Abbott and Costello
Abbott and Costello were an American comedy duo composed of Bud Abbott and Lou Costello, whose work on radio and in film and television made them the most popular comedy team of the 1940s and early 1950s. Their patter routine "Who's on First?" is one of the best-known comedy routines of all time in the world, set the framework for many of their best-known comedy bits. While they had crossed paths a few times the two comedians first worked together in 1935 at the Eltinge Burlesque Theater on 42nd Street in New York City, now the lobby of an AMC Theatres movie complex, their first performance resulted from Abbott's regular partner becoming ill. Decades when AMC moved the old theater 168 ft further west on 42nd Street to its current location, giant balloons of Abbott and Costello were rigged to appear to pull it. Other performers in the show, including Abbott's wife, encouraged a permanent pairing; the duo built an act by refining and reworking numerous burlesque sketches with Abbott as the devious straight man and Costello as the dimwitted comic.
The team's first known radio broadcast was on The Kate Smith Hour on February 3, 1938. At first, the similarities between their voices made it difficult for radio listeners to tell them apart during their rapid-fire repartee; as a result, Costello affected a childish voice. "Who's on First?" was first performed for a national radio audience the following month. They performed on the program as regulars for two years, while landing roles in a Broadway revue, The Streets of Paris, in 1939. After debuting their own program, The Abbott and Costello Show, as Fred Allen's summer replacement in 1940, Abbott and Costello joined Edgar Bergen and Charlie McCarthy on The Chase and Sanborn Hour in 1941. Two of their films were adapted for Lux Radio Theater that year, their program returned in its own weekly time slot starting on October 8, 1942 and Camel cigarettes as sponsor. The Abbott and Costello Show mixed comedy with musical interludes. Regulars and semi-regulars on the show included Artie Auerbach, Elvia Allman, Iris Adrian, Mel Blanc, Wally Brown, Sharon Douglas, Verna Felton, Sidney Fields, Frank Nelson, Martha Wentworth and Benay Venuta.
Ken Niles was the show's longtime announcer, doubling as an exasperated foil to Costello, who insulted his on-air wife. Niles was succeeded by Michael Roy, alternating over the years with Jim Doyle; the show went through several orchestras, including those of Ennis, Charles Hoff, Matty Matlock, Matty Malneck, Jack Meakin, Will Osborne, Fred Rich, Leith Stevens and Peter van Steeden. The show's writers included Howard Harris, Hal Fimberg, Parke Levy, Don Prindle, Eddie Cherkose, Leonard B. Stern, Martin Ragaway, Paul Conlan and Eddie Forman, as well as producer Martin Gosch. Sound effects were handled by Floyd Caton. Guest stars included Frank Sinatra, The Andrews Sisters and Lucille Ball. In 1947 the show moved to ABC. During their time on ABC the duo hosted a 30-minute children's radio program on Saturday mornings; the program featured child announcer Johnny McGovern. It finished its run in 1949. In 1940, Universal Studios signed them for One Night in the Tropics. Cast in supporting roles, they stole the show with several classic routines, including the "Who's on First?" routine.
Universal signed them to a two-picture contract. Their second film, Buck Privates, directed by Arthur Lubin and co-starring The Andrews Sisters, was a massive hit, earning $4 million at the box office and launching Abbott and Costello as stars, their next film was a haunted house comedy, Oh, Charlie!. However Buck Privates was so successful that the studio decided to delay its release so the team could hastily make and release a second service comedy, In The Navy, co-starring crooner Dick Powell and the Andrews Sisters; this film out-grossed Buck Privates. Loew's Criterion in Manhattan was open until 5 a.m. to oblige over 49,000 customers during the film's first week. Oh, Charlie was put back into production to add music featuring the Andrews Ted Lewis; the film was released as Hold That Ghost. The duo next made Ride'Em Cowboy, with Dick Foran, but its release was delayed so they could appear in a third service comedy, Keep'Em Flying; this was their last film with Arthur Lubin. All of these films were big hits, Abbott and Costello were voted the third biggest box office attraction in the country in 1941.
Universal loaned the team to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer for Rio Rita. During filming, on December 8, 1941, a day after the attack on Pearl Harbor and Costello had their hand and foot prints set in concrete at what was "Grauman's Chinese Theatre". Back at Universal they made a spoof of South Sea Island movies. In 1942 exhibitors voted them the top box office stars in the country, their earnings for the fiscal year were $789,026.) The team did a 35-day tour during the summer of 1942 to sell War Bonds. The Treasury Department credited them with $85 million in sales. After the tour the team made It Ain't Hay, from a story by Damon Runyon. Costello was stricken with rheumatic fever upon his return from a winter tour of army bases in March 1943 and was bedridden for six months. On November 4, 1943, the same day that Costel
Alton Glenn Miller was an American big-band trombonist, arranger and bandleader in the swing era. He was the best-selling recording artist from leading one of the best-known big bands. Miller's recordings include "In the Mood", "Moonlight Serenade", "Pennsylvania 6-5000", "Chattanooga Choo Choo", "A String of Pearls", "At Last", " Kalamazoo", "American Patrol", "Tuxedo Junction", "Elmer's Tune", "Little Brown Jug". In just four years Glenn Miller scored 16 number-one records and 69 top ten hits—more than Elvis Presley and the Beatles did in their careers. While he was traveling to entertain U. S. troops in France during World War II, Miller's aircraft disappeared in bad weather over the English Channel. The son of Mattie Lou and Lewis Elmer Miller, Glenn Miller was born in Iowa, he attended grade school in North Platte in western Nebraska. In 1915, his family moved to Missouri. Around this time, he had made enough money from milking cows to buy his first trombone and played in the town orchestra.
He played cornet and mandolin, but he switched to trombone by 1916. In 1918 the Miller family moved again, this time to Fort Morgan, where he went to high school. In the fall of 1919 he joined the high-school football team, which won the Northern Colorado American Football Conference in 1920, he was named Best Left End in Colorado. During his senior year he became interested in "dance band music", he was so taken. By the time he graduated from high school in 1921 he had decided to become a professional musician. In 1923 Miller entered the University of Colorado in Boulder, he spent most of his time away from school, attending auditions and playing any gigs he could get, including with Boyd Senter's band in Denver. After failing three out of five classes, he dropped out of school to pursue a career in music, he studied the Schillinger System with Joseph Schillinger, under whose tutelage he composed what became his signature theme, "Moonlight Serenade". In 1926 Miller toured with several groups, landing a good spot in Ben Pollack's group in Los Angeles.
He played for Victor Young, which allowed him to be mentored by other professional musicians. In the beginning he was the main trombone soloist of the band, but when Jack Teagarden joined Pollack's band in 1928, Miller found that his solos were cut drastically. He realized that his future was in composing, he had a songbook published in Chicago in 1928 entitled Glenn Miller's 125 Jazz Breaks for Trombone by the Melrose Brothers. During his time with Pollack, he wrote several arrangements, he wrote his first composition, "Room 1411", with Benny Goodman, Brunswick Records released it as a 78 under the name "Benny Goodman's Boys". In 1928, when the band arrived in New York City, he sent for and married his college sweetheart, Helen Burger, he was a member of Red Nichols's orchestra in 1930, because of Nichols, he played in the pit bands of two Broadway shows, Strike Up the Band and Girl Crazy. The band included Gene Krupa. During the late 1920s and early 1930s Miller worked as a freelance trombonist in several bands.
On a March 21, 1928 Victor Records session he played alongside Tommy Dorsey, Benny Goodman, Joe Venuti in the All-Star Orchestra directed by Nat Shilkret. He arranged and played trombone on several significant Dorsey Brothers sessions for OKeh Records, including "The Spell of the Blues", "Let's Do It", "My Kinda Love", all with Bing Crosby on vocals. On November 14, 1929, vocalist Red McKenzie hired Miller to play on two records: "Hello, Lola" and "If I Could Be With You One Hour Tonight". Beside Miller were saxophonist Coleman Hawkins, clarinetist Pee Wee Russell, guitarist Eddie Condon, drummer Gene Krupa. In the early-to-mid-1930s, Miller worked as a trombonist and composer for The Dorsey Brothers, first when they were a Brunswick studio group and when they formed an ill-fated orchestra. Miller composed the songs "Annie's Cousin Fanny", "Dese Dem Dose", "Harlem Chapel Chimes", "Tomorrow's Another Day" for the Dorsey Brothers Band in 1934 and 1935. In 1935, he assembled an American orchestra for British bandleader Ray Noble, developing the arrangement of lead clarinet over four saxophones that became a characteristic of his big band.
Members of the Noble band included Claude Thornhill, Bud Freeman, Charlie Spivak. Miller made his first movie appearance in The Big Broadcast of 1936 as a member of the Ray Noble Orchestra performing "Why Stars Come Out at Night"; the film included performances by Dorothy Dandridge and the Nicholas Brothers, who would appear with Miller again in two movies for Twentieth Century Fox in 1941 and 1942. In 1937, Miller formed his first band. After failing to distinguish itself from the many bands of the time, it broke up after its last show at the Ritz Ballroom in Bridgeport, Connecticut on January 2, 1938. Benny Goodman said in 1976: In late 1937, before his band became popular, we were both playing in Dallas. Glenn came to see me, he asked, "What do you do? How do you make it?" I said, "Glenn. You just stay with it." Discouraged, Miller returned to New York. He realized that he needed to develop a unique sound, decided to make the clarinet play a melodic line with a tenor saxophone holding the same note, while three other saxophones harmonized within a single octave.
George T. Simon discovered. Miller hired Schwartz, but instead had him play lead clarinet. According to Simon, "Willie's tone and way of playing provided a fullness and richness so distinctive that none of the
Battle Creek, Michigan
Battle Creek is a city in the U. S. state of Michigan, in northwest Calhoun County, at the confluence of the Kalamazoo and Battle Creek rivers. It is the principal city of the Battle Creek, Michigan Metropolitan Statistical Area, which encompasses all of Calhoun County; as of the 2010 census, the city had a total population of 52,347, while the MSA's population was 136,146. In about 1774, the Potawatomi and the Ottawa Native American tribes formed a joint village near the future Battle Creek, Michigan. Battle Creek was named for a minor encounter on March 14, 1824, between a federal government land survey party led by Colonel John Mullett and two Potawatomi Indians, who had approached the survey camp asking for food, they were hungry because the Army was late in delivering the supplies promised them by the treaty of 1820. After a protracted discussion, the Native Americans tried to steal food. One of the surveyors grabbed his rifle and shot one of the Potawatomies wounding him. Following the encounter, the surveyors retreated to Detroit.
Surveyors would not return to the area until June 1825, after Governor Lewis Cass had settled the issues with the Native Americans. Early white settlers called the nearby stream the Battle Creek River, the town took its name from that. Native Americans had called the river Waupakisco. By this account, the name Waupakisco or Waupokisco was a reference to an earlier battle fought between Native American tribes before the arrival of white settlers. However, Virgil J. Vogel establishes that this native term had "nothing to do with blood or battle". Following removal of the Potawatomi to a reservation, the first permanent white settlements in Battle Creek Township began about 1831. Migration had increased to Michigan from New York and New England following the completion of the Erie Canal in New York in 1824. Most settlers chose to locate on the Goguac prairie, fertile and cultivated. A post office was opened in Battle Creek in 1832 under Postmaster Pollodore Hudson; the first school was taught in a small log house about 1833 or 1834.
Asa Langley built the first sawmill in 1837. A brick manufacturing plant, called the oldest enterprise in the township, was established in 1840 by Simon Carr, operated until 1903; the township was established by act of the legislature in 1839. In the antebellum era, the city was a major stop on the Underground Railroad, used by fugitive slaves to escape to freedom in Michigan and Canada, it was the chosen home of noted abolitionist Sojourner Truth after her escape from slavery. Battle Creek figured prominently in the early history of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, it was the site of a Protestant church founding convention in 1863. The denomination's first hospital and publishing office would constructed in the city; when the hospital and publishing office burned down in 1902, the church elected to decentralize, most of its institutions were relocated. The first Adventist church is still in operation. World Heavyweight Champion Jack Johnson was once arrested here for marrying his White wife and transporting her across state lines.
The city was noted for its focus on health reform during the late early 1900s. The Battle Creek Sanitarium was founded by Dr. John Harvey Kellogg. In addition to some of his sometimes bizarre treatments that were featured in the movie The Road to Wellville, Kellogg funded organizations that promoted eugenics theories at the core of their philosophical agenda; the Better Race Institute was one of these organizations. He supported the "separate but equal" philosophy and invited Booker T. Washington to speak at the Battle Creek Sanitarium in order to raise money. Washington was the author of the speech "The Atlanta Compromise", which solidified his position of being an accommodationist while providing a mechanism for southern Whites, to fund his school. W. K. Kellogg had worked for his brother in a variety of capacities at the B. C. Sanitarium. Tired of living in his brother's shadow, he struck out on his own, going to the boom-towns surrounding the oilfields in Oklahoma as a broom salesman. Having failed, he returned to work as an assistant to his brother.
While working at the sanitariums' laboratory, W. K. spilled liquefied corn meal on a heating device that cooked the product and rendered it to flakes. He added milk to them, he was able to get his brother to allow him to give some of the product to some of the patients at the sanitarium, the patients' demand for the product exceeded his expectations to the point that W. K made the decision to leave the sanitarium. Along with some investors, he built a factory to satisfy the demand for his "corn flakes"; as W. K. Kellogg's wealth began to exceed his brother's, he funded some of his projects that were at the sanitarium. One of these was a eugenics-based organization. During this time, John Harvey Kellogg became a Freemason. One of the tenets of the fraternity is that "Masonry recognizes the internal character of a man, not the external". John Harvey Kellogg stopped funding his brother's projects and established equal pay policies in his company, he led desegregation efforts by allowing black children to swim in his home pool.
He funded many school and philanthropic projects throughout the city, founded Andrews University in Berrien Springs, Michigan. It was during this time of going their separate ways for good that Dr. John Harvey Kellogg sued his brother for copyright infringement; the U. S. Supreme court ruled in W. K. Kellogg's favor. Inspired by Kellogg's innovation, C. W. Post invented Grape-Nuts and founded his own cereal company in the town. Battle Creek has been nick
The Marx Brothers were an American family comedy act, successful in vaudeville, on Broadway, in motion pictures from 1905 to 1949. Five of the Marx Brothers' thirteen feature films were selected by the American Film Institute as among the top 100 comedy films, with two of them in the top twelve, they are considered by critics and fans to be among the greatest and most influential comedians of the 20th century. The brothers were included in AFI's 100 Years... 100 Stars list of the 25 greatest male stars of Classical Hollywood cinema, the only performers to be inducted collectively. The group is universally known today by their stage names: Chico, Groucho and Zeppo. There was the first born, named Manfred, who died aged seven months; the core of the act was the three elder brothers: Chico and Groucho, each of whom developed a distinctive stage persona. After the group disbanded in 1950, Groucho went on to begin a successful second career in television, while Harpo and Chico appeared less prominently.
The two younger brothers and Zeppo, never developed their stage characters to the same extent as the elder three. They each left the act to pursue business careers at which they were successful, for a time ran a large theatrical agency through which they represented their brothers and others. Gummo was not in any of the movies; the early performing lives of the brothers owed much to their mother Minnie Marx, who acted as their manager until her death in 1929. The Marx Brothers were born in the sons of Jewish immigrants from Germany and France, their mother Miene "Minnie" Schoenberg was from Dornum in East Frisia, their father Samuel Marx was a native of Alsace and worked as a tailor. The family lived in the poor Yorkville section of New York City's Upper East Side, centered in the Irish and Italian quarters; the brothers are best known by their stage names: Another brother, the first-born son of Sam and Minnie, was born in 1886 and died in infancy: Family lore told of the firstborn son, born in 1886 but surviving for only three months, carried off by tuberculosis.
Some members of the Marx family wondered if he was pure myth. But Manfred can be verified. A death certificate of the Borough of Manhattan reveals that he died, aged seven months, on 17 July 1886, of enterocolitis, with "asthenia" contributing, i.e. a victim of influenza. He is buried at New York's Washington Cemetery, beside his grandmother, Fanny Sophie Schönberg, who died on 10 April 1901; the Marx Brothers had an older sister a cousin, born in January 1885, adopted by Minnie and Frenchie. Her name was Pauline, or "Polly". Groucho talked about her in his 1972 Carnegie Hall concert. Minnie Marx came from a family of performers, her mother was her father a ventriloquist. Around 1880, the family emigrated to New York City, where Minnie married Sam in 1884. During the early 20th century, Minnie helped her younger brother Abraham Elieser Adolf Schönberg to enter show business. Minnie acted as the brothers' manager, using the name Minnie Palmer so that agents did not realize that she was their mother.
All the brothers confirmed that Minnie Marx had been the head of the family and the driving force in getting the troupe launched, the only person who could keep them in order. Gummo and Zeppo both became successful businessmen: Gummo gained success through his agency activities and a raincoat business, Zeppo became a multi-millionaire through his engineering business; the brothers were from a family of artists, their musical talent was encouraged from an early age. Harpo was talented, learning to play an estimated six different instruments throughout his career, he became a dedicated harpist. Chico was an excellent pianist, Groucho a guitarist and singer, Zeppo a vocalist, they got their start in vaudeville, where their uncle Albert Schönberg performed as Al Shean of Gallagher and Shean. Groucho's debut was in 1905 as a singer. By 1907, he and Gummo were singing together as "The Three Nightingales" with Mabel O'Donnell; the next year, Harpo became the fourth Nightingale and by 1910, the group expanded to include their mother Minnie and their Aunt Hannah.
The troupe was renamed "The Six Mascots". One evening in 1912, a performance at the Opera House in Nacogdoches, was interrupted by shouts from outside about a runaway mule; the audience hurried out to see what was happening. Groucho was angered by the interruption and, when the audience returned, he made snide comments at their expense, including "Nacogdoches is full of roaches" and "the jackass is the flower of Tex-ass". Instead of becoming angry, the audience laughed; the family realized that it had potential as a comic troupe. (However, in his autobiography Harpo Speaks, Harpo Marx stated that the runaway mule incident occurred in Ada, Oklahoma. A 1930 article in the San Antonio Express newspaper stated that the incide
An actor is a person who portrays a character in a performance. The actor performs "in the flesh" in the traditional medium of the theatre or in modern media such as film and television; the analogous Greek term is ὑποκριτής "one who answers". The actor's interpretation of their role—the art of acting—pertains to the role played, whether based on a real person or fictional character. Interpretation occurs when the actor is "playing themselves", as in some forms of experimental performance art. In ancient Greece and Rome, the medieval world, the time of William Shakespeare, only men could become actors, women's roles were played by men or boys. After the English Restoration of 1660, women began to appear on stage in England. In modern times in pantomime and some operas, women play the roles of boys or young men. After 1660 in England, when women first started to appear on stage, the terms actor or actress were used interchangeably for female performers, but influenced by the French actrice, actress became the used term for women in theater and film.
The etymology is a simple derivation from actor with -ess added. When referring to groups of performers of both sexes, actors is preferred. Actor is used before the full name of a performer as a gender-specific term. Within the profession, the re-adoption of the neutral term dates to the post-war period of the 1950 and'60s, when the contributions of women to cultural life in general were being reviewed; when The Observer and The Guardian published their new joint style guide in 2010, it stated "Use for both male and female actors. The guide's authors stated that "actress comes into the same category as authoress, manageress,'lady doctor','male nurse' and similar obsolete terms that date from a time when professions were the preserve of one sex.". "As Whoopi Goldberg put it in an interview with the paper:'An actress can only play a woman. I'm an actor – I can play anything.'" The UK performers' union Equity has no policy on the use of "actor" or "actress". An Equity spokesperson said that the union does not believe that there is a consensus on the matter and stated that the "...subject divides the profession".
In 2009, the Los Angeles Times stated that "Actress" remains the common term used in major acting awards given to female recipients. With regard to the cinema of the United States, the gender-neutral term "player" was common in film in the silent film era and the early days of the Motion Picture Production Code, but in the 2000s in a film context, it is deemed archaic. However, "player" remains in use in the theatre incorporated into the name of a theatre group or company, such as the American Players, the East West Players, etc. Actors in improvisational theatre may be referred to as "players". In 2015, Forbes reported that "...just 21 of the 100 top-grossing films of 2014 featured a female lead or co-lead, while only 28.1% of characters in 100 top-grossing films were female...". "In the U. S. there is an "industry-wide in salaries of all scales. On average, white women get paid 78 cents to every dollar a white man makes, while Hispanic women earn 56 cents to a white male's dollar, Black women 64 cents and Native American women just 59 cents to that."
Forbes' analysis of US acting salaries in 2013 determined that the "...men on Forbes' list of top-paid actors for that year made 21/2 times as much money as the top-paid actresses. That means that Hollywood's best-compensated actresses made just 40 cents for every dollar that the best-compensated men made." The first recorded case of a performing actor occurred in 534 BC when the Greek performer Thespis stepped onto the stage at the Theatre Dionysus to become the first known person to speak words as a character in a play or story. Prior to Thespis' act, Grecian stories were only expressed in song, in third person narrative. In honor of Thespis, actors are called Thespians; the male actors in the theatre of ancient Greece performed in three types of drama: tragedy and the satyr play. Western theatre developed and expanded under the Romans; the theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, acrobatics, to the staging of situation comedies, to high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies.
As the Western Roman Empire fell into decay through the 4th and 5th centuries, the seat of Roman power shifted to Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire. Records show that mime, scenes or recitations from tragedies and comedies and other entertainments were popular. From the 5th century, Western Europe was plunged into a period of general disorder. Small nomadic bands of actors traveled around Europe throughout the period, performing wherever they could find an audience. Traditionally, actors were not of high status. Early Middle Ages actors were denounced by the Church during the Dark Ages, as they were viewed as dangerous and pagan. In many parts of Europe, traditional beliefs of the region and time period meant actors could not receive a Christian burial. In the Early Middle Ages, churches in Europe began staging dramatized versions of biblical events. By the middle of the 11th century, liturgical drama had spread from Russia to Scandinavia
Gordon Lee "Tex" Beneke was an American saxophonist and bandleader. His career is a history of associations with bandleader Glenn Miller and former musicians and singers who worked with Miller, his band is associated with the careers of Eydie Gormé, Henry Mancini and Ronnie Deauville. Beneke solos on the recording the Glenn Miller Orchestra made of their popular song "In The Mood" and sings on another popular Glenn Miller recording, "Chattanooga Choo Choo". Jazz critic Will Friedwald considers Beneke to be one of the major blues singers who sang with the big bands of the early 1940s. Beneke was born in Texas, he started playing saxophone when he was nine, going from soprano to alto to tenor saxophones and staying with the latter. His first professional work was with bandleader Ben Young in 1935, but it was when he joined the Glenn Miller Orchestra three years that his career hit its stride. Beneke said: "It seems that Gene Krupa was forming his own first band, he was flying all over the country looking for new talent and he stopped at our ballroom one night.
Gene wound up taking three of our boys with him back to New York. Wanted to take but his sax section was filled." Krupa recommended Beneke to Miller. Whatever concerns Miller might have had about Beneke's playing were dismissed. On the August 1, 1939, recording made of the Joe Garland composition "In The Mood", Beneke trades two-measure tenor solo exchanges with his fellow section-mate Al Klink. Miller's 1941 recording of "A String of Pearls" has Beneke and Klink trading two-measure tenor solo phrases. Beneke appears with Miller and his band in the films Sun Valley Serenade and Orchestra Wives, both of which helped propel the singer/saxophonist to the top of the Metronome polls. Tex Beneke is listed in the personnel of the 1941 Metronome All-Star Band led by Benny Goodman. In 1942, Glenn Miller's orchestra won the first Gold Record awarded for "Chattanooga Choo Choo". " Tex Beneke was the featured singer in the movie and on the Victor/Bluebird recording that featured band vocalist Paula Kelly and the Modernaires, a vocal group of four male singers, who were regular members of the Miller entourage.
"Chattanooga Choo Choo", catalogue number Bluebird 11230-B, was recorded by the Miller band at the Victor recording studios in Hollywood, May 7, 1941. Hoping to repeat the success of "Chattanooga" the following year, songwriters Warren and Gordon composed "I've Got a Gal in Kalamazoo" for the "Orchestra Wives" score; that arrangement featured Beneke, the Modernaires and band vocalist Marion Hutton in a not-too-dissimilar fashion. Not "Kalamazoo" became another hit record for Miller and the band though not to the extent that "Chattanooga" had been the year before. By the U. S. was involved in World War II and "Kalamazoo's" success was short-lived because Miller disbanded his group only three months after the record was made and four months following the filming of "Orchestra Wives". When Miller broke up the band in August 1942 to join the Army Air Force, Beneke played briefly with Horace Heidt before joining the Navy himself, leading a Navy band in Oklahoma. While employed with Miller, Beneke was offered his own band, as Miller had done with colleagues and employees like Hal McIntyre, Claude Thornhill and Charlie Spivak.
Beneke wanted to come back to Miller after the war and learn more about leading a band before being given his own band. Beneke led two bands in the navy and kept in touch with Glenn Miller while they were both serving in the military. By 1945, Beneke felt ready to lead his own orchestra. Glenn Miller went missing on December 1944, while flying to France from England. After World War Two, the United States Army Air Force decommissioned the Glenn Miller-led Army Air Force band; the Miller estate authorized an official Glenn Miller "ghost band" in 1946. This band was led by Tex Beneke, it had a make up similar to Glenn Miller's Army Air Force Band. The orchestra's official public début was at the Capitol Theatre on Broadway where it opened for a three-week engagement on January 24, 1946. Henry Mancini was one of the arrangers. Another arranger was Norman Leyden, who previously arranged for the Glenn Miller Army Air Force Band; this ghost band played to large audiences all across the United States, including a few dates at the Hollywood Palladium in 1947, where the original Miller band played in 1941.
The movie short Tex Beneke and the Glenn Miller Band was released by RKO pictures in 1947 with Lillian Lane, Artie Malvin and The Crew Chiefs vocal group performing. In a sarcastic article in Time magazine from June 2, 1947, the magazine notes that the Beneke-led Miller orchestra was playing at the same venue the original Miller band played in 1939, the Glen Island Casino. Beneke's quote about the big band business at the time closes the article, "I don't know whether Glenn figured that times would be as tough". By 1949, economics dictated; this band recorded for RCA Victor, just as
The Modernaires is an American vocal group, best known for performing in the 1940s alongside Glenn Miller. The Modernaires began in 1934 as "Don Juan and Three," a trio of schoolmates from Lafayette High School in Buffalo, New York; the members were Hal Dickinson, Chuck Goldstein, Bill Conway.:50After singing on radio station WGR in Buffalo, New York, for "the enormous sum of $10 a month", the trio went to New York City and gained an engagement of 26 weeks on CBS network radio.:50The group's first engagement was at Buffalo's suburban Glen Falls Casino, with the Ted Fio Rito Orchestra. Fio Rito used them on electrical transcription recordings, they joined the Ozzie Nelson Band, became known as "The Three Wizards of Ozzie." They next recruited Ralph Brewster to make a quartet and, performing with the Fred Waring Orchestra, became The Modern-Aires. Recordings with Charlie Barnet's orchestra in 1936 did not interest the public but brought them greater industry exposure, in 1937 they joined the George Hall band, soon moving on to the Paul Whiteman radio show.
They recorded many of the classic songs of that era, a few with Jack Teagarden, as part of the Whiteman orchestra in 1938. In October 1940, Glenn Miller engaged them to record It's Make Believe Ballroom Time, a sequel to the original Make Believe Ballroom, which they had recorded earlier for Martin Block's big band show of the same name, on WNEW New York. In January 1941, Miller made The Modernaires an important part of one of the most popular big bands of all time. Paula Kelly was added to the Miller band between March–August 1941; the group had ten chart hits in 1941 after appearing with Miller's orchestra in the movie Sun Valley Serenade. The group became a quintet when Kelly became a permanent member of the group after Miller joined the U. S. Army, for the next few decades they toured internationally with the Glenn Miller Orchestra. Johnny Drake replaced Chuck Goldstein, Fran Scott replaced Bill Conway. Songs made popular by Miller and The Modernaires included "Perfidia," "Chattanooga Choo-Choo," with Tex Beneke, "I Know Why," "Elmer's Tune," "Serenade In Blue," "Connecticut," and "Kalamazoo" with Beneke, among others.
In 1945, "There! I've Said; the group was featured in television programming produced by Philco in 1947, using what was an early version of lip synching. An article in Variety magazine's September 10, 1947, issue reported that David Street and The Modernaires guest starred on the Philco program, "simulating singing to off-screen recordings."After Miller's disappearance, The Modernaires recorded vocal versions of several of Miller's instrumental hits, including "Moonlight Serenade", "Sunrise Serenade", "Little Brown Jug", "Tuxedo Junction", "Pennsylvania 6-5000", "A String of Pearls". The Modernaires released a 45rpm single on Coral Records, 9-61110, A Salute to Glenn Miller, which included medleys in two parts from the movie soundtrack, A Salute to Glenn Miller, Parts 1 and 2: Kalamazoo/Moonlight Cocktail/Elmer's Tune/Moonlight Serenade/Chattanooga Choo-Choo/String Of Pearls/Serenade In Blue/At Last/Perfidia, that reached number 29 on the Billboard charts in 1954. In the late 1950s they were featured vocalists with the Bob Crosby Orchestra on his daily TV show.
In the 60s they recorded the theme song for the TV sitcom Hazel. Their style and blend influenced artists such as The Four Freshmen, who in turn were models for the Beach Boys, whom the Beatles cited as a strong influence on their work. Thus, The Modernaires have affected generations of popular music, from swing to roll; the Modernaires were inducted into The Vocal Group Hall of Fame in 1999. Dickinson died in 1970 at the age of 56, Goldstein died in 1974, Conway died in 1991 at the age of 77, Kelly died in 1992 at the age of 72, Kelly Jr. died in 2012 at the age of 67. The Modernaires Official Site'The Modernaires' Vocal Group Hall of Fame Page Page on The Modernaires https://web.archive.org/web/20060221235109/http://www.parabrisas.com/d_modernaires.php