click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Marion County, Texas

Marion County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 10,546, its county seat is Jefferson. Marion County is in East Texas and is named for Francis Marion, the Revolutionary War general from South Carolina, nicknamed the "Swamp Fox"; the farming Caddoan Mississippian culture dates as far back as 200 BCE in the area. The Hernando de Soto expedition of 1541 resulted in violent encounters. Spanish and French missionaries brought a smallpox, measles malaria and influenza epidemics against which the Caddo had no immunity; the Caddo were forced to reservations. Shashidahnee is the last known permanent Marion County settlement of the Caddo people; the 19th Century saw Shawnee and Kickapoo in the area. The legislature formed Marion County from Cass County in 1860 and named for Revolutionary War Swamp Fox Francis Marion. Jefferson, named after Thomas Jefferson became the county seat; the majority of the settlers brought their slaves with them. The county was developed as cotton plantations, enslaved African Americans made up 51 percent of the population in 1860.

In 1861, the white male voters in the county voted unanimously for secession from the Union. The county benefitted financially from Confederate government contracts. One of the county’s most famous disasters occurred in February 1869, when the steamboat Mittie Stephens caught fire from a torch basket that ignited a hay stack on board. Sixty-one people died, either from the fire or from being caught in the boat’s paddlewheel as they jumped overboard. On October 4, 1869, George Washington Smith, a delegate to the Constitutional Convention, was murdered by a band of vigilantes while incarcerated in Jefferson. Smith's slaying led to occupation of Jefferson by military troops who offered protection for the black majority. Republican presidential races benefited from the black majority in the county. In 1898, the White Primary disfranchised the black vote; the Marion County brick courthouse was erected in architect Elmer George Withers. Outside the building the Dick Taylor Camp of Confederate veterans erected a monument to honor the county’s dead in the American Civil War.

Caddo Lake State Park was first proposed in 1924. From 1933-1937 the Civilian Conservation Corps made improvements to the park; the army barracks and mess hall were converted to log a recreation hall for park goers. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 420 square miles, of which 381 square miles is land and 39 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 59 Interstate 369 is under construction and will follow the current route of U. S. 59 in most places. State Highway 43 State Highway 49 State Highway 155 Farm to Market Road 134 Farm to Market Road 248 Farm to Market Road 2208 Farm to Market Road 726 Farm to Market Road 729 Farm to Market Road 727 Farm to Market Road 805 Farm to Market Road 2683The TTC-69 component of the once-planned Trans-Texas Corridor went through Marion County. Cass County Caddo Parish, Louisiana Harrison County Upshur County Morris County As of the census of 2000, there were 10,941 people, 4,610 households, 3,120 families residing in the county; the population density was 29 people per square mile.

There were 6,384 housing units at an average density of 17 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 72.74% White, 23.91% Black or African American, 0.80% Native American, 0.22% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.79% from other races, 1.54% from two or more races. 2.40 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 4,610 households out of which 24.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.70% were married couples living together, 11.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.30% were non-families. 28.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.88. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.30% under the age of 18, 6.40% from 18 to 24, 23.60% from 25 to 44, 28.40% from 45 to 64, 19.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females there were 95.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.40 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $25,347, the median income for a family was $32,039. Males had a median income of $30,584 versus $17,885 for females; the per capita income for the county was $14,535. About 17.80% of families and 22.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.90% of those under age 18 and 14.40% of those age 65 or over. Jefferson Pine Harbor Corinth Museums in East Texas National Register of Historic Places listings in Marion County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Marion County Marion County government website Marion County from the Handbook of Texas Online Inventory of the county archives of Texas: Marion County, no. 158, hosted by the Portal to Texas History

Killing Romance

"Killing Romance" is a single by the Finnish gothic metal supergroup For My Pain.... It contains their cover of the popular song "Joutsenlaulu" by the Finnish band Yö; the song peaked #7 on Finnish Singles Chart. "Too Sad To Live" is an outtake from the "Fallen" album sessions. Killing Romance - 4:18 Joutsenlaulu - 5:37 Too Sad To Live - 5:05 Altti VeteläinenBass Petri SankalaDrums Lauri Tuohimaa – Guitars Olli-Pekka Törrö – Guitars Juha KylmänenVocals Tero KinnunenKeyboards

Nutcracker (film)

Nutcracker is a 1982 British drama film directed by Anwar Kawadri and starring Joan Collins, Carol White and Paul Nicholas. Set during the Cold War, the story concerns a Soviet ballerina, who attempts to defect to the West and settle in London. Joan Collins as Laura Carrere Carol White as Margaux Lasselle Paul Nicholas as Mike McCann Finola Hughes as Nadia Gargarin William Franklyn as Sir Arthur Cartwright Leslie Ash as Sharon Murray Melvin as Leopold Vernon Dobtcheff as Markovitch Geraldine Gardner as Markova Cherry Gillespie as Mireille Jane Wellman as Grace Ed Bishop as Sam Dozier Jo Warne as Madame Olga Martin Burrows as Tom Fran Fullenwider as Vi Anna Bergman as Tashi Nicola Austin as Sylvie Olivier Pierre as Alex Lasalle Steve Kelly as Boris Richard Marner as Popov Morgan Sheppard as George Peacock Upton, Julian. Fallen Stars: Tragic Lives and Lost Careers. Headpress/Critical Vision, 2004. Nutcracker on IMDb

2-1 road

A 2-1 road is a type of road with extra wide shoulders, a smaller two-way lane in the middle for vehicles. The shoulders are to be used by pedestrians and cyclists, if necessary by meeting vehicles; the purpose of the road is to give more space to pedestrians and cyclists and thereby avoid constructing new dedicated pedestrian and bicycle paths in areas where new constructions are to be avoided or not possible. The road-type is popular in Denmark where a third of all municipalities have at least one stretch of this type of road. Together with other traffic calming measures these roads have lowered traffic accidents with about 25%. Sweden started building this type of road in 2006 and is there called "bymiljöväg", or in English "village environment road", as it goes through and between different dispersed settlements. There the roads have been met by critique from both residents and the police as they believe it will lead to more accidents. Drivers' behavior have been criticized. 2+1 road Road diet Reversible lane

Service à la française

Service à la française is the practice of serving various dishes of a meal at the same time, with the diners helping themselves from the serving dishes. That contrasts to service à la russe in which dishes are brought to the table sequentially and served individually, portioned by servants. Formal dinners were served à la française from the Middle Ages to the 19th century, but in modern times it has been supplanted by service à la russe in restaurants. Service à la française still exists today in the form of the buffet, remains popular for small and large gatherings in homes, companies etc, it is similar to the Chinese style of serving used for large groups in many Chinese restaurants. There was a less formal style known as service à l'anglaise in France, with the hostess serving out the soup at one end of the table, the host carving a joint of meat at the other end, servants taking these to the diners, the diners serving themselves with other dishes; the formalized service à la française was a creation of the Baroque period, helped by the growth of published cookbooks setting out grand dining as it was practiced at the French court, led by François Pierre de la Varenne's Le Cuisinier françois and Le Pâtissier françois.

As in other matters of taste and fashion, France took over from Italy as the leader of Europe, by the 18th century the French style was diffused across the rest of Europe, those who could afford them hired French chefs. Over the course of the 19th century, service à la française was replaced by service à la russe in grand dining; this had the advantage of making the food much hotter when it reached the diner, reducing the huge number of dishes and condiments found on the table at the same time. It ensured that everybody could taste everything they wanted, which in practice the old system did not allow. On the other hand, the effect of magnificent profusion was reduced, many more footmen and more tableware were required, making it an option only the rich could afford, it reduced the time spent at the table, the amount of food needed. The meal was divided into three or four courses, "removes" or "services": soup and fish. A supper, long after the main dinner, might just have dessert; each course included a variety of dishes, all set at the same time at the table.

Guests served their neighbours. The table was set and the first remove placed on the table before the guests entered the dining room; the serving dishes might be removed after the first course of fish, or not. They were always cleared after the entrées, before serving dessert, except for a period in the mid-18th century, when at grand meals the desserts were placed in the centre of the table from the start of the meal. There was supposed, by the cookery books, to be a more or less fixed ratio of around four dishes per diner, all different. Unlike today, when doubling the number of diners from say 12 to 24 will mean doubling the quantity prepared of each type of food, service à la française doubled the number of different dishes of all types, to about 96. Therefore, in a large dinner, there was no chance for every diner to taste everything on the table, two diners at different points around the table might well both have a hearty dinner, without tasting any of the same food, as with a large modern buffet.

But whereas in the Middle Ages and Renaissance the best food was placed on the table with the most important diners, or the centre of a large table, the lesser tables or edges of the main table doing rather less well, now the quality of food was across the table. But now only diners accepted. In practice, guests might not be aware of what all the many dishes on the table were, or be able to see or obtain them; the long account in a letter from a young American lady of a dinner for 18 people on New Year's Day 1852 at an aristocratic English country house, includes "I cannot tell you how many kinds of soup there were. Suffice it, that mine was most delicious". In the Renaissance the dessert course might be served in a different room, or at the other end of a large room, sometimes in buffet style; this is the origin of the name. Service à la française sometimes required so much food to be set out that it was the custom of some hosts to have a second dinner party the following day, using what was left over for a smaller number of less-important guests.

William Makepeace Thackeray's character Major Pendennis is "indignant at being invited to a'second-day dinner'". Until about 1800, no glasses or drinks were on the table at the start of the meal. Footmen were beckoned and brought a salver with a glass of wine, a decanter of water to dilute it if desired. A modified form of service à la française in which several large dishes are brought out for each diner to help himself from is known as "family-style" in less formal restaurants, as they replicate the typical way in which small family meals are served; the buffet style is a variation of the French service in which all of the food is available, at the correct temperature, in a serving space other than the dining table, guests commute there to be served or sometimes to serve themselves, carry their plate back to the table. Buffets vary from the informal to the rather formal setting of a weddin

Democratic Party (South Africa)

The Democratic Party was the name of the South African political party now called the Democratic Alliance. Although the Democratic Party name dates from 1989, the party existed under other labels throughout the apartheid years, when it was the Parliamentary opposition to the ruling National Party's policies; the Progressive Federal Party had formed the main parliamentary opposition to the Apartheid regime in the whites-only House of Assembly since 1977. But the party was ousted as the official opposition in the 1987 election and pushed into third place behind the far-right Conservative Party, which opposed the limited reforms the NP had implemented; this led to great disillusionment amongst South Africa's white liberal community, some questioned the merit of continuing to serve in the apartheid parliament. By 1989, they had regrouped and aimed to strengthen the white parliamentary resistance to apartheid; the new party had three co-leaders from each of the parties that had entered the merger: Zach de Beer, Denis Worrall and Wynand Malan.

De Beer, from the dominant PFP-faction became the sole leader, however. The DP showed its political strength by winning a local by-election in the Afrikaner Linden suburb in Johannesburg, described as a "shock upset" that showed the NP that voters were ready for change, it went on to win 34 seats in the 1989 election, up from 20 before the vote. In 1990, the NP shifted towards the centre. President FW de Klerk released Nelson Mandela and announced the unbanning of struggle organisations such as the African National Congress, while embracing liberal democracy and opening up its membership to all races; this shift narrowed the political space available to the DP, the party saw itself further marginalized during the Codessa negotiations which were dominated by the ANC and NP. In the 1994 election, the party won a disappointing 7 seats in the democratic parliament. Following the election, Tony Leon became the party's sole leader. Under Leon's leadership, the DP would become the most active and influential opposition party in the National Assembly, despite its small size.

A mid-term review in 1997 found that the party's seven members of parliament had asked 50% as many parliamentary questions as the members of the National Party, despite being more than ten times smaller. In 1998, political columnist Howard Barrell wrote that "Seven DP MPs make their National Party counterparts look like 80 feather dusters"; the DP won its first local by-election in a traditional NP constituency in March 1997, this was followed by several others. By 1998, the party was growing its support base and after the 1999 election, the DP, under the leadership of Leon, became Official Opposition to the ANC-led government, winning 38 seats. In the Western Cape province, it achieved kingmaker status and became the junior partner in a governing coalition with the renamed New National Party; this electoral success came at a price, however. The party's new supporters came from the National Party and consisted overwhelmingly of ethnic minorities whites; the DP had contested the 1999 election with a negative campaign under the controversial slogan "Fight Back", many, such as the ANC President Thabo Mbeki, were of the view that it was "the transformation of the DP into a right wing political party" that allowed it to capture these voters.

Leon and other party leaders dismissed this, however. Leon maintained that the new supporters would not lead the DP to change its principles, claiming that, the new recruits would have to ascribe to the liberal-democratic values to which the DP had adhered. To unify national opposition against the ANC government, the DP and the NNP began to plan a merger of the two parties. Accordingly, they formed the Democratic Alliance in June 2000; the merger agreement was short-lived, with the NNP leaving the alliance in 2001, but DA chose to retain the new creation, establishing it at all levels of government from 2003 onwards. Contributions to liberal theory Liberal democracy Liberalism Liberalism in South Africa Liberalism worldwide List of liberal parties Democratic Alliance website