Florida is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States; the Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital. Florida's $1.0 trillion economy is the fourth largest in the United States. If it were a country, Florida would be the 16th largest economy in the world, the 58th most populous as of 2018. In 2017, Florida's per capita personal income was ranking 26th in the nation; the unemployment rate in September 2018 was 3.5% and ranked as the 18th in the United States. Florida exports nearly $55 billion in goods made in the 8th highest among all states.
The Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. This is more than twice the number of the next metro area, the Tampa Bay Area, which has a GDP of $145.3 billion. Florida is home to 51 of the world's billionaires with most of them residing in South Florida; the first European contact was made in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, who called it la Florida upon landing there in the Easter season, known in Spanish as Pascua Florida. Florida was a challenge for the European colonial powers before it gained statehood in the United States in 1845, it was a principal location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans, racial segregation after the American Civil War. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, as well as for its increasing environmental issues; the state's economy relies on tourism and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century.
Florida is renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, winter vegetables, the Kennedy Space Center, as a popular destination for retirees. Florida is the flattest state in the United States. Lake Okeechobee is the largest freshwater lake in the U. S. state of Florida. Florida's close proximity to the ocean influences many aspects of daily life. Florida is a reflection of multiple inheritance. Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, continues to attract celebrities and athletes, it is internationally known for golf, auto racing, water sports. Several beaches in Florida have emerald-colored coastal waters. About two-thirds of Florida occupies a peninsula between the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Florida has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States 1,350 miles, not including the contribution of the many barrier islands. Florida has a total of 4,510 islands; this is the second-highest number of islands of any state of the United States.
It is the only state that borders both the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Much of the state is characterized by sedimentary soil. Florida has the lowest high point of any U. S. state. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south; the American alligator, American crocodile, American flamingo, Roseate spoonbill, Florida panther, bottlenose dolphin, manatee can be found in Everglades National Park in the southern part of the state. Along with Hawaii, Florida is one of only two states that has a tropical climate, is the only continental state with either a tropical climate or a coral reef; the Florida Reef is the only living coral barrier reef in the continental United States, the third-largest coral barrier reef system in the world. By the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee of the Florida Panhandle, the Timucua of northern and central Florida, the Ais of the central Atlantic coast, the Tocobaga of the Tampa Bay area, the Calusa of southwest Florida and the Tequesta of the southeastern coast.
Florida was the first region of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans. The earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2, 1513, he named the region Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is mythical and only appeared long after his death. In May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land, he described seeing a thick wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet, with intertwined and elevated roots making landing difficult. The Spanish introduced Christianity, horses, the Castilian language, more to Florida. Spain established several settlements with varying degrees of success. In 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561.
In 1565, the settlement of St. Augustine was established under the leadership of admiral and
7 (New York City Subway service)
The 7 Flushing Local and <7> Flushing Express are two rapid transit services in the A Division of the New York City Subway, providing local and express services along the full length of the IRT Flushing Line. Their route emblems, or "bullets", are colored purple. Local service is denoted by a in a circular bullet, express service is denoted by a <7> in a diamond-shaped bullet. Several cars feature LED signs around the service logo to indicate local or express service to riders. 7 trains operate at all times between Main Street in Flushing, Queens and 34th Street–Hudson Yards in Chelsea, Manhattan. Local service operates at all times, while express service runs only during rush hours and early evenings in the peak direction and during special events; the 7 route started running in 1915. Since 1927, the 7 has held the same route, except for a one-stop western extension from Times Square to Hudson Yards in 2015. On June 13, 1915, the first test train on the IRT Flushing Line ran between Grand Central and Vernon Boulevard–Jackson Avenue, followed by the start of revenue service on June 22.
The Flushing Line was extended one stop from Vernon–Jackson Avenues to Hunters Point Avenue on February 15, 1916. On November 5, 1916, the Flushing Line was extended two more stops to the east to the Queensboro Plaza station; the line was opened from Queensboro Plaza to Alburtis Avenue on April 21, 1917. Service to 111th Street was inaugurated on October 13, 1925, with shuttle service running between 111th Street and the previous terminal at Alburtis Avenue on the Manhattan-bound track; the line was extended to Willets Point Boulevard on May 7, 1927, with service provided by shuttle trains until through service was inaugurated on May 14. On March 22, 1926, the line was extended one stop westward from Grand Central to Fifth Avenue; the line was extended to Times Square on March 14, 1927. The eastern extension to Flushing–Main Street opened on January 21, 1928; the service on the Flushing Line east of Queensboro Plaza was shared by the Interborough Rapid Transit Company and the Brooklyn–Manhattan Transit Corporation from 1912 to 1949.
The 7 designation was assigned to trains since the introduction of the front rollsigns on the R12 in 1948. Express trains began running on April 1939 to serve the 1939 New York World's Fair; the first train left Main Street at 6:30 a.m.. IRT expresses ran every nine minutes between Main Street and Times Square while BMT expresses ran every minutes between Main Street and Queensboro Plaza; the running time between Main Street and Queensboro Plaza was 15 minutes and the running time between Main Street and Times Square was 27 minutes. Express service to Manhattan operated in the AM rush between 6:30 and 10:$3 a.m.. Express service to Main Street began from Times Square for the IRT at 10:50 a.m. and the BMT from Queensboro Plaza at 11:09, continuing until 8 p.m.. On October 17, 1949, the joint BMT/IRT operation of the Flushing Line ended, the Flushing Line became the responsibility of the IRT. After the end of BMT/IRT dual service, the New York City Board of Transportation announced that the Flushing Line platforms would be lengthened to 11 IRT car lengths, the Astoria Line platforms extended to 10 BMT car lengths.
The project, to start in 1950, would cost $3.85 million. The platforms were only able to fit nine 51-foot-long IRT cars, or seven 60-foot-long BMT cars beforehand. On March 12, 1953, two nine-car super express trains began operating from Flushing–Main Street to Times Square in the AM rush hour; the super expresses stopped at Main Street, Willets Point before skipping all stops to Queensboro Plaza, bypassing the Woodside and Junction Boulevard express stops. The running time was cut down to 23 minutes from 25 minutes. Beginning August 12, 1955, four super expresses operated during the AM rush hour. On September 10, 1953, two express trains from Times Square were converted to super express trains in the PM rush hour. Super express service was discontinued in the AM rush and PM rush, on January 13, December 14, 1956, respectively. Holiday and Saturday express service was discontinued on March 20, 1954. At some point afterwards, weekday midday express service was discontinued, but was restored on November 29, 1971, before being discontinued again by August 29, 1975.
On November 1, 1962, fifty R17s were transferred from the Mainline IRT to the 7, allowing for ten-car operation. This was the first time. With the 1964–1965 World's Fair in Flushing Meadows–Corona Park in April 1964, trains were lengthened to eleven cars; the Flushing Line received 430 new R33 and R36 "World's Fair" cars for this enhanced service. From May 13, 1985, to August 21, 1989, the IRT Flushing Line was overhauled for improvements, including the installation of new track, repair of station structures and to improve line infrastructure; the project cost $70 million. Temporary platforms were built at local stations along the line when track work was being performed on local track in station areas to provide access to trains; the major element was the replacement of rails on the Queens Boulevard viaduct. This was necessitated because the subway was allowed to deteriorate during the 1970s and 1980s to the point that there were widespread "Code Red" defects on the Flushing Line, there were some pillars holding elevated structures that were so shaky that trains wouldn't run if the wind exceeded 65 mph.
< 7 > express.
Dawson City the Town of the City of Dawson, is a town in the Canadian territory of Yukon. It is inseparably linked to the Klondike Gold Rush, its population was 1,375 as of the 2016 census. Making it the second largest town of Yukon. In prehistoric times the area was used for agriculture by the Hän-speaking people of the Tr’ondëk Hwëch’in and their forebears; the heart of their homeland was Tr'ochëk, a fishing camp at the confluence of the Klondike River and Yukon River, now a National Historic Site of Canada, just across the Klondike River from modern Dawson City. This site was an important summer gathering spot and a base for moose-hunting on the Klondike Valley; the current settlement was founded by Joseph Ladue and named in January 1897 after noted Canadian geologist George M. Dawson, who had explored and mapped the region in 1887, it served as Yukon's capital from the territory's founding in 1898 until 1952, when the seat was moved to Whitehorse. Dawson City was the centre of the Klondike Gold Rush.
It began in 1896 and changed the First Nations camp into a thriving city of 40,000 by 1898. By 1899, the gold rush had ended and the town's population plummeted as all but 8,000 people left; when Dawson was incorporated as a city in 1902, the population was under 5,000. St. Paul's Anglican Church built; the population dropped after World War II when the Alaska Highway bypassed it 300 miles to the south. The economic damage to Dawson City was such that Whitehorse, the highway's hub, replaced it as territorial capital in 1953. Dawson City's population languished around the 600–900 mark through the 1960s and 1970s, but has risen and held stable since then; the high price of gold has made modern placer mining operations profitable, the growth of the tourism industry has encouraged development of facilities. In the early 1950s, Dawson was linked by road to Alaska, in fall 1955, with Whitehorse along a road that now forms part of the Klondike Highway. In 1978, another kind of buried treasure was discovered when a construction excavation inadvertently uncovered a forgotten collection of more than 500 discarded films on flammable nitrate film stock from the early 20th century that were buried in the permafrost.
These silent-era film reels, dating from "between 1903 and 1929, were uncovered in the rubble beneath old hockey rink". Owing to its dangerous chemical volatility, the historical find was moved by military transport to Library and Archives Canada and the U. S. Library of Congress for both transfer to safety film and storage. A documentary about the find, Dawson City: Frozen Time was released in 2016; the City of Dawson and the nearby ghost town of Forty Mile are featured prominently in the novels and short stories of American author Jack London, including The Call of the Wild. London lived in the Dawson area from October 1897 to June 1898. Other writers who lived in and wrote of Dawson City include Pierre Berton and the poet Robert Service; the childhood home of the former is now used as a retreat for professional writers administered by the Writers' Trust of Canada. Dawson City lies on the Tintina Fault; this fault continues eastward for several hundred kilometres. Erosional remnants of lava flows form outcrops north and west of Dawson City.
Like most of Yukon, Dawson City has a subarctic climate. The average temperature in July is 15.7 °C and in January is −26.0 °C. The highest temperature recorded is 35.0 °C on 9 July 1899 and 18 June 1950. The lowest temperature recorded is −58.3 °C on 3 February 1947. It experiences a wide range of temperatures surpassing 30 °C in most summers and dropping below −40 °C in winter; the community is at an elevation of 320 m and the average rainfall in July is 49.0 mm and the average snowfall in January is 27.6 cm. Dawson has averages 70 frost free days per year; the town is built on a layer of frozen earth, which may pose a threat to the town's infrastructure in the future if the permafrost melts. Dawson was incorporated as a city in 1902 when it met the criteria for "city" status under the municipal act of that time, it retained the incorporation as the population plummeted. When a new municipal act was adopted in the 1980s, Dawson met the criteria of "town", was incorporated as such although with a special provision to allow it to continue to use the word "City" for historical reasons and to distinguish it from Dawson Creek, a small city in northeastern British Columbia.
Dawson Creek is named in honour of George M. Dawson; this led the territorial government to post the following signs at the boundaries of the town: "Welcome to the Town of the City of Dawson". In 2004, the Yukon government removed the mayor and the town council, as a result of the town going bankrupt; the territorial government accepted a large portion of the responsibility for this situation in March 2006, writing off $3.43 million of the debt and leaving the town with $1.5 million still to pay off. Elections were set for June 15, 2006. John Steins, a local artist and one of the leaders of the movement to restore democracy to Dawson, was acclaimed as mayor, while 13 residents ran for the four council seats. Steins was succeeded in office by former mayor Peter Jenkins, who in turn was succeeded by the current mayor, Wayne Potoroka. Other past mayors of Dawson City have included Art Webster, Colin Mayes, Yolanda Burkhard, Mike Comadain and Vi Campbell. In the Legislative Assembly of Yukon, Dawson City is in the electoral district of Klondike represented by Sandy Silver of the Yukon Liberal Party.
The government of Tr’ond
The Panama Canal is an artificial 82 km waterway in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean. The canal is a conduit for maritime trade. Canal locks are at each end to lift ships up to Gatun Lake, an artificial lake created to reduce the amount of excavation work required for the canal, 26 m above sea level, lower the ships at the other end; the original locks are 34 m wide. A third, wider lane of locks was constructed between September 2007 and May 2016; the expanded canal began commercial operation on June 26, 2016. The new locks allow transit of larger, post-Panamax ships, capable of handling more cargo. France began work on the canal in 1881, but stopped due to engineering problems and a high worker mortality rate; the United States took over the project in 1904 and opened the canal on August 15, 1914. One of the largest and most difficult engineering projects undertaken, the Panama Canal shortcut reduced the time for ships to travel between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, enabling them to avoid the lengthy, hazardous Cape Horn route around the southernmost tip of South America via the Drake Passage or Strait of Magellan.
Colombia and the United States controlled the territory surrounding the canal during construction. The US continued to control the canal and surrounding Panama Canal Zone until the 1977 Torrijos–Carter Treaties provided for handover to Panama. After a period of joint American–Panamanian control, in 1999, the canal was taken over by the Panamanian government, it is now operated by the government-owned Panama Canal Authority. Annual traffic has risen from about 1,000 ships in 1914, when the canal opened, to 14,702 vessels in 2008, for a total of 333.7 million Panama Canal/Universal Measurement System tons. By 2012, more than 815,000 vessels had passed through the canal, it takes 11.38 hours to pass through the Panama Canal. The American Society of Civil Engineers has ranked the Panama Canal one of the seven wonders of the modern world; the earliest mention of a canal across the Isthmus of Panama occurred in 1534, when Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain, ordered a survey for a route through the Americas that would ease the voyage for ships traveling between Spain and Peru.
Such a route would have given the Spanish a military advantage over the Portuguese. In 1668, the English physician and philosopher Sir Thomas Browne speculated in his encyclopaedic endeavour Pseudodoxia Epidemica - "some Isthmus have been eat through by the Sea, others cut by the spade: And if policy would permit, that of Panama in America were most worthy the attempt: it being but few miles over, would open a shorter cut unto the East Indies and China". In 1788, American Thomas Jefferson Minister to France, suggested that the Spanish should build the canal since it would be a less treacherous route for ships than going around the southern tip of South America, that tropical ocean currents would widen the canal thereafter. During an expedition from 1788 to 1793, Alessandro Malaspina outlined plans for its construction. Given the strategic location of Panama and the potential offered by its narrow isthmus separating two great oceans, other trade links in the area were attempted over the years.
The ill-fated Darien scheme was launched by the Kingdom of Scotland in 1698 to set up an overland trade route. Inhospitable conditions thwarted the effort and it was abandoned in April 1700. Numerous canals were built in other countries in the late early 19th centuries; the success of the Erie Canal in the United States in the 1820s and the collapse of the Spanish Empire in Latin America led to a surge of American interest in building an inter-oceanic canal. Beginning in 1826, US officials began negotiations with Gran Colombia, hoping to gain a concession for the building of a canal. Jealous of their newly obtained independence and fearing that they would be dominated by an American presence, the president Simón Bolívar and New Granada officials declined American offers; the new nation was politically unstable, Panama rebelled several times during the 19th century. Another effort was made in 1843. According to the New York Daily Tribune, August 24, 1843, a contract was entered into by Barings of London and the Republic of New Granada for the construction of a canal across the Isthmus of Darien.
They referred to it as the Atlantic and Pacific Canal, it was a wholly British endeavor. It was expected to be completed in five years. At nearly the same time, other ideas were floated, including a canal across Mexico's Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Nothing came of that plan, either. In 1846, the Mallarino–Bidlack Treaty, negotiated between the US and New Granada, granted the United States transit rights and the right to intervene militarily in the isthmus. In 1848, the discovery of gold in California, on the West Coast of the United States, created great interest in a crossing between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. William H. Aspinwall, the man who won the federal subsidy for the building and operating the Pacific mail steamships at around the same time, benefited from this discovery. Aspinwall's route included steamship legs from New York City to Panama and from Panama to California, with an overland portage through Panama; the route between California and Panama was soon traveled, as it provided one of the fastest links between San Francisco and the East Coast cities, about 40 days' transit in total.
Nearly all the gold, shipped out of California went by the fast Panama route. Several new and larger paddle steamers were soon plying
Le Roy, New York
Le Roy, or more LeRoy, is a town in Genesee County, New York, United States. The population was 7,641 at the 2010 census; the town is named after one of Herman Le Roy. The town lies on the eastern edge of Genesee County. Within the town is a village named Le Roy; the area was first settled in 1793. The town of Le Roy was established in 1812 as the "Town of Bellona" from part of the town of Caledonia; the name was changed to "Le Roy" in 1813, after New York City merchant and land speculator Herman LeRoy. Coincidentally, Capt. John Ganson, of the area, named the Ganson Settlement and the Ganson Tavern, died in 1813; the Tavern was torn down by Jell-O. Le Roy is famous for the Jell-O gelatin dessert; the Jell-O Museum is located in Le Roy. General Foods relocated to Dover, Delaware. Le Roy was the home of Calvin Keeney, the first breeder to produce a stringless green bean. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 42.2 square miles, all of it land. The east town line is the border of Livingston County.
Oatka Creek, a tributary of the Genesee River, flows northward through the town and was a source of water power for early mills. The New York State Thruway passes across the north part of the town; the western terminus of Interstate 490 is here. The town rests atop the Onondaga Formation which forms an escarpment that faces north and runs east/west, just north of the village; the limestone rock is fossiliferous, of Devonian age, extensively quarried. It is used for road building as crushed rock, for the manufacture of portland cement. In the eastern part of the town is a community named Lime Rock; as of the census of 2000, there were 7,790 people, 3,037 households, 2,034 families residing in the town. The population density was 184.7 people per square mile. There were 3,219 housing units at an average density of 76.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.01% White, 1.87% Black or African American, 0.27% Native American, 0.44% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.21% from other races, 1.19% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 0.78% of the population. There were 3,037 households out of which 31.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.3% were married couples living together, 9.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.0% were non-families. 26.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.04. In the town, the population was spread out with 25.2% under the age of 18, 6.9% from 18 to 24, 29.4% from 25 to 44, 23.5% from 45 to 64, 15.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $39,690, the median income for a family was $49,189. Males had a median income of $36,810 versus $23,024 for females; the per capita income for the town was $19,342. About 3.8% of families and 5.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.0% of those under age 18 and 10.8% of those age 65 or over.
Fort Hill – a hamlet in the northwest part of the town, north of Le Roy village on Route 19. It is the site of a prehistoric Native American village. Le Roy – a village on Route 5 and Oatka Creek Le Roy Airport – a small general aviation airport east of the village on Route 5 Lime Rock – a hamlet on Route 5 near the eastern town line, east of Le Roy village Beginning in August 2011, 14 students from the LeRoy Junior-Senior High School began reporting myriad perplexing medical symptoms including verbal outbursts, seizure activity and speech difficulty. In mid-January, five days after a community meeting in which the New York State Department of Health stated their diagnosis could not be revealed publicly due to privacy concerns, two of the girls appeared on NBC's Today Show to discuss their frustration with not getting adequate answers; the next day, Dr. Laszlo Mechtler, a neurologist treating most of the girls, was given permission to share the diagnosis of conversion disorder and mass psychogenic illness.
Unsatisfied with the investigation's results, the girls and their parents spoke out publicly against their diagnosis, stating they believed the situation warranted further scrutiny from outside sources. Alternative medical theories for condition were suggested, including Tourette syndrome and PANDAS, which Dr. Mechtler and his team ruled out as possibilities. Erin Brockovich, noted environmental activist, was called to town to investigate environmental pollution from the 1970 Lehigh Valley Railroad derailment as a possible cause. During this time, many of the girls appeared in the local and national media, as well as posting on social media; as this happened, many of these girls started reporting worse symptoms to their doctors, the illness spread to 20 individuals. As doctors encouraged their patients to stay away from the media and the media attention died down, many of the girls' symptoms improved. By the end of the school year in June, one girl was diagnosed with Tourette syndrome the source of the mass psychogenic illness, most of the girls who received treatment for conversion disorder were back to normal in time for graduation.
No environmental causes were found after repeated testing around the school and surrounding areas of town. Seth M. Gates, former U. S. congressman from New York Marion Steam Shovel Town website Early history of Le Roy, NY Le Roy To
Henry Lea Hillman was an American billionaire businessman, civic leader, philanthropist. He was chairman of The Hillman Company, a family office and investment company headquartered in Pittsburgh and owned by the Hillman family, he chaired the board of trustees of Hillman Family Foundations. Henry Lea Hillman was raised in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, he was the fifth child and second son of Jr. and Juliet Cummins Hillman. His father built upon his own father's small iron brokerage firm to create a diversified industrial operation with holdings in coal and coke and utilities, transportation, real estate, banking. Hillman attended Shady Side Academy in Pittsburgh, the Taft School in Watertown and Princeton University, where he earned an A. B. degree in geology in 1941. He enlisted in the Navy before the United States entered World War II in December 1941 and served first as an aide to Rear Admiral Randall Jacobs, chief of the Bureau of Naval Personnel, he became a Naval aviator in 1942, holding the rank of lieutenant and serving until after the war's end in 1945.
In January 1946, Hillman joined Pittsburgh Coke & Chemical, which produced and sold coke, merchant pig iron, such coal-derived byproducts as activated carbon. J. H. Hillman & Sons was the majority shareholder of this publicly traded firm; as vice president and a director, Henry expanded the company's manufacture and sale of finished chemicals and plasticizers. He became president of Pittsburgh Coke in 1955; as a director of Pittsburgh's Colonial Trust Company, he worked with his father in 1959 to negotiate the consolidation of smaller banks and trust companies into Pittsburgh National Bank, ancestor of PNC Financial Services, today one of the largest financial institutions in the United States. Hillman served as a director of Pittsburgh National Bank from its founding until 1988; the death of his father in 1959 put Hillman in charge of Hillman family holdings, which he expanded many fold. Years in advance of the growing market in private equity, he sold off industrial and chemical operations, took Pittsburgh Coke private, remade Hillman into a diversified investment company.
Just several of the scores of companies acquired and sold between the 1960s and 1990s were Marion Power Shovel Company, Copeland Refrigeration Corp, American Flyers Airline Corporation, Bahnson Service Company, Global Marine Systems, Joseph Magnin Co. Shakespeare Company, Read-Rite Corporation, Texstar Corporation, Perrigo and Bubba Gump Shrimp Company."One of the first to invest in private equity funds, Hillman in 1972 became a founding limited partner in the first venture capital fund of the firm Kleiner Perkins. Through this fund and others, as well as directly, Hillman invested in Genentech, Tandem Computers and numerous other high-tech start-ups in the Silicon Valley and elsewhere; the Hillman Company was the largest single venture capital investor in the country during the early 1980s. In 1976, Hillman became the first limited partner in the leveraged buyout firm Kohlberg Kravis Roberts. Through KKR, Hillman participated in the buyouts of, among others, American Forest Products Corporation.
Foster Company. The Hillman Company became what Forbes magazine described as "one of the country's largest, lowest-profile, commercial real estate developers", with properties from California to Florida. Energy exploration and investments during this same period included early and active development of coal-bed methane, a dynamic new segment of the petroleum industry. During his career, Hillman served as a director of Chemical Bank & Trust Co.. He stepped down from active management of The Hillman Company in 2004; as chairman, he remained active in the company's governance. Hillman was inducted into the Private Equity Hall of Fame, he was named Industrialist of the Year in 1968 by the Western Pennsylvania Chapter of the National Society of Industrial Realtors and Business Leader of the Year in 1989 by the Pennsylvania Chamber of Commerce. Active in Pittsburgh civic leadership since the years of the city's first "renaissance" in the late 1940s, Hillman has served as a director or trustee of ACTION Housing, Inc..
He served as president of the Allegheny Conference on Community Development from 1967-70 and as chair from 1970-73. As chair of the board of trustees of Hillman Family Foundations, Hillman focused on philanthropic opportunities aimed at creating or enhancing a competitive advantage for Pittsburgh. Notable gifts have included the Hillman Library of the University of Pittsburgh, Hillman Hall of Minerals and Gems at the Carnegie Museum of Natural History, the Henry L. Hillman Fund for art acquisition at the Carnegie Museum of Art, the Elsie Hillman Chair in Women and Politics at Chatham University, the
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is an independent agency of the United States Federal Government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research. NASA was established in 1958; the new agency was to have a distinctly civilian orientation, encouraging peaceful applications in space science. Since its establishment, most US space exploration efforts have been led by NASA, including the Apollo Moon landing missions, the Skylab space station, the Space Shuttle. NASA is supporting the International Space Station and is overseeing the development of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, the Space Launch System and Commercial Crew vehicles; the agency is responsible for the Launch Services Program which provides oversight of launch operations and countdown management for unmanned NASA launches. NASA science is focused on better understanding Earth through the Earth Observing System. From 1946, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics had been experimenting with rocket planes such as the supersonic Bell X-1.
In the early 1950s, there was challenge to launch an artificial satellite for the International Geophysical Year. An effort for this was the American Project Vanguard. After the Soviet launch of the world's first artificial satellite on October 4, 1957, the attention of the United States turned toward its own fledgling space efforts; the US Congress, alarmed by the perceived threat to national security and technological leadership, urged immediate and swift action. On January 12, 1958, NACA organized a "Special Committee on Space Technology", headed by Guyford Stever. On January 14, 1958, NACA Director Hugh Dryden published "A National Research Program for Space Technology" stating: It is of great urgency and importance to our country both from consideration of our prestige as a nation as well as military necessity that this challenge be met by an energetic program of research and development for the conquest of space... It is accordingly proposed that the scientific research be the responsibility of a national civilian agency...
NACA is capable, by rapid extension and expansion of its effort, of providing leadership in space technology. While this new federal agency would conduct all non-military space activity, the Advanced Research Projects Agency was created in February 1958 to develop space technology for military application. On July 29, 1958, Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, establishing NASA; when it began operations on October 1, 1958, NASA absorbed the 43-year-old NACA intact. A NASA seal was approved by President Eisenhower in 1959. Elements of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency and the United States Naval Research Laboratory were incorporated into NASA. A significant contributor to NASA's entry into the Space Race with the Soviet Union was the technology from the German rocket program led by Wernher von Braun, now working for the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, which in turn incorporated the technology of American scientist Robert Goddard's earlier works. Earlier research efforts within the US Air Force and many of ARPA's early space programs were transferred to NASA.
In December 1958, NASA gained control of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a contractor facility operated by the California Institute of Technology. The agency's leader, NASA's administrator, is nominated by the President of the United States subject to approval of the US Senate, reports to him or her and serves as senior space science advisor. Though space exploration is ostensibly non-partisan, the appointee is associated with the President's political party, a new administrator is chosen when the Presidency changes parties; the only exceptions to this have been: Democrat Thomas O. Paine, acting administrator under Democrat Lyndon B. Johnson, stayed on while Republican Richard Nixon tried but failed to get one of his own choices to accept the job. Paine was confirmed by the Senate in March 1969 and served through September 1970. Republican James C. Fletcher, appointed by Nixon and confirmed in April 1971, stayed through May 1977 into the term of Democrat Jimmy Carter. Daniel Goldin was appointed by Republican George H. W. Bush and stayed through the entire administration of Democrat Bill Clinton.
Robert M. Lightfoot, Jr. associate administrator under Democrat Barack Obama, was kept on as acting administrator by Republican Donald Trump until Trump's own choice Jim Bridenstine, was confirmed in April 2018. Though the agency is independent, the survival or discontinuation of projects can depend directly on the will of the President; the first administrator was Dr. T. Keith Glennan appointed by Republican President Dwight D. Eisenhower. During his term he brought together the disparate projects in American space development research; the second administrator, James E. Webb, appointed by President John F. Kennedy, was a Democrat who first publicly served under President Harry S. Truman. In order to implement the Apollo program to achieve Kennedy's Moon la