The Mary Rose is a carrack-type warship of the English Tudor navy of King Henry VIII. After serving for 33 years in several wars against France and Brittany and after being rebuilt in 1536, she saw her last action on 19 July 1545. While leading the attack on the galleys of a French invasion fleet, she sank in the Solent, the straits north of the Isle of Wight; the wreck of the Mary Rose was rediscovered in 1971. It was raised on 11 October 1982 by the Mary Rose Trust, in one of the most complex and expensive projects in the history of maritime archaeology; the surviving section of the ship and thousands of recovered artefacts are of immeasurable value as a Tudor-era time capsule. The excavation and raising of the Mary Rose was a milestone in the field of maritime archaeology, comparable in complexity and cost only to the raising of the Swedish 17th-century warship Vasa in 1961; the finds include weapons, sailing equipment, naval supplies and a wide array of objects used by the crew. Many of the artefacts are unique to the Mary Rose and have provided insights into topics ranging from naval warfare to the history of musical instruments.
Since the mid-1980s, while undergoing conservation, the remains of the hull have been on display at the Portsmouth Historic Dockyard. An extensive collection of well-preserved artefacts is on display at the Mary Rose Museum, built to display the remains of the ship and its artefacts alongside each other; the Mary Rose was one of the largest ships in the English navy through more than three decades of intermittent war and was one of the earliest examples of a purpose-built sailing warship. She was armed with new types of heavy guns that could fire through the invented gun-ports. After being rebuilt in 1536, she was one of the earliest ships that could fire a broadside, although the line of battle tactics that employed it had not yet been developed. Several theories have sought to explain the demise of the Mary Rose, based on historical records, knowledge of 16th-century shipbuilding, modern experiments; the precise cause of her sinking is still unclear, because of conflicting testimonies and a lack of conclusive physical evidence.
In the late 15th century, England was a insignificant state on the periphery of Europe. The great victories against France in the Hundred Years' War were in the past; the War of the Roses—the civil war between the houses of York and Lancaster—had ended with Henry VII's establishment of the House of Tudor, the new ruling dynasty of England. The ambitious naval policies of Henry V were not continued by his successors, from 1422 to 1509 only six ships were built for the crown; the marriage alliance between Anne of Brittany and Charles VIII of France in 1491, his successor Louis XII in 1499, left England with a weakened strategic position on its southern flank. Despite this, Henry VII managed to maintain a comparatively long period of peace and a small but powerful core of a navy. At the onset of the early modern period, the great European powers were France, the Holy Roman Empire and Spain. All three became involved in the War of the League of Cambrai in 1508; the conflict was aimed at the Republic of Venice but turned against France.
Through the Spanish possessions in the Low Countries, England had close economic ties with the Spanish Habsburgs, it was the young Henry VIII's ambition to repeat the glorious martial endeavours of his predecessors. In 1509, six weeks into his reign, Henry married the Spanish princess Catherine of Aragon and joined the League, intent on certifying his historical claim as king of both England and France. By 1511 Henry was part of an anti-French alliance that included Ferdinand II of Aragon, Pope Julius II and Holy Roman emperor Maximilian; the small navy that Henry VIII inherited from his father had only two sizeable ships, the carracks Regent and Sovereign. Just months after his accession, two large ships were ordered: the Mary Rose and the Peter Pomegranate of about 500 and 450 tons respectively. Which king ordered the building of the Mary Rose is unclear. Henry VIII oversaw the project and he ordered additional large ships to be built, most notably the Henry Grace à Dieu, or Great Harry at more than 1000 tons burthen.
By the 1520s the English state had established a de facto permanent "Navy Royal", the organizational ancestor of the modern Royal Navy. The construction of the Mary Rose began in 1510 in Portsmouth and she was launched in July 1511, she was towed to London and fitted with rigging and decking, supplied with armaments. Other than the structural details needed to sail and arm the Mary Rose, she was equipped with flags and streamers that were either painted or gilded. Constructing a warship of the size of the Mary Rose was a major undertaking, requiring vast quantities of high-quality material. In the case of building a state-of-the-art warship, these materials were oak; the total amount of timber needed for the construction can only be calculated since only about one third of the ship still exists. One estimate for the number of trees is around 600 large oaks, representing about 16 hectares of woodland; the huge trees, common in Europe and the British Isles in previous centuries were by the 16th century quite rare, which meant that timbers were brought in from all over southern England.
The largest timbers used in the construction wer
A loft can be an upper storey or attic in a building, directly under the roof or just a storage space under the roof accessed by a ladder. A loft apartment refers to large adaptable open space converted for residential use from some other use light industrial. Adding to the confusion, some converted lofts include upper open loft areas. Within certain upper loft areas exist further lofts, which may contain loft areas of their own, so forth. In US usage a loft is an upper room or story in a building in a barn, directly under the roof, used either for storage. In this sense it is synonymous with attic, the major difference being that an attic constitutes an entire floor of the building, while a loft covers only a few rooms, leaving one or more sides open to the lower floor. In British usage, lofts are just a roof space accessed via a hatch and loft ladder, while attics tend to be rooms under the roof accessed via a staircase. Lofts may have a specific purpose, e.g. an "organ loft" in a church. In barns a hayloft is larger than the ground floor as it would contain a year's worth of hay.
An attic or loft can be converted to form functional living accommodation. Loft apartments are apartments that are built from former industrial buildings; when industrial developments are developed into condominiums instead of apartments, they may be called loft condominiums. The general term warehouse-to-loft conversions may sometimes be used for development of industrial buildings into apartments and condominiums. "Loft-style" may refer to developments where a street-level business occupies the first floor while apartment "lofts" are placed above the first floor. Sometimes, loft apartments are one component of municipal urban renewal initiatives that include renovation of industrial buildings into art galleries and studio space as well as promotion of a new part of the city as an "arts district". Popular with artists, they are now sought-after by other bohemians and hipsters, the gentrification of the former manufacturing sectors of medium to large cities is now a familiar pattern. One such sector is Manhattan's Meatpacking District.
The adoption of the Adaptive Reuse Ordinance in the City of Los Angeles is another example of such legislation to encourage the conversion of no longer economically viable industrial and commercial buildings to residential loft communities. Such is the demand for these spaces that real estate developers have taken to creating ready-made "lofts" in urban areas that are gentrifying or that seem primed to do so. While some of these units are created by developers during the renovation of old buildings, a number of them are included in the floor plans of brand new developments. Both types of pre-fab loft offer buyers or renters proximity to urban amenities afforded by traditional lofts, but without perceived safety risks of living in economically depressed industrial areas. Real estate industry distinguishes between two kinds of lofts. "Hard lofts" are former industrial buildings converted to live/work use. "Soft lofts" are loft-style residential buildings built anew. They are open-concept spaces with high ceilings, large windows and cement ceilings.
Soft lofts lack the history of hard lofts. A commercial loft refers to upper storey space in a commercial or industrial building with higher ceilings; such adaptation of loft space, can result in better operating efficiencies for ongoing light industrial and work/live use. A Live/work loft is a residential unit located in a commercially zoned building that has either been issued a certificate of residential occupancy or meets specific criteria making it eligible for the protection of loft laws, which vary state by state. In New York State, a live/work loft must meet the following criteria: The building was used for manufacturing or commercial purposes. Loft Law was designed to protect other entrepreneurs working from home. To qualify for the Loft Law protection, the unit must be residential with the commercial purpose being incidental to the residential use. Loft residents consisted of artists and other artisans taking advantage of cheap rents, large spaces and load-bearing floors. Loft residences were illegal and loft dwellers resided under commercial leases, forgoing basic residential rights such as hot water and sanitation.
To relieve their plight, many state legislatures enacted loft laws. A long building at a shipyard with a considerable floor area on which the lines produced by a naval architect can be laid off in their full dimensions. After that the full-size drawings can be copied with the aid of wooden moulds to which, in turn, the steel frames or, in the case of wooden vessels, the hull moulds, are fashioned
Nauticus is a maritime-themed science center and museum located on the downtown waterfront in Norfolk, Virginia known as the National Maritime Center. Nauticus was incorporated under the National Maritime Center Authority in February 1988; the following month, Rear Admiral Jackson Knowles Parker, retired commander of Norfolk Naval Base, became the founding executive director. Construction began at the former site of Norfolk's Banana Pier on the downtown Norfolk waterfront in February 1992, Nauticus opened to the public in June 1994. Other visitor attractions close by include the Virginia Zoo, Norfolk Scope, Harbor Park, home to the Norfolk Tides; the City of Norfolk opened the Half Moone Cruise and Celebration Center—located at Nauticus on April 7, 2007. The 80,000-square-foot, passenger-friendly facility features views of the Elizabeth River, its first passenger ship, RCI's Empress of the Seas, arrived on April 28, 2007. The Half Moone serves as an event venue with 23,000 square feet of event spaces, each of which include interpretation and exhibits.
Among the areas available for special event rental are the Bermuda Room, which displays artifacts and objects that tell the historic connections between Virginia and Bermuda. The name—Half Moone—is taken from the name of the fort, built on the same site in 1673 in the form of a "half moone." The fort was built to protect Norfolk's burgeoning maritime industry. One of the largest battleships built arrived at Nauticus on the downtown Norfolk waterfront on December 7, 2000; that date was significant because it marked the 57th anniversary of USS Wisconsin's launching in 1943 – two years to the day after the attack on Pearl Harbor. USS Wisconsin opened for main deck tours on April 16, 2001; that date marked the 57th anniversary of the ship's commissioning in 1944. Wisconsin, one of four Iowa-class battleships constructed by the United States Navy, was built from 1941 to 1943 at the Philadelphia Navy Yard and commissioned in 1944, she played a major role in World War II, earning five battle stars for service against Japanese forces.
She served during the Korean War, led the Navy’s surface attack on Iraq during the Persian Gulf War in 1991, firing not only her first but the campaign's first Tomahawk missile. The ship was decommissioned at Philadelphia and retired to the Naval Inactive Reserve Fleet in Portsmouth, Virginia, in October 1996. On April 16, 2010 66 years from the day she was commissioned at Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, the United States Navy ceremoniously transferred ownership of the vessel to the city of Norfolk, Virginia. Vice Admiral David Architzel joined Mayor Paul Fraim, other city and military leaders, former crew members on deck to conduct the ceremony. Vice Admiral Architzel presented the long glass to Norfolk Mayor Paul Fraim signifying that the Mayor now has the watch. By the end of November 2009, more than 2,495,296 visitors have walked the teak decks of Wisconsin; these visitors have come from all fifty U. S. states and from many other nations to experience the battleship. Sail Nauticus is a 5013 nonprofit organization created by the Nauticus Foundation in 2013.
Sail Nauticus is a community sailing center, with both youth programs. Its cornerstone program is the Sail Nauticus Academy, an after-school program in partnership with Norfolk Public Schools that teaches middle school students sailing and maritime sciences from a STEM perspective; the museum features hands-on exhibits, interactive theaters, digital high-definition films and an extensive variety of educational programs. Nauticus has a high-definition large screen theater and shows several nautically-related films on a rotating basis; the second floor of Nauticus houses the Hampton Roads Naval Museum and the entrance to the battleship Wisconsin. On the third floor of Nauticus, guests can view a variety of science and maritime exhibits, including: aquaria, a horseshoe crab touch tank, shark lab, Science On a Sphere, NOAA exhibits, interactive theaters, a weather station; the shark lab of Nauticus is home to four sharks of three different species. There is one male epaulette shark, two male whitespotted bamboo sharks, one female brownbanded bamboo shark.
In the Fall of 2016, there was a male brownbanded bamboo shark, but it was relocated to a closed tank near the entrance due to aggressiveness. Downtown Norfolk, Virginia Nauticus website Battleship Wisconsin at Nauticus Cruise Norfolk website Half Moone Cruise and Celebration Center website
Visakhapatnam is the largest city and the financial capital of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The city is the administrative headquarters of Visakhapatnam district and state headquarters of Indian Coast Guard, its geographical location is amidst the Eastern Ghats and the coast of the Bay of Bengal. It is the most populous city in the state with a population of 2,035,922 as of 2011, making it the 14th largest city in the country, it is the 9th most populous metropolitan area in India with a population of 5,018,000. With an output of $43.5 billion, Visakhapatnam is the ninth-largest contributor to India's overall gross domestic product as of 2016. Visakhapatnam's history stretches back to the 6th century BCE, when it was considered a part of the Kalinga Kingdom, ruled by the Vengi, the Pallava and Eastern Ganga dynasties. Archaeological records suggest that the present city was built around the 11th and 12th centuries with control over the city fluctuating between the Chola Dynasty and the Gajapati Kingdom, until its conquest by the Vijayanagara Empire in the 15th century.
Conquered by the Mughals in the 16th century, European powers set up trading interests in the city, by the end of the 18th century it had come under French rule. Control passed to the British in 1804 and it remained under British colonial rule until India's independence in 1947; the city is home to the only natural harbour on the east coast of India. Visakhapatnam Port is the fifth-busiest cargo port in India, the city is home to the headquarters of the Indian Navy's Eastern Command and South Coast Railway zone. Visakhapatnam is a major tourist destination and is known for its beaches, it is referred to by many nicknames such as The Jewel of the East Coast. It has been selected as one of the Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under the Smart Cities Mission; as per the Swachhta Sarvekshan rankings of 2017, it was the third 3rd cleanest city in India in 2017.. It fell to 7th position in 2018 and to 23rd position in 2019; the local belief behind the name of the city states, there was a king of 4th century, who on his pilgrimage halted at Lawson's Bay and built a temple dedicated to Vaisakha, submerged under the sea, but the name of the temple was got to the settlement.
Other such names are, named by a Chola King, Kulotuna-I. During the East India Company rule in India, the city was known with Vizagapatam; the suburb Waltair is another such name, derived from the British colonial name. "Vizagapatam" could be spelled Visakhapatnam in the West European alphabet. Its shortened form, Vizag was used by the British administrators who were unable to pronounce its long name, it is still referred to as Vizag by locals too, however since independence, people have reverted to calling it by its Indian name of Visakhapatnam. Visakhapatnam's history stretches back to the 6th century B. C. E. and the city finds mention in ancient texts such as the 4th century B. C. E. Writings of Pāṇini and Katyayana. Considered part of the Kalinga region, it was ruled by the Vengi kingdom and the Pallava and Eastern Ganga dynasties during medieval times. Archaeological records suggest that the present city was built around the 11th and 12th centuries C. E. by the Chola Dynasty king Kulothunga I.
Control over the city fluctuated between the Chola Dynasty of Tamil Nadu and the Gajapati Kingdom of Odisha until its conquest by the Vijayanagara Empire in the 15th century. In the 16th century it was conquered by the Mughals. European powers set up trading interests in the city and Visakhapatnam came under French rule at the end of the 18th century; the city was ruled by Andhra Kings of Pallavas. The city is named after Sri Vishaka Varma. Legend has it that Radha and Viśakha were born on the same day and were beautiful. Sri Vishaka Sakhi is the second most important gopi of the eight main gopis, she is the most expert gopi messenger. Local residents believe that an Andhra king built a temple to pay homage to his family deity Viśakha; this is now inundated under sea water near R K Beach. Another theory is, it was ruled by Qutb Shahis, Mughal Empire and France before being captured by the British in 1765. European powers set up trading interests in the city and Visakhapatnam came under French rule at the end of the 18th century.
The British captured Visakhapatnam after the 1804 Battle of Vizagapatam and it remained under British colonial rule until India's independence in 1947, a part of the Northern Circars. Hindu texts state that during the fifth century BC, the Visakhapatnam region was part of Kalinga territory, which extended to the Godavari River. Relics found in the area prove the existence of a Buddhist empire in the region. Kalinga lost the territory to King Ashoka in the bloodiest battle of its time, which prompted Ashoka to embrace Buddhism. Visakhapatnam is surrounded by ancient Buddhist sites, most of which have been excavated and illustrate the legacy of Buddhism in the region. Pavurallakonda is a hillock west of about 24 km from Visakhapatnam; the Buddhist settlement found here is estimated to date back from the first century BC to the second century AD. On the hillock are 16 rock-cut cisterns for collecting rainwater. Gopalapatnam, on the Tandava River, is a village surrounded by brick stupas, viharas and other Buddhist artefacts.
In 1907 British archaeologist Alexande
A navy or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces principally designated for naval and amphibious warfare. It includes anything conducted by surface ships, amphibious ships and seaborne aviation, as well as ancillary support, communications and other fields; the strategic offensive role of a navy is projection of force into areas beyond a country's shores. The strategic defensive purpose of a navy is to frustrate seaborne projection-of-force by enemies; the strategic task of the navy may incorporate nuclear deterrence by use of submarine-launched ballistic missiles. Naval operations can be broadly divided between riverine and littoral applications, open-ocean applications, something in between, although these distinctions are more about strategic scope than tactical or operational division. In most nations, the term "naval", as opposed to "navy", is interpreted as encompassing all maritime military forces, e.g. navy, naval infantry/marine corps, coast guard forces. First attested in English in the early 14th century, the word "navy" came via Old French navie, "fleet of ships", from the Latin navigium, "a vessel, a ship, boat", from navis, "ship".
The word "naval" came from Latin navalis, "pertaining to ship". The earliest attested form of the word is in the Mycenaean Greek compound word, na-u-do-mo, "shipbuilders", written in Linear B syllabic script; the word denoted fleets of both commercial and military nature. In modern usage "navy" used alone always denotes a military fleet, although the term "merchant navy" for a commercial fleet still incorporates the non-military word sense; this overlap in word senses between commercial and military fleets grew out of the inherently dual-use nature of fleets. Although nationality of commercial vessels has little importance in peacetime trade other than for tax avoidance, it can have greater meaning during wartime, when supply chains become matters of patriotic attack and defense, when in some cases private vessels are temporarily converted to military vessels; the latter was important, common, before 20th-century military technology existed, when adding artillery and naval infantry to any sailing vessel could render it as martial as any military-owned vessel.
Such privateering has been rendered obsolete in blue-water strategy since modern missile and aircraft systems grew to leapfrog over artillery and infantry in many respects. Naval warfare developed. Prior to the introduction of the cannon and ships with sufficient capacity to carry the large guns, navy warfare involved ramming and boarding actions. In the time of ancient Greece and the Roman Empire, naval warfare centered on long, narrow vessels powered by banks of oarsmen designed to ram and sink enemy vessels or come alongside the enemy vessel so its occupants could be attacked hand-to-hand. Naval warfare continued in this vein through the Middle Ages until the cannon became commonplace and capable of being reloaded enough to be reused in the same battle; the Chola Dynasty of medieval India was known as one of the greatest naval powers of its time from 300 BC to 1279 AD. The Chola Navy, Chola kadarpadai comprised the naval forces of the Chola Empire along with several other Naval-arms of the country.
The Chola navy played a vital role in the expansion of the Chola Tamil kingdom, including the conquest of the Sri Lanka islands, Sri Vijaya, the spread of Hinduism, Tamil architecture and Tamil culture to Southeast Asia and in curbing the piracy in Southeast Asia in 900 CE. In ancient China, large naval battles were known since the Qin dynasty, employing the war junk during the Han dynasty. However, China's first official standing navy was not established until the Southern Song dynasty in the 12th century, a time when gunpowder was a revolutionary new application to warfare. Nusantaran thalassocracies made extensive use of naval power and technologies; this enabled the seafaring Malay people to attack as far as the coast of Tanganyika and Mozambique with 1000 boats and attempted to take the citadel of Qanbaloh, about 7,000 km to their West, in 945-946 AD. In 1350 AD Majapahit launched its largest military expedition, the invasion of Pasai, with 400 large jong and innumerable smaller vessels.
The second largest military expedition, invasion of Singapura in 1398, Majapahit deployed 300 jong with no less than 200,000 men. The mass and deck space required to carry a large number of cannon made oar-based propulsion impossible, ships came to rely on sails. Warships were designed to carry increasing numbers of cannon and naval tactics evolved to bring a ship's firepower to bear in a broadside, with ships-of-the-line arranged in a line of battle; the development of large capacity, sail-powered ships carrying cannon led to a rapid expansion of European navies the Spanish and Portuguese navies which dominated in the 16th and early 17th centuries, helped propel the age of exploration and colonialism. The repulsion of the Spanish Armada by the English fleet revolutionized naval warfare by the succe
A cannon is a type of gun classified as artillery that launches a projectile using propellant. In the past, gunpowder was the primary propellant before the invention of smokeless powder in the 19th century. Cannon vary in caliber, mobility, rate of fire, angle of fire, firepower; the word cannon is derived from several languages, in which the original definition can be translated as tube, cane, or reed. In the modern era, the term cannon has fallen into decline, replaced by guns or artillery if not a more specific term such as mortar or howitzer, except for high calibre automatic weapons firing bigger rounds than machine guns, called autocannons; the earliest known depiction of cannon appeared in Song dynasty China as early as the 12th century, however solid archaeological and documentary evidence of cannon do not appear until the 13th century. In 1288 Yuan dynasty troops are recorded to have used hand cannons in combat, the earliest extant cannon bearing a date of production comes from the same period.
By 1326 depictions of cannon had appeared in Europe and immediately recorded usage of cannon began appearing. By the end of the 14th century cannon were widespread throughout Eurasia. Cannon were used as anti-infantry weapons until around 1374 when cannon were recorded to have breached walls for the first time in Europe. Cannon featured prominently as siege weapons and larger pieces appeared. In 1464 a 16,000 kg cannon known as the Great Turkish Bombard was created in the Ottoman Empire. Cannon as field artillery became more important after 1453 with the introduction of limber, which improved cannon maneuverability and mobility. European cannon reached their longer, more accurate, more efficient "classic form" around 1480; this classic European cannon design stayed consistent in form with minor changes until the 1750s. Cannon is derived from the Old Italian word cannone, meaning "large tube", which came from Latin canna, in turn originating from the Greek κάννα, "reed", generalised to mean any hollow tube-like object.
The word has been used to refer to a gun since 1326 in Italy, 1418 in England. Both Cannons and Cannon are correct and in common usage, with one or the other having preference in different parts of the English-speaking world. Cannons is more common in North America and Australia, while cannon as plural is more common in the United Kingdom; the cannon may have appeared as early as the 12th century in China, was a parallel development or evolution of the fire-lance, a short ranged anti-personnel weapon combining a gunpowder-filled tube and a polearm of some sort. Co-viative projectiles such as iron scraps or porcelain shards were placed in fire lance barrels at some point, the paper and bamboo materials of fire lance barrels were replaced by metal; the earliest known depiction of a cannon is a sculpture from the Dazu Rock Carvings in Sichuan dated to 1128, however the earliest archaeological samples and textual accounts do not appear until the 13th century. The primary extant specimens of cannon from the 13th century are the Wuwei Bronze Cannon dated to 1227, the Heilongjiang hand cannon dated to 1288, the Xanadu Gun dated to 1298.
However, only the Xanadu gun contains an inscription bearing a date of production, so it is considered the earliest confirmed extant cannon. The Xanadu Gun weighs 6.2 kg. The other cannon are dated using contextual evidence; the Heilongjiang hand cannon is often considered by some to be the oldest firearm since it was unearthed near the area where the History of Yuan reports a battle took place involving hand cannon. According to the History of Yuan, in 1288, a Jurchen commander by the name of Li Ting led troops armed with hand cannon into battle against the rebel prince Nayan. Chen Bingying argues there were no guns before 1259 while Dang Shoushan believes the Wuwei gun and other Western Xia era samples point to the appearance of guns by 1220, Stephen Haw goes further by stating that guns were developed as early as 1200. Sinologist Joseph Needham and renaissance siege expert Thomas Arnold provide a more conservative estimate of around 1280 for the appearance of the "true" cannon. Whether or not any of these are correct, it seems that the gun was born sometime during the 13th century.
References to cannon proliferated throughout China in the following centuries. Cannon featured in literary pieces. In 1341 Xian Zhang wrote a poem called The Iron Cannon Affair describing a cannonball fired from an eruptor which could "pierce the heart or belly when striking a man or horse, transfix several persons at once."By the 1350s the cannon was used extensively in Chinese warfare. In 1358 the Ming army failed to take a city due to its garrisons' usage of cannon, however they themselves would use cannon, in the thousands on during the siege of Suzhou in 1366; the Korean kingdom of Joseon started producing gunpowder in 1374 and cannon by 1377. Cannon appeared in Đại Việt by 1390 at the latest. During the Ming dynasty cannon were used in riverine warfare at the Battle of Lake Poyang. One shipwreck in Shandong had a cannon dated to 1377 and an anchor dated to 1372. From the 13th to 15th centuries cannon-armed Chinese ships travelled throughout Southeast Asia; the first of the western cannon to be introduced were breach-loaders in the early 16th century which the Chinese began producing themselves by 1523 and began improving on.
Japan did not acquire a cannon until 1510 when a monk brought one back from China, did not produce a