period which marked the beginning of an official, historical narrative for the city.

It is from the Marinid period that Fes' reputation as an important intellectual centre dates, they established the first madrassas in the city and country. The principal monuments in the medina, the residences and public buildings, date from the Marinid period. Despite internal infighting, Abu Said Uthman II initiated huge construction projects across the land. Several madrassas were built; the building of these madrassas were necessary to create a dependent bureaucratic class, in order to undermine the marabouts and Sharifian elements. The Marinids strongly influenced the policy of the Emirate of Granada, from which they enlarged their army in 1275. In the 13th century, the Kingdom of Castile made several incursions into their territory. In 1260, Castilian forces raided Salé and, in 1267, initiated a full-scale invasion, but the Marinids repelled them. At the height of their power, during the rule of Abu al-Hasan'Ali, the Marinid army was large and disciplined, it consisted of 40,000 Zenata cavalry, while Arab nomads contributed to the cavalry and Andalusians were included as archers.

The personal bodyguard of the sultan consisted of 7,000 men, included Christian and Black African elements. Under Abu al-Hasan another attempt was made to reunite the Maghreb. In 1337 the Abdalwadid kingdom of Tlemcen was conquered, followed in 1347 by the defeat of the Hafsid empire in Ifriqiya, which made him master of a huge territory, which spanned from southern present-day Morocco to Tripoli. However, within the next year, a revolt of Arab tribes in southern Tunisia made them lose their eastern territories; the Marinids had suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of a Portuguese-Castilian coalition in the Battle of Río Salado in 1340, had to withdraw from Andalusia, only holding on to Algeciras until 1344. In 1348 Abu al-Hasan was deposed by his son Abu Inan Faris, who tried to reconquer Algeria and Tunisia. Despite seve

BBC Radio 1's Big Weekend

BBC Radio 1's Big Weekend is a music festival run by BBC Radio 1. It is held once a year, in a different location within the United Kingdom each time, it was the biggest free ticketed music event in Europe, until a fee for tickets was introduced in 2018, always includes a host of new artists. The festival is a spin-off of Radio 1's "One Big Sunday", where in each Sunday during July and August, a different town would host the roadshow next to a beach or in a large park; these were free, but non-ticketed. Both events are successors to the Radio 1 Roadshow which toured the country during every summer from 1973 until the 1990s. A "One Big Weekend" would run twice a year, although that last happened in 2004 since when it has been held once a year instead - in May, with the exception of 2012 when a larger festival took place over the weekend of 23–24 June in Hackney, East London; the form of the event has varied over the years, from one tent at the events in 2003 to as many as six stages in 2012. Every event since 2013 has consisted of one outdoor main stage, one tented second stage, one much smaller stage dedicated to showcasing emerging talent supported by BBC Introducing.

Additionally, the early events dedicated their Saturday to dance music and their Sunday to bands. The dance day was replaced by a second day of bands from 2006 onwards, although there was a dance-orientated ‘Outdoor Stage’ between 2007 and 2012; the ‘dance day’ was reinstated for the 2013 event in Northern Ireland, with a day of electronic music being held on the Friday of the weekend. This approach has been repeated in most years since; the next edition of the event will be held between May 22nd and May 24th 2020 in Dundee, with Camperdown Park becoming the first site to host the event twice. Tickets to the festival are, free but are now restricted to one pair per person. Prior to 2006, a ticket booth would be set up in an easy location in the centre of the hosting city, anybody who wished to obtain a pair of tickets would queue up, before a Radio 1 DJ gave them out, on a first-come first-served basis; the theory there was that the majority of tickets would go to local residents, as people from further away would not make the journey.

However, as more and more'non-local' residents came to the giveaways, the capacity at the events grew year-on-year, it was decided that a different system was needed. From 2006, pairs of tickets have been given away through an online lottery. People wishing to attend register on the BBC Radio 1 website and pairs of tickets are randomly allocated and given out. In order to make sure that those who live locally get the majority of tickets, the applications are split into categories of'local postcodes' and'other postcodes' and the majority of the tickets are reserved for the former. Despite the tickets being free, some people attempt to sell them on eBay, in recent years this has meant that various security measures have been introduced, most notably the barcodes on tickets which are scanned at the gate, the rule that the person whose name is registered on the ticket has to be in attendance and, from 2012, passport-style pictures being required as part of the application process. Tickets are given away as prizes via various competitions held on Radio 1 in the weeks running up to the event, the only way in which members of the public can obtain passes for both days of the event.

For the 2013 event, no pre-registration was necessary, instead all tickets were given away on a'first come first served' basis - albeit still with the skewing of 90% of tickets being held back for residents of Northern Ireland. After an initial 24-hour delay due to technical difficulties, the tickets all sold out within an hour. 2014's event in Glasgow saw the'first come first served' ticket release return with no pre-registration needed. 50% of tickets were reserved for residents within the boundaries of Glasgow City Council with a further 45% reserved for those in the rest of Scotland. However, for the first time members of the public could obtain tickets to all three days of the festival; this led to complaints from some disappointed fans who were left without tickets to any day while others bagged tickets for the entire weekend. For the 2006 event in Dundee, less than half of the tickets were given to local residents, allegations were made of postal workers stealing tickets. On January 27th, Greg James announced on the Radio 1 Breakfast Show that the Big Weekend would be returning to Camperdown Park in Dundee in 2020.

With Camperdown Park having hosted the Big Weekend in 2006, it will be the first time the same venue has hosted the event twice - and the second time the Big Weekend has visited the same city twice, after Derry in 2004 and 2013. The first acts announced were AJ Tracey, Biffy Clyro, Calvin Harris, Camilla Cabello, Dua Lipa and Harry Styles. On the 28 February it was announced that the 2019 event would be held at Stewart Park in Middlesbrough, North Yorkshire, as the first eight acts were announced, it was confirmed that Miley Cyrus will be the headliner of the Saturday line-up along with The 1975 on Sunday and the joins of Future, Mumford & Sons, Little Mix, Zara Larsson and Mabel. On 11 March the remaining acts were announced In addition to announcing the other ones, the days of which the artists would be performing was released. 100 free tickets for each day were released on 13 March, selling

Keroro Gunso the Super Movie 4: Gekishin Dragon Warriors

Keroro Gunso the Super Movie 4: Gekishin Dragon Warriors is the fourth film made from the popular anime series Sgt. Frog; the film was released on March 2009 in Japanese theatres. It was produced by the studio behind the anime television series; the film got released to DVD on July 24, 2009 in Japan. Mysterious giant beings called. Due to the danger it could bring, the Keroro Platoon did a worldwide research on the Dragon Tails, but Tamama disappeared during the research; because of this, the whole platoon started their search for Tamama and ended up in Mont-Saint-Michel, France where they met mysterious girl named Sion, who holds the mysterious Ryū no Hon. But little they know about the secrets about her and the worldwide calamity that would destroy the entire world, as they know it... During its first week, Keroro Gunso the Super Movie 4: Gekishin Dragon Warriors was placed 5th at the Japanese box office. Sgt. Frog Keroro Gunsō the Super Movie Keroro Gunso the Super Movie 2: The Deep Sea Princess Keroro Gunso the Super Movie 3: Keroro vs. Keroro Great Sky Duel Keroro Gunso the Super Movie 4: Gekishin Dragon Warriors at Anime News Network's encyclopedia Keroro Gunso the Super Movie 4: Gekishin Dragon Warriors on IMDb