Royal Netherlands Navy
The Royal Netherlands Navy is the navy of the Netherlands. Its origins date back to the Eighty Years War, the war of independence from the House of Habsburg who ruled over the Habsburg Netherlands. The navy of the Batavian Republic and Kingdom of Holland played a role in the Napoleonic Wars. After World War II, the Royal Netherlands Navy has taken part in peacekeeping operations. The main naval base is located at Den Helder, North Holland, secondary naval bases are located at Amsterdam, Vlissingen and Willemstad. Netherlands Marine Corps barracks are found in Rotterdam, Suffisant on Curaçao, officers of the Netherlands Navy are trained at the Koninklijk Instituut voor de Marine, which is part of the Nederlandse Defensie Academie in Den Helder. Around 100–150 people start training every year, an international prefix for Dutch navy ships is HNLMS. HNMS is used, although this can refer to Royal Norwegian Navy ships. The Dutch navy itself uses the prefixes Zr, ms. when a king is on the throne, and Hr.
Ms. when there is a queen, the modern Netherlands Navy dates its founding to a statute of admiralty issued by Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I on January 8,1488. During the 17th century the Dutch navy was one of the most powerful navies in the world, as an organization, the navy of the Dutch Republic consisted of five separate admiralties, each with its own ships, shipyards, command structures and revenues. Around the world Dutch naval units were responsible for transporting troops, for example during Operation Dynamo at Dunkirk and on D-Day, they escorted convoys, one Dutch light cruiser that was under construction was captured in its shipyard by Nazi Germany. Both British and American forces believed that the Dutch admiral in charge of the force was being far too aggressive. Later in the war, a few Dutch submarines scored some remarkable hits, after the war, the relations between the Netherlands and its colonies changed dramatically. The establishment of the Republic of Indonesia, just two days after the Japanese surrender, thwarted the Dutch plans for restoring colonial authority and it took four years of war before the Netherlands acknowledged the independence of Indonesia.
Part of the Dutch Navy was next stationed in Netherlands New Guinea until that and this followed a campaign of infiltrations by the Indonesian National Armed Forces, supported by modern equipment from the Soviet Union, that was nevertheless successfully repulsed by the Dutch navy. These infiltrations took place after the order of President Sukarno to integrate the territory as an Indonesian province. With the creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, the focus was on the army and air force
A sea is a large body of salt water that is surrounded in whole or in part by land. More broadly, the sea is the system of Earths salty. The sea moderates Earths climate and has important roles in the cycle, carbon cycle. Although the sea has been traveled and explored since prehistory, the scientific study of the sea—oceanography—dates broadly to the British Challenger expedition of the 1870s. Owing to the present state of continental drift, the Northern Hemisphere is now equally divided between land and sea but the South is overwhelmingly oceanic. Salinity in the ocean is generally in a narrow band around 3. 5% by mass, although this can vary in more landlocked waters, near the mouths of large rivers. About 85% of the solids in the sea are sodium chloride. Deep-sea currents are produced by differences in salinity and temperature, surface currents are formed by the friction of waves produced by the wind and by tides, the changes in local sea level produced by the gravity of the Moon and Sun.
The direction of all of these is governed by surface and submarine land masses, former changes in sea levels have left continental shelves, shallow areas in the sea close to land. The most diverse areas surround great tropical coral reefs, whaling in the deep sea was once common but whales dwindling numbers prompted international conservation efforts and finally a moratorium on most commercial hunting. Life may have started there and aquatic microbial mats are generally credited with the oxygenation of Earths atmosphere, the sea is an essential aspect of human trade, mineral extraction, and power generation. It is the scene of activities including swimming, surfing. However, population growth, industrialization, and intensive farming have all contributed to marine pollution. Atmospheric carbon dioxide is being absorbed in increasing amounts, lowering its pH in a known as ocean acidification. The shared nature of the sea has made overfishing an increasing problem, both senses of sea date to Old English, the larger sense has required a definite article since Early Middle English.
Seas are generally larger than lakes and contain salt water, while the defining elements of size and being bounded are generally used, there is no formally accepted technical definition of sea among oceanographers. In international law, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea states that all the ocean is the sea. Earth is the known planet with seas of liquid water on its surface, although Mars possesses ice caps
Admiral of the Fleet (Royal Navy)
Admiral of the Fleet is a five-star naval officer rank and the highest rank of the British Royal Navy. The five-star NATO rank code is OF-10, although routine appointments ceased in 1995, the rank of Admiral of the Fleet is equivalent to a field marshal in the British Army or a marshal of the Royal Air Force. The rank evolved from sailing days and the admiral distinctions used by the Royal Navy when the fleet was divided into three divisions – red, white, or blue, each division was assigned an admiral, who in turn commanded a vice-admiral and a rear admiral. In the 18th century, the nine ranks began to be filled by more than one person at any one time. The admiral of the red was pre-eminent and became known as the admiral of the fleet, the organisation of the British fleet into coloured squadrons was abandoned in 1864, although the Royal Navy kept the White Ensign. Since 1811 five members of the British Royal family, other than the monarch, of the British royalty granted the rank, only one, the Prince of Wales had not seen service in the Royal Navy.
During the two World Wars a number of serving officers held active commissions as admirals of the fleet, following the creation of the Chief of the Defence Staff in 1959, the five naval officers appointed to that position became admirals of the fleet. In 2014, Lord Boyce, a former First Sea Lord, Lord High Admiral of the United Kingdom First Sea Lord Heathcote, Tony. The British Admirals of the Fleet 1734–1995, media related to Royal Navy admirals of the fleet at Wikimedia Commons
Merchant Navy (United Kingdom)
The Merchant Navy is the maritime register of the United Kingdom, and describes the seagoing commercial interests of UK-registered ships and their crews. Merchant Navy vessels fly the Red Ensign and are regulated by the Maritime, king George V bestowed the title of Merchant Navy on the British merchant shipping fleets following their service in the First World War, a number of other nations have since adopted the title. The Merchant Navy has been in existence for a significant period in British history, owing much of its growth to British imperial expansion. As an entity in itself it can be dated back to the 17th century and that registration of merchant seafarers failed, and it was not successfully implemented until 1835. The merchant fleet grew over years to become the worlds foremost merchant fleet, benefiting considerably from trade with British possessions in India. The lucrative trade in sugar, contraband and tea helped to solidify this dominance in the 19th century, in the First and Second World Wars, the Merchant Service suffered heavy losses from German U-boat attacks.
A policy of unrestricted warfare meant that merchant seafarers were at risk of attack from enemy ships, the tonnage lost to U-boats in the First World War was around 7,759,090 tons, and around 14,661 merchant seafarers were killed. In honour of the sacrifice made by merchant seafarers in the First World War, since Edward VIII the title has automatically been held by the sovereigns George VI and Elizabeth II. To each one I would say, Yours is a no less essential to my peoples experience than that allotted to the Navy, Army. Upon you the Nation depends for much of its foodstuffs and raw materials and you have a long and glorious history, and I am proud to bear the title Master of the Merchant Navy and Fishing Fleets. I know that you carry out your duties with resolution and with fortitude. God keep you and prosper you in your great task, in the Second World War, German U-boats sank nearly 14.7 million tons of Allied shipping, which amounted to 2,828 ships. The United Kingdom alone suffered the loss of 11.7 million tons,32,000 merchant seafarers were killed aboard convoy vessels in the war, but along with the Royal Navy, the convoys successfully imported enough supplies to allow an Allied victory.
In honour of the made in the two World Wars, the Merchant Navy lays wreaths of remembrance alongside the armed forces in the annual Remembrance Day service on 11 November. Despite maintaining its dominant position for decades, the decline of the British Empire in the mid-20th century inevitably led to the decline of the merchant fleet. For example, in 1939 the Merchant Navy was the largest in the world with 33% of total tonnage, by 2012, the Merchant Navy - yet still remaining one of the largest in the world - held only 3% of total tonnage. According to the CIA World Fact Book, in 2010 the Merchant Navy consisted of 504 UK registered ships of 1,000 gross register tons or over. In addition, UK merchant marine interests possessed a further 308 ships registered in countries and 271 foreign-owned ships were registered in the UK
The Red Ensign or Red Duster is the civil ensign of the United Kingdom. It is one of the British ensigns, and it is used either plain and it is the flag flown by British Merchant ships since 1707. Prior to 1707 an English red ensign and a Scottish red ensign were flown by the English and Scottish navies respectively. The precise date of the first appearance of these earlier red ensigns is not known, in 1674, a Royal Proclamation of Charles II confirmed that the Red Ensign was the appropriate flag to be worn by English merchant ships. The wording of the 1674 proclamation indicates that the flag was customarily being used by English merchantmen before that date, at this time, the ensign displayed the English Cross of St George in the canton. It is probable that the cross-saltire was adopted by the Scots as an ensign at a very early period. The earliest Scottish records were lost at sea in the ship that was sent to them to that country, whence they had been carried off, with the Stone of Destiny.
Prior to 1707 the Scottish Red Ensign was flown by ships of the Royal Scots Navy and this resulted in a new red ensign which placed the first Union Flag in the first quarter. The new design of the Red Ensign was proclaimed by Queen Anne and this was the flag flown by ships of the thirteen American colonies before the American Revolution and was a precursor to the colonies Grand Union Flag. In 1801, with another Act of Union, Ireland joined with Great Britain to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the St Patricks Cross was added to the Union Flag and, accordingly, to the first quarters of the British ensigns. In 1854, the Merchant Shipping Act included a provision that the Red Ensign was the appropriate flag for a British merchantman. This provision was repeated in successive British shipping legislation, the white ensign and the blue ensign were used by the Royal Navy. Many in the Admiralty felt that the Royal Navys use of three separate ensigns was outdated and confusing, many felt that steam merchantmen should be clearly distinguishable from warships.
In July 1864, an order-in-council provided that the White Ensign was the ensign of the Royal Naval Service, the Blue Ensign was designated as the proper national colours for ships commanded by an officer of the Royal Naval Reserve, and as national colours for ships in government service. The Red Ensign was assigned to British merchantmen, most British colonies needed to use the blue ensign due to the fact that most had government vessels, some colonies, such as South Australia, had warships. As a result, the Blue Ensign was used throughout the Empire and thus became the model for the used by a number of colonies. At the same time, the red ensign was used by merchantmen of those colonies which obtained an Admiralty warrant. Not all colonies obtained an Admiralty warrant, the ones that did tended to be larger and those areas that did not have an Admiralty warrant used the plain Red Ensign, although unofficial local versions of the Red Ensign were used
U.S. National Geodetic Survey
United States Coast Survey and United States Coast and Geodetic Survey redirect here. Since its foundation in its present form in 1970, it has been part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the National Geodetic Surveys history and heritage are intertwined with those of other NOAA offices. As the U. S. Coast Survey and U. S, upon the creation of the Environmental Science Services Administration in 1965, the commissioned corps was separated from the Survey to become the Environmental Science Services Administration Corps. Thus, the National Geodetic Surveys ancestor organizations are the ancestors of todays NOAA Corps, in addition, todays National Institute of Standards and Technology, although long since separated from the Survey, got its start as the Surveys Office of Weights and Measures. The National Geodetic Survey is an office of NOAAs National Ocean Service, NGS is responsible for defining the NSRS and its relationship with the International Terrestrial Reference Frame.
The NSRS enables precise and accessible knowledge of things are in the United States. The NSRS may be divided into its geometric and physical components, the official geodetic datum of the United States, NAD83 defines the geometric relationship between points within the United States in three-dimensional space. The datum may be accessed via NGSs network of marks or through the Continuously Operating Reference Station network of GPS reference antennas. NGS is responsible for computing the relationship between NAD83 and the ITRF, the physical components of the NSRS are reflected in its height system, defined by the vertical datum NAVD88. This datum is a network of orthometric heights obtained through spirit leveling, NGS will release new datums in 2022. The North American Terrestrial Reference Frame of 2022 will supersede NAD83 in defining the relationship between the North American plate and the ITRF. United States territories on the Pacific and Mariana plates will have their own respective geodetic datums, the North American-Pacific Geopotential Datum of 2022 will separately define the height system of the United States and its territories, replacing NAVD88.
It will use a geoid model accurate to 1 centimeter to relate orthometric height to ellipsoidal height measured by GPS, NGS provides a number of other public services. The Online Positioning and User Service processes user-input GPS data and outputs position solutions within the NSRS, the agency offers other tools for conversion between datums. A Swiss immigrant with expertise in surveying and the standardization of weights and measures, Ferdinand R. Hassler, was selected to lead the Survey. Hassler departed on August 29,1811, but eight months later, while he was in England, Hassler did not return to the United States until August 16,1815. The Survey finally began surveying operations in 1816, when Hassler started work in the vicinity of New York City, the first baseline was measured and verified in 1817. S. S. Army and U. S. Navy responsibility for coastal surveys, Hassler was reappointed as the Surveys superintendent that year
Historically, a ship was a sailing vessel with at least three square-rigged masts and a full bowsprit. Ships are generally distinguished from boats, based on size, Ships have been important contributors to human migration and commerce. They have supported the spread of colonization and the trade, but have served scientific, cultural. After the 16th century, new crops that had come from, Ship transport is responsible for the largest portion of world commerce. As of 2016, there were more than 49,000 merchant ships, of these 28% were oil tankers, 43% were bulk carriers, and 13% were container ships. Military forces operate vessels for naval warfare and to transport and support forces ashore, the top 50 navies had a median fleet of 88 surface vessels each, according to various sources. There is no definition of what distinguishes a ship from a boat. Ships can usually be distinguished from boats based on size and the ability to operate independently for extended periods. A legal definition of ship from Indian case law is a vessel that carries goods by sea, a common notion is that a ship can carry a boat, but not vice versa.
American and British 19th Century maritime law distinguished vessels from other craft and boats fall in one legal category, a number of large vessels are usually referred to as boats. Other types of vessel which are traditionally called boats are Great Lakes freighters, riverboats. Though large enough to carry their own boats and heavy cargoes, in most maritime traditions ships have individual names, and modern ships may belong to a ship class often named after its first ship. The first known vessels date back about 10,000 years ago, the first navigators began to use animal skins or woven fabrics as sails. Affixed to the top of a pole set upright in a boat and this allowed men to explore widely, allowing for the settlement of Oceania for example. By around 3000 BC, Ancient Egyptians knew how to assemble wooden planks into a hull and they used woven straps to lash the planks together, and reeds or grass stuffed between the planks helped to seal the seams. Sneferus ancient cedar wood ship Praise of the Two Lands is the first reference recorded to a ship being referred to by name, the ancient Egyptians were perfectly at ease building sailboats.
A remarkable example of their skills was the Khufu ship. Aksum was known by the Greeks for having seaports for ships from Greece, a panel found at Mohenjodaro depicted a sailing craft
Scallop is a common name that is primarily applied to any one of numerous species of saltwater clams or marine bivalve mollusks in the taxonomic family Pectinidae, the scallops. However, the common name scallop is applied to species in other closely related families within the superfamily Pectinoidea. Scallops are a family of bivalves which are found in all of the worlds oceans. They are one of few groups of bivalves to be primarily free-living, with many species capable of rapidly swimming short distances. Scallops have a nervous system, and unlike most other bivalves all scallops have a ring of numerous simple eyes situated around the edge of their mantles. Many species of scallop are highly prized as a food source, the word scallop is applied to the meat of these bivalves when it is sold as seafood. Owing to their distribution, scallop shells are a common sight on beaches and are often brightly coloured. Scallops inhabit all the oceans of the world, with the largest number of living in the Indo-Pacific region.
Most species live in shallow waters from the low tide line to 100 meters. Although some species live in very narrow environments, most are opportunistic. Scallops can be living within, upon, or under either rocks, rubble, sea grass, sand. Most scallops begin their lives as byssally attached juveniles, an ability that some retain throughout their lives while others grow into freeliving adults. There is very little variation in the arrangement of organs and systems within the scallop family. The shell of a scallop consists of two sides or valves, a valve and a right one, divided by a plane of symmetry. Most species of scallop rest on their right valve, and consequently this valve is often deeper and these ears may be of similar size and shape, or the anterior ear may be somewhat larger. As is the case in almost all bivalves, a series of lines and/ or growth rings originate at the center of the hinge and these growth rings increase in size downwards until they reach the curved ventral edge of the shell.
The shell of most scallops is streamlined to facilitate ease of movement during swimming at some point in the cycle, while providing protection from predators. Scallops with ridged valves have the advantage of the architectural strength provided by these ridges called ribs, although the ribs are somewhat costly in terms of weight and mass
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
The Indian Navy is the naval branch of the Indian Armed Forces. The President of India serves as Supreme Commander of the Indian Navy, the Chief of Naval Staff, usually a four-star officer in the rank of Admiral, commands the navy. The Indian Navy is the fifth largest in the world and it played an important role in Indias victory in the 1971 Indo-Pakistani War. The Indian Navy can trace its lineage back to the East India Companys Marine which was founded in 1612 to protect British merchant shipping in the region. In 1793 the East India Company established its rule over eastern part of the Indian subcontinent i. e. Bengal, in 1858, East India Company rule gave way to the British Raj which lasted until India became independent in 1947. When India became a republic in 1950, the Royal Indian Navy as it had been named since 1934 was renamed to Indian Navy, the 17th-century Maratha emperor Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj is considered as the Father of the Indian Navy. India has a history dating back 5,600 years.
The first tidal dock is estimated to have built at Lothal around 2300 BC during the Indus Valley Civilisation. The Rig Veda written around 1500 BC, credits Varuna with knowledge of the routes and describes naval expeditions. There is reference to the wings of a vessel called Plava. A compass, the Matsya Yantra, was used for navigation in the fourth and fifth century AD, the earliest known reference to an organisation devoted to ships in ancient India is to the Mauryan Empire from the fourth century BCE. Emperor Chandragupta Mauryas Prime Minister Kautilyas Arthashastra devotes a chapter on the state department of waterways under navadhyaksha. The term, nava dvipantaragamanam appears in book in addition to appearing in the Sanskrit text, Baudhayana Dharmasastra as the interpretation of the term. Sea lanes between India and neighbouring lands were the form of trade for many centuries, and are responsible for the widespread influence of Indian Culture on other societies. Powerful navies included those of the Chola dynasty, Maurya Empire, Gupta Empire, Pandya, Vijayanagara Empire, Mughal, the Palas and the Chola]s excelled in foreign trade and maritime activity, extending their influence overseas to China and Southeast Asia.
The Maratha naval power dominated the scene in India for three centuries. During the 17th and 18th centuries, the Maratha and Kerala fleets were expanded, the Pal was a three masted fighter with guns peeping on the broadsides. Kanhoji Angre and Kunjali Marakkar, the Naval chief of Saamoothiri, were two notable naval chiefs of the period
United States Lighthouse Service
It was responsible for the upkeep and maintenance of all lighthouses and lightvessels in the United States. In 1789, the United States Lighthouse Establishment was created and operated under the Department of the Treasury, all U. S. lighthouse ownership was transferred to the government which became the general lighthouse authority. In 1792, the Cape Henry Lighthouse was the first lighthouse built by the USLHE, in 1822, French physicist, Augustin Fresnel designed the Fresnel lens. In 1841 the Fresnel lens was first used in the United States, in 1852, The Lighthouse Board was created. In 1871, the Duxbury Pier Light became the first caisson lighthouse built in the United States, in 1877, kerosene became the primary fuel for lighthouses. Prior to this varies fuels included sperm oil, Colza oil, rapeseed oil, in 1884, uniforms came into use by all members of the Lighthouse Board. In 1886, the Statue of Liberty was the first lighthouse to use electricity, in 1898, all coastal lighthouses were extinguished, for the first time in U. S.
history, as a precaution during the Spanish–American War. In 1904, the Lightship Nantucket became first U. S. vessel to have radio communication, in 1910, the Bureau of Lighthouses was created and operated as the United States Lighthouse Service. In 1910,11,713 aids to navigation of all types were around the country, congress abolished the U. S. Light-House Board and created the Bureau of Lighthouses under the Department of Commerce. The Board had hired a number of civilians and many of these people took over the roles that the military officers had been playing. Though initially called inspectors, the heads of the districts changed their titles to superintendent. President William Taft selected George R. Putnam to head the new bureau, for 25 years, Putnam headed the bureau and during his administration, navigational aids saw a substantial increase. New technology was incorporated into the work, particularly in the area of electric aids. This new technology permitted a reduction of over 800 employees during Putnams 25 years as head of the bureau, during World War I and the period following, several technological advances contributed to the automation of lighthouses, rendering human occupancy unnecessary. A device for automatically replacing burned-out electric lamps in lighthouses was developed and placed in several stations in 1916. A bell alarm warning keepers of fluctuations in the efficiency of oil-vapor lamps was developed in 1917.
In the same year, the first experimental radiobeacon was installed in a lighthouse, the only lightvessel of the service sunk by enemy action was the LV-71 on August 6,1918. After the sinking of the SS Merak by the German submarine U-104 near Diamond Shoals, nobody was hurt in the action because the German commander allowed the Americans to evacuate the ship before firing