This is a list of airline codes. The table lists IATAs two-character airline designators, ICAOs three-character airline designators, IATA airline designators, sometimes called IATA reservation codes, are two-character codes assigned by the International Air Transport Association to the worlds airlines. The standard is described in IATAs Standard Schedules Information Manual and the codes themselves are described in IATAs Airline Coding Directory, Airline designator codes follow the format xx, i. e. two alphanumeric characters followed by an optional letter. Although the IATA standard provides for three-character airline designators, IATA has not used the third character in any assigned code. This is because some legacy computer systems, especially the central reservations systems, have failed to comply with the standard, the codes issued to date comply with IATA Resolution 762, which provides for only two characters. These codes thus comply with the current airline designator standard, there are three types of designator, numeric/alpha and controlled duplicate. IATA airline designators are used to identify an airline for commercial purposes in reservations, tickets, air waybills, a flight designator is the concatenation of the airline designator, xx, and the numeric flight number, n, plus an optional one-letter operational suffix.
Therefore, the format of a flight designator is xxn. After an airline is delisted, IATA can make the code available for reuse after six months, controlled duplicates are issued to regional airlines whose destinations are not likely to overlap, so that the same code is shared by two airlines. The controlled duplicate is denoted here, and in IATA literature, an example of this is the code 6Y, which refers to both Mid Airlines, a charter airline in Sudan, and Med Airways, a charter airline in Lebanon. IATA issues an accounting or prefix code and this number is used on tickets as the first three characters of the ticket number. The IATA codes originally based on the ICAO designators which were issued in 1947 as two-letter airline identification codes and these codes are unique by airline, unlike the IATA airline designator codes. The designators are listed in ICAO Document 8585, Designators for Aircraft Operating Agencies, ICAO codes have been issued since 1947. The ICAO codes originally based on a two-letter-system and were identical to the codes used by IATA.
After an airline joined IATA its existing ICAO-two-letter-code was taken over as IATA code, so in the 1970s the abbreviation BA was the ICAO code and the IATA code of British Airways while non-IATA-airlines like Court Line used their 2-letter-abbreviation as ICAO code only. In the early 1980s ICAO introduced the current three-letter-system due to the number of airlines. It became the new standard system in November 1987. Other designators, particularly starting with Y and Z, are reserved for government organizations
In broadcasting and radio communications, a call sign is a unique designation for a transmitter station. In North America, they are used for all FCC licensed transmitters, a call sign can be formally assigned by a government agency, informally adopted by individuals or organizations, or even cryptographically encoded to disguise a stations identity. The use of signs as unique identifiers dates to the landline railroad telegraph system. Because there was only one line linking all railroad stations. In order to time, two-letter identifiers were adopted for this purpose. This pattern continued in operation, radio companies initially assigned two-letter identifiers to coastal stations and stations aboard ships at sea. These were not globally unique, so a company identifier was added. Merchant and naval vessels are assigned call signs by their national licensing authorities, in the case of states such as Liberia or Panama, which are flags of convenience for ship registration, call signs for larger vessels consist of the national prefix plus three letters.
United States merchant vessels are given call signs beginning with the letters W or K while US naval ships are assigned callsigns beginning with N, leisure craft with VHF radios may not be assigned call signs, in which case the name of the vessel is used instead. Ships in the US wishing to have a radio licence anyway are under F. C. C, class SA, Ship recreational or voluntarily equipped. Those calls follow the land mobile format of the initial letter K or W followed by 1 or 2 letters followed by 3 or 4 numbers. U. S. Coast Guard small boats have a number that is shown on both bows in which the first two digits indicate the length of the boat in feet. For example, Coast Guard 47021 refers to the 21st in the series of 47 foot motor lifeboats, the call sign might be abbreviated to the final two or three numbers during operations, for example, Coast Guard zero two one. Call signs in aviation are derived from several different policies, depending upon the type of flight operation, in most countries, unscheduled general aviation flights identify themselves using the call sign corresponding to the aircrafts registration number.
In this case, the sign is spoken using the International Civil Aviation Organization phonetic alphabet. Aircraft registration numbers internationally follow the pattern of a country prefix, for example, an aircraft registered as N978CP conducting a general aviation flight would use the call sign November-niner-seven-eight-Charlie-Papa. However, in the United States a pilot of an aircraft would normally omit saying November, at times, general aviation pilots might omit additional preceding numbers and use only the last three numbers and letters. This is especially true at uncontrolled fields when reporting traffic pattern positions, for example, Skyhawk eight-Charlie-Papa, left base
Call signs in Antarctica
Call signs in Antarctica include a three letter region code and a series of numbers and letters. Amateur radio or ham radio call signs are unique identifiers for licensed operators in Antarctica, call signs are regulated internationally by the ITU as well as nationally by governing bodies within each country who may have nationals operating in Antarctica. Call signs may be issued by a local Antarctic authority who chooses from a block reserved by their body for that purpose. The Antarctic Treaty signed on December 1,1959, established the framework for the management of Antarctica. The International Telecommunications Union does not assign call letter blocks to Antarctica since there is no single government there which can send delegates to ITU conferences, some individual countries reserve Antarctic prefixes or call letters from within their own call letter blocks as per this table. In some cases the assignment of letters is made locally at an Antarctic base. The Worldwide Antarctic Program keeps a list of special event call signs issued from countries at various times.
These callsigns were used by amateurs in their home countries, the Worldwide Antarctic Program maintains current internet Bulletins as to call sign activity in the south polar region, including 3,100 call signs used since 1945. Australia – VKØ callsigns were used c.1955 based on Antarctic treaties at the time, before that Macquarie Island and Antarctic area call signs were known as VK1. United States – prior to 1959 the FCC assigned KC4USx, McMurdo still uses KC4USV, since 1959, the FCC reserves call letters in the block KC4AAA to KC4AAF for the National Science Foundations use at the South Pole. South Pole uses KC4AAA and Palmer uses KC4AAC, india – ATØA was used in 1983 for an expedition to Antarctica, as was AT3D and AT3ANT for a similar purpose from 1994 to 1996. USSR – The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics assigned 4K1 as its Antarctic prefix, upon the USSRs dissolution in 1991, this call fell within the Azerbaijani Republics ITU allocation. It is unclear if the Azerbaijani Republic still considers it as reserved for use by Antarctic stations, the Radio Society of Great Britain assigns islands into seven world districts, including Antarctica.
It assigns IOTA Groups and Reference Numbers corresponding to these areas – Antarctic Islands are AN-xxx, some of these IOTA groups have call signs assigned by a sovereign power, others have call signs assigned according to the Antarctic Treaty. Not all of these fall within the Antarctic Treaty area. Call Sign ITU prefix – amateur and experimental stations Amateur radio license Telecommunications in Antarctica
Call signs in Korea
Call signs in Korea are unique identifiers for telecommunications and broadcasting on the Korean peninsula. Call signs are regulated internationally by the ITU as well as nationally in South Korea by the Korea Communications Commission in the Ministry of Information and Communication. Not much is known outside of North Korea how amateur radio is regulated, North Koreas Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries recently issued an operating permit, which was countermanded by the Ministry of Telecommunications and Posts. Amateur radio or ham radio call signs are unique identifiers for the over 42,000 licensed operators in South Korea with none known in North Korea. The 1947 ITU Conference in Atlantic City, U. S. A. assigned the whole Korean peninsula the HLA–HMZ range of call sign prefixes for radio use. The Korea Communications Commission now issues call signs for amateur radio operators in the 6K, D7, DS, the HMA–HMZ and P5A–P9Z ranges are reserved for North Korea, although the only three known stations operating from there used a P5 prefix.
The Korea Contest Club special callsign of D9K is non-standard, with no separating numeral and it is on Chuja Island as part of an IOTA DXpedition. It is unknown if North Korea assigns a separating numeral after their assigned prefix based on geographical regions, based on the manner in which P5/4L4FN signed as a foreign national, there seems to be no protocol. Amateurs assigned calls in the DS or 6K series do not have a unique suffix, in the case above a DS1AAA who moves to Busan must use DS1AAA/5 as there may be a separate DS5AAA assigned. HamCall. Net lists 19 amateur stations in North Korea assigned in the P5 series, a Serbian amateur writes that he was licensed as P5A, but that he was not allowed to operate on either occasion he was in the country. In 2001 and 2002, Ed Giorgadze of the Republic of Georgia operated as P5/4L4FN with the permission of North Korean authorities and was recognized by the ARRL DXCC desk as a valid operation. Giorgadze worked 3,307 U. S.189 Canadian,2,902 Japanese stations, and amateurs in 167 DXCC entities.
Two previous authorized amateur stations were reported as P5/OH2AM on May 14,1995, with 20 QSOs, the latter did an amateur radio demonstration for North Korean officials with 263 QSOs. A station claiming to have the sign of P5RS7 operated in 1992. The Ten-Ten newsletter wrote that this station was operating from over the border from North Korea in Vladivostok and he claims verbal permission to operate and worked stations on the 40m, 20m and 15m bands. Station P51DTG was suspected of being a station, unaffiliated with Zabavik. P5RS7, reported on December 19,1992, claim disallowed by ARRL for ethics violations, hA0HW, denied operating privileges by N. K. JH1AJT and JH4RHF, installed a ham station at Pyongyang and lectured on the ham hobby, forbidden to turn on the rig
Call signs in Australia
Call signs in Australia are allocated by the Australian Communications and Media Authority and are unique for each broadcast station. The use of callsigns on-air in both radio and television in Australia is optional, so many stations used other on-air identifications and it is assigned ITU Zones 55,58 and 59, with the Pacific Islands in Australian jurisdiction in Zone 60. Australia is assigned CQ Zones 29 &30, all radio call signs begin with a single-digit number indicating the state or territory, followed by two or three letters. While some AM stations retained their old call signs when moving to FM, for instance, when 7HO Hobart became an FM station, it adopted the callsign 7HHO. Also, SBS FM radio stations use a call sign. There are a number of exceptions, For some time, two stations used the callsign 4CCC – a commercial station in Charleville and a community station in Warwick. The Warwick stations call sign was changed to 4SDB. In addition, a community broadcaster, 4CCC Coral Coast Country Community Radio Inc, uses the name 4CCC.
Radio Station 1RPH Canberra, Australian Capital Territory has relay transmitters in New South Wales The following Victorian stations have transmitters in New South Wales, 3HOT. The following New South Wales stations have transmitters in Victoria, 2AAY, 2BDR. The following New South Wales stations have transmitters in Queensland, 2MW. 8KIN Alice Springs, Northern Territory has a transmitter in Pasminco Century Mine, Queensland. 3MBR Murrayville, Victoria has a transmitter in Lameroo, South Australia. The Nhulumbuy, Northern Territory transmitter for triple J has the callsign 6JJJ, open narrowcast radio stations have no official call sign, though some stations use one. The following are lists of Australian radio station call signs and this Calstan dial is from a mains operated transistorised radio, circa the 1960s. Australias postcodes, introduced in 1967, use the same introductory numeral as radio call signs, the usual prefix for Australian amateur call signs is VK. The numeral that separates the prefix from the suffix indicates the state/territory in which the operator is licensed, since 1 November 2009 callsigns in the VK9 region have been treated the same as all other call areas, and individual islands are no longer designated by a special letter. A special event prefix of VI can be substituted for VK on occasions of state/territory significance, visiting amateurs who qualify can use their home call sign, and attach a /VK after it
Amateur radio call signs
Amateur radio call signs are allocated to amateur radio operators around the world. The call signs are used to identify the station or operator, with some countries requiring the station call sign to always be used. The International Telecommunication Union allocates call sign prefixes for radio and television stations of all types, since 1927 these have been used to uniquely identify operators and locate amateur stations within a geographical region or country of the world. Call signs meant for amateur radio follow the ITUs Article 19, prefixes are assigned internationally, and a separating numeral plus suffix are added by a national body to produce this unique identifier. These prefixes are agreed upon internationally, and are a form of country code, each country must only assign call signs to its nationals or operators under its jurisdiction that begin with the characters allocated for use in that country or its territories. In some countries, an operator may select their own vanity call sign that conforms to local laws.
Some jurisdictions require a fee to obtain such a vanity call sign, in others, such as the UK, a fee is not required, the FCC in the U. S. discontinued its fee for vanity call sign applications in September 2015. An amateur operators call sign is composed of a prefix, a separating numeral, the prefix can be composed of letters or numbers, the separating numeral is one from 0 to 9, and a suffix is from one to four characters, usually letters. This is not necessarily always the amateurs country of citizenship, an individual operator is assigned a unique call sign beginning with this prefix and completed with a separating numeral and suffix. A letter range always first refers to the first letter of a block, meaning that in the letter range AAA–ALZ, the A is the letter range-designator. Factors for a country to consider when choosing within its assigned range, for example, KAA–KZZ is assigned to the United States. The U. S. Federal Communications Commission can assign a single letter ‘K’ prefix as the US is assigned the whole K block, as numbers warrant the US can assign prefixes KA, KB, KC and so forth as needed.
None of the B, F, G, I, K, M, N, R, when 2-characters are needed – Two character prefixes are needed when the letter range is divided among two or more jurisdictions. Letter-number prefixes A2 through A9 are assigned to eight other jurisdictions, Korea has issued a special event callsign of D9K. The D9 is the ITU prefix for South Korea, so they have issued a call with no separating numeral, bahamas issues call signs without a separating numeral. They are assigned the C6A–C6Z block, and the 6 is part of the 2-character prefix, examples are as found on QRZ. COM. Cyprus has issued H2T as a special event call sign, whereas Cyprus is assigned the H2A–H2Z block, there is no numeral separator, just a one-letter suffix. When a 3-character prefix is needed – This is an unsusal situation and Swaziland are assigned 3DN–3DZ and 3DA–3DM respectively, so they should choose the third character from the left to produce unique call signs, but in practise do not
Call signs in Russia
Call signs in Russia are unique identifiers for telecommunications and broadcasting. Call signs are regulated internationally by the ITU as well as nationally by Ministry of Communications, the latter is responsible for providing policy on the allocation of Russias radio spectrum to support efficient and responsive wireless telecommunications and broadcasting infrastructure. In 1991 Russia inherited the largest portion of the former Soviet Unions allocated call signs, the other post-USSR countries which inherited parts of the ITU UAA–UZZ call sign block are Uzbekistan and Ukraine. Amateur radio or ham radio call signs are unique identifiers for the 24,000 licensed operators. Russia uses the following 1-letter and 2-letter prefixes in amateur radio call signs for normal operation, R, RA, RK, RN, RU, RV, RW, RX, RZ, any of these prefixes can be used in any of the Oblasts. The other prefixes are reserved for special operation. It uses the numerals 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9, and Ø to separate prefixes from suffixes, Russia designates the first letter of the suffix to designate the Oblast within the region.
This means that for most call signs the numeral and first letter of the suffix identifies the operator in one of the 92 Russian Oblasts. Since 2010, call signs in the 3 region can be issued with the numerals 2 and 5, in the 6 region with numeral 7, rescue service of Russian Red Cross. R3RRC – Russian Robinson Club H. Q, r3SRR – Russian Amateur Radio Union H. Q. R3VHF – VHF Committee of Russian Amateur Radio Union, rS0ISS – Cosmonauts on the International Space Station. Russia was not a signatory to the 1913 Berlin agreement but received the R block series, Amateur radio was not yet developed enough to be subject to this identification scheme. From 1905 until after World War II, South Sakhalin Island was under Japanese control and was assigned the JP7 call sign prefix for radio purposes. From 1945 until the present the call sign prefix for all of Sahalin Island is UA0, the Japan-Soviet Joint Declaration of 1956 laid down that Habomai Is. and Shikotan I. should be returnable to Japan, but Russia is still the administrative authority in the Four Northern Islands.
While not strictly a Russian call sign issue, following World War II, the block was transferred back to Germany, and the DS–DT block subsequently given to South Korea. Amateur radio international operation Call signs ITU prefix - amateur and experimental stations Amateur radio license
Call signs in the United Kingdom
Call signs in United Kingdom include a three letter country code, and a series of letters and numbers. Call signs are regulated internationally by the ITU as well as nationally in the UK by the Office of Communications and it assigns call signs, issues amateur radio licences, allots frequency spectrum, and monitors the radio waves. Ofcom is no longer responsible for setting and conducting amateur radio exams, the Radio Society of Great Britain is the United Kingdoms recognised national society for amateur radio operators. The societys patron is Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, Amateur radio or ham radio call signs are unique identifiers for the 60,000 licensed operators. Ofcom allots the individual call signs to the amateurs it licences, call signs are the property of Ofcom even when assigned. Callsigns in the G9 series are commercial licences, issued for experimental purposes, regional two-letter prefixes are assigned according to the following table, Ofcom reserves the right to issue temporary special event call signs to licensed amateurs holding a full licence.
Special event call signs are issued with a GB prefix, but others like GQ, GO, MQ, GA, MO, Ofcom allows numerals in special event call sign suffixes. For instance GB75RD was a special event sign for the 75th anniversary of the Reading, holders of licences in countries signed up to CEPT TR 61-01 operate with their home call sign prefixed with an M/ plus the additional country identifier when necessary. Holders of licences in countries signed up to CEPT TR 61-02 can operate for 3 months before needing a Great Britain call sign as issued by Ofcom, Radio Society of Great Britain ITU prefix – amateur and experimental stations Amateur radio license Radio Society of Great Britain Ofcom
Call signs in New Zealand
Call signs in New Zealand are no longer generally used to identify broadcast stations. However, New Zealands radio stations were known by their call signs and would usually broadcast their call signs as a number followed by X, Y, or Z. Call signs are regulated internationally by the ITU and nationally by the Ministry of Business and Employment, in 1924, New Zealand was granted the prefix Z, and in 1925 the number of licensed amateur reached 100. In 1927 the International Telecommunication Union Conference in Washington established internally agreed upon call sign prefixes – New Zealand was assigned OZ, in 1929 this was expanded to the ZK–ZM letter block, with New Zealand opting for the ZL prefix for land based stations. OZ by 1927 was reassigned to Denmark, in 1969 the ZM prefix was allowed to celebrate the Captain James Cook bicentenary. In 1974 the prefix was allowed again to celebrate the Commonwealth Games, in 1981 the ZLØ prefix was allowed for visitors to New Zealand. There are 4 possible 2-letter prefixes and 40 2-letter/1-number prefixes available to New Zealand operators based on the ITU blocks and this provides for about 720,000 three-character-suffix call signs and significantly more if numerals comprise either or both of the first two characters of the suffix. A further 18.8 million 4-character call signs are potentially available, of these prefixes,1 is currently assigned for normal amateur radio operation.
ZM can be used in place of ZL for short special events, although ZL1 to ZL4 were previously issued strictly according to the operators location within New Zealand, that is no longer the case. New Zealand is assigned DXCC entity #170, primary callsign suffixes can be from to four letters in the A–Y, AA–YZ, AAA–YZZ and AAAA–YZZZ blocks. Temporary special event callsigns may have five or six letter suffixes, the ZM prefix can be substituted for ZL for contests and commemorative events, at the discretion of the licensee. ZL licence holders may apply for up to one secondary single-letter callsign, a stand-down period of six months applies in regard to the reallocation of temporary callsigns to the same licence holder or club. The E5 prefix for the Cook Islands produces two-numeral callsigns when the separating numeral is attached, the E51 prefix is most often used. Temporary callsigns may be issued with up to 6 letter suffixes, such callsigns may be allocated for up to 12 months, typically for special events and notable anniversaries.
For example, the holder of ZL1WZZ celebrating 40 years in amateur radio may be allocated, for a 3-month period, all radio stations call signs started with ZL, although this was excluded when broadcast. For other regions the final letter was typically the first letter the location, the Concert Programme in the 4 main centres was assigned YC and at this stage only broadcast in the main centres however the Concert Programme was relayed onto other stations during evenings. This system of allocating call signs was for AM radio stations only, the very few FM radio stations that were operating had 3 letters in the cal lsign, the first number remained the same. Radio stations that were originally on AM but began broadcasting on FM often kept the AM call sign name or a letter was added to the existing call sign name