Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in Roman Catholic Western Europe during the Middle Ages. In this region it served as the primary written language, though local languages were written to varying degrees. Latin functioned as the main medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of the Church, as the working language of science, literature and administration. Medieval Latin represented, in essence, a continuation of Classical Latin and Late Latin, with enhancements for new concepts as well as for the increasing integration of Christianity. Despite some meaningful differences from Classical Latin, Medieval writers did not regard it as a fundamentally different language. There is no real consensus on the exact boundary where Late Latin Medieval Latin begins; some scholarly surveys begin with the rise of early Ecclesiastical Latin in the middle of the 4th century, others around 500, still others with the replacement of written Late Latin by written Romance languages starting around the year 900.
The terms Medieval Latin and Ecclesiastical Latin are used synonymously, though some scholars draw distinctions. Ecclesiastical Latin refers to the form, used by the Roman Catholic Church, whereas Medieval Latin refers more broadly to all of the forms of Latin used in the Middle Ages; the Romance languages spoken in the Middle Ages were referred to as Latin, since the Romance languages were all descended from Classical, or Roman, Latin itself. Medieval Latin had an enlarged vocabulary, which borrowed from other sources, it was influenced by the language of the Vulgate, which contained many peculiarities alien to Classical Latin that resulted from a more or less direct translation from Greek and Hebrew. Greek provided much of the technical vocabulary of Christianity; the various Germanic languages spoken by the Germanic tribes, who invaded southern Europe, were major sources of new words. Germanic leaders became the rulers of parts of the Roman Empire that they conquered, words from their languages were imported into the vocabulary of law.
Other more ordinary words were replaced by coinages from Vulgar Latin or Germanic sources because the classical words had fallen into disuse. Latin was spread to areas such as Ireland and Germany, where Romance languages were not spoken, which had never known Roman rule. Works written in those lands where Latin was a learned language, having no relation to the local vernacular influenced the vocabulary and syntax of medieval Latin. Since subjects like science and philosophy, including Argumentation theory and Ethics, were communicated in Latin, the Latin vocabulary that developed for them became the source of a great many technical words in modern languages. English words like abstract, communicate, matter and their cognates in other European languages have the meanings given to them in medieval Latin; the influence of Vulgar Latin was apparent in the syntax of some medieval Latin writers, although Classical Latin continued to be held in high esteem and studied as models for literary compositions.
The high point of the development of medieval Latin as a literary language came with the Carolingian renaissance, a rebirth of learning kindled under the patronage of Charlemagne, king of the Franks. Alcuin was an important writer in his own right. Although it was developing into the Romance languages, Latin itself remained conservative, as it was no longer a native language and there were many ancient and medieval grammar books to give one standard form. On the other hand speaking there was no single form of "medieval Latin"; every Latin author in the medieval period spoke Latin as a second language, with varying degrees of fluency and syntax. Grammar and vocabulary, were influenced by an author's native language; this was true beginning around the 12th century, after which the language became adulterated: late medieval Latin documents written by French speakers tend to show similarities to medieval French grammar and vocabulary. For instance, rather than following the classical Latin practice of placing the verb at the end, medieval writers would follow the conventions of their own native language instead.
Whereas Latin had no definite or indefinite articles, medieval writers sometimes used forms of unus as an indefinite article, forms of ille as a definite article or quidam as something like an article. Unlike classical Latin, where esse was the only auxiliary verb, medieval Latin writers might use habere as an auxiliary, similar to constructions in Germanic and Romance languages; the accusative and infinitive construction in classical Latin was replaced by a subordinate clause introduced by quod or quia. This is identical, for example, to the use of que in similar constructions in French. In every age from the late 8th century onwards, there were learned writers who were familiar enough with classical syntax to be aware that these forms and usages were "wrong" and resisted their use, thus the Latin of a theologian like St Thomas Aquinas or of an erudite clerical historian such as William of Tyre tends to avoid most of the characteristics described above, showing its p
Citrus is a genus of flowering trees and shrubs in the rue family, Rutaceae. Plants in the genus produce citrus fruits, including important crops such as oranges, grapefruits and limes; the most recent research indicates an origin of the genus in the Himalayas. Previous research indicated an origin in the part of Southeast Asia bordered by Northeast India and the Yunnan province of China, it is in this region that some commercial species such as oranges and lemons originated. Citrus fruit has been cultivated in an ever-widening area since ancient times. Citrus plants are native to subtropical and tropical regions of Asia, Island Southeast Asia, Near Oceania, they were first domesticated in these areas. A genomic and biogeographical analysis by Wu et al. have shown that the center of origin of the genus Citrus is the southeast foothills of the Himalayas, in a region stretching from eastern Assam, northern Myanmar, to western Yunnan. It diverged from a common ancestor with Poncirus trifoliata. A change in climate conditions during the Late Miocene resulted in a sudden speciation event.
The species resulting from this event include the citrons of South Asia. This was followed by the spread of citrus species into Taiwan and Japan in the Early Pliocene, resulting in the tachibana orange; the earliest introductions of citrus species by human migrations was during the Austronesian expansion, where Citrus hystrix, Citrus macroptera, Citrus maxima were among the canoe plants carried by Austronesian voyagers eastwards into Micronesia and Polynesia. The citron was introduced early into the Mediterranean basin from India and Southeast Asia, it was introduced via two ancient trade routes: an overland route through Persia, the Levant and the Mediterranean islands. Although the exact date of the original introduction is unknown due to the sparseness of archaeobotanical remains, the earliest evidence are seeds recovered from the Hala Sultan Tekke site of Cyprus, dated to around 1200 BCE. Other archaeobotanical evidence include pollen from Carthage dating back to the 4th century BCE; the earliest complete description of the citron was first attested from Theophrastus, c. 310 BCE.
Lemons and sour oranges are believed to have been introduced to the Mediterranean by Arab traders at around the 10th century. Mandarins were not introduced until the 19th century; this group of species has reached great importance in some of the Mediterranean countries, in the case of orange and lemon trees, they found here soil and climatic conditions which allow them to achieve a high level of fruit quality better than in the regions from where they came. The "native" oranges of Florida originated with the Spanish conquistadores; the agronomists of classical Rome made many references to the cultivation of citrus fruits within the limits of their empire. King Louis XIV of France housed citrus in orangeries, to protect the tropical fruit to be grown in the 1600s France; the generic name originated from Latin, where it referred to either the plant now known as citron or a conifer tree. It is somehow related to the ancient Greek word for cedar, κέδρος; this may be due to perceived similarities in the smell of citrus leaves and fruit with that of cedar.
Collectively, Citrus fruits and plants are known by the Romance loanword agrumes. The large citrus fruit of today evolved from small, edible berries over millions of years. Citrus plants diverged from a common ancestor about 15 million years ago, about when it diverged from the related severinia, for example the Chinese box orange. About 7 million years ago, citrus plants diverged into two groups, the main citrus genus and the ancestors of the trifoliate orange, enough related that it can still be hybridized with all other citrus; these estimates are made using genetic mapping of plant chloroplasts. A DNA study published in Nature in 2018 concludes that citrus trees originated in the foothills of the Himalayas, in the area of Assam, western Yunnan, northern Myanmar; the three ancestral species in the genus Citrus associated with modern Citrus cultivars are the mandarin orange and citron. All of the common commercially important citrus fruits are hybrids involving these three species with each other, their main progenies, other wild Citrus species within the last few thousand years.
A fossil leaf from the Pliocene of Valdarno is described as †Citrus meletensis In China, fossil leaf specimens of †Citrus linczangensis have been collected from coal-bearing strata of the Bangmai Formation in the Bangmai village, about 10 km northwest of Lincang City, Yunnan. The Bangmai Formation contains abun
Allium tuberosum is a species of onion native to southwestern parts of the Chinese province of Shanxi, cultivated and naturalized elsewhere in Asia and around the world. Allium tuberosum is a rhizomatous, clump-forming perennial plant growing from a small, elongated bulb, tough and fibrous. Unlike either onion or garlic, it has strap-shaped leaves with triangular bases, about 1.5 to 8 mm wide. It produces many white flowers in a round cluster on stalks 25 to 60 cm tall, it grows in expanding perennial clumps, but readily sprouts from seed. In warmer areas, garlic chives may remain green all year round. In cold areas and stalks die back to the ground, resprout from roots or rhizomes in the spring; the flavor is more like garlic than chives. Described by Johan Peter Rottler, the species name was validly published by Curt Polycarp Joachim Sprengel in 1825. A. tuberosum is classified within Allium in subgenus Butomissa N. Friesen, section Butomissa Kamelin, a group consisting of only A. tuberosum and A. ramosum L. which have been variously regarded as either one or two genetic entities.
A. tuberosum originated in the Siberian–Mongolian–North Chinese steppes, but is cultivated and naturalised,'It has been reported as growing wild in scattered locations in the United States. However, it is believed to be more widespread in North America because of the availability of seeds and seedlings of this species as an exotic herb and because of its high aggressiveness; this species is widespread across much of mainland Europe and invasive in other areas of the world. A late summer- to autumn-blooming plant, A. tuberosum is one of several Allium species known as wild onion and/or wild garlic that, in various parts of the world, such as Australia, are listed as noxious weeds or as invasive "serious high impact environmental and/or agricultural weeds that spread and create monocultures". Grown as an ornamental plant in gardens, several cultivars are available. A. tuberosum is distinctive by blooming than most native or naturalised species of Allium. It is cold-hardy to USDA zones 4–10. Garlic chives are regarded as easy to grow in many conditions and may spread by seeds or can be intentionally propagated by dividing their clumps.
A number of varieties have been developed for either improved flower stem production. While the emphasis in Asia has been culinary, in North America, the interest has been more as an ornamental.'Monstrosum' is a giant ornamental cultivar. Uses have included as ornamental plants, including cut and dried flowers, culinary herbs, traditional medicine. Garlic chives have been cultivated for centuries in East Asia for their culinary value; the flat leaves, the stalks, immature, unopened flower buds are used as flavouring. Another form is "blanched" by regrowing after cutting under cover to produce white-yellow leaves and a subtler flavor. Pronunciation of the Chinese names for A. tuberosum, 韭菜, vary between Mandarin Chinese and Cantonese, as well as other dialects. For instance, the green leaves are jiu cai, the flower stem jiu cai hua, blanched leaves jiu huang in Mandarin, but gau tsoi, gau tsoi fa, gau wong in Cantonese, respectively. Other renderings include cuchay, kuchay, or kutsay; the leaves are used as a flavoring in a similar way to chives, scallions, or garlic, are included as a stir fry ingredient.
In China, they are used to make dumplings with a combination of egg and pork. They are a common ingredient in Chinese jiǎozi dumplings and the Korean equivalents. A Chinese flatbread similar to the scallion pancake may be made with garlic chives instead of scallions. Garlic chives are one of the main ingredients used with yi mein dishes. In Manipur and other northeastern states of India, it is grown and used as a substitute for garlic and onion in cooking and is known as maroi nakuppi in Manipuri. In Japan, where the plant is known as nira, it is used for both garlic and sweet flavours, in soups and salads, Japanese Chinese dishes such as gyōza dumplings. Known as buchu, garlic chives are used in Korean cuisine, they can be eaten fresh as namul, pickled as kimchi and jangajji, pan-fried in buchimgae. They are one of the most common herbs served with gukbap, as well as a common ingredient in mandu. In Nepal, cooks fry a curried vegetable dish of potatoes and A. tuberosum known as dunduko sag. In Thailand, they are known as gui chai.
In Vietnam, the leaves of garlic chives, known as hẹ, are cut up into short pieces and used as the only vegetable in a broth with sliced pork kidneys. In Kazakhstan, where the plant has been introduced through cultivation by Dungan farmers and ties with neighboring China, garlic chives are known by a transliteration of their Mandarin Chinese name, djutsey. Used in cooking, it is sometimes added as a filling to manty, samsa and other typical dishes. Media related to Allium tuberosum at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Allium tuberosum at Wikispecies
In the APG IV system for the classification of flowering plants, the name asterids denotes a clade. Common examples include the forget-me-nots, the common sunflower, morning glory and sweet potato, lavender, olive, honeysuckle, ash tree, snapdragon, psyllium, garden sage, table herbs such as mint and rosemary, rainforest trees such as Brazil nut. Most of the taxa belonging to this clade had been referred to the Asteridae in the Cronquist system and to the Sympetalae in earlier systems; the name asterids resembles the earlier botanical name but is intended to be the name of a clade rather than a formal ranked name, in the sense of the ICBN. The phylogenetic tree presented hereafter has been proposed by the APG IV project. Genetic analysis carried out after APG II maintains that the sister to all other asterids are the Cornales. A second order that split from the base of the asterids are the Ericales; the remaining orders cluster into two clades, the lamiids and the campanulids. The structure of both of these clades has changed in APG III.
In APG III system, the following clades were renamed: euasterids I → lamiids euasterids II → campanulids Asterids in Stevens, P. F.. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 7, May 2006
Chives, scientific name Allium schoenoprasum, are an edible species of the genus Allium. Their close relatives include the garlic, leek and Chinese onion. A perennial plant, it is widespread in nature across much of Europe and North America. A. Schoenoprasum is the only species of Allium native to both the Old Worlds. Chives are a used herb and can be found in grocery stores or grown in home gardens. In culinary use, the scapes and the unopened, immature flower buds are diced and used as an ingredient for fish, potatoes and other dishes; the edible flowers can be used in salads. Chives have insect-repelling properties; the plant provides a great deal of nectar for pollinators. It was rated in the top 10 for most nectar production in a UK plants survey conducted by the AgriLand project, supported by the UK Insect Pollinators Initiative. Chives are a bulb-forming herbaceous perennial plant, growing to 30–50 cm tall; the bulbs are slender, conical, 2–3 cm long and 1 cm broad, grow in dense clusters from the roots.
The scapes are hollow and tubular, up to 50 cm long and 2–3 mm across, with a soft texture, prior to the emergence of a flower, they may appear stiffer than usual. The grass-like leaves, which are shorter than the scapes, are hollow and tubular, or terete, which distinguishes it at a glance from garlic chives; the flowers are pale purple, star-shaped with six petals, 1–2 cm wide, produced in a dense inflorescence of 10-30 together. The seeds are produced in a three-valved capsule, maturing in summer; the herb flowers from April to May in the southern parts of its habitat zones and in June in the northern parts. Chives are the only species of Allium native to both the Old Worlds. Sometimes, the plants found in North America are classified as A. schoenoprasum var. sibiricum, although this is disputed. Differences between specimens are significant. One example was found in northern Maine growing solitary, instead of in clumps exhibiting dingy grey flowers. Although chives are repulsive to insects in general, due to their sulfur compounds, their flowers attract bees, they are at times kept to increase desired insect life.
It was formally described by the Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus in his seminal publication Species Plantarum in 1753, on page 301. The name of the species derives from skhoínos and πράσον, práson, its English name, derives from the French word cive, from cepa, the Latin word for onion. In the Middle Ages, it was known as'rush leek', it has two known subspecies. Gredense Rivas Mart. Fern. Gonz. & Sánchez Mata and Allium schoenoprasum subsp. Latiorifolium Rivas Mart. Fern. Gonz. & Sánchez Mata. Chives are native to temperate areas of Europe and North America, it is found in Asia within the Caucasus in China, Iraq, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Russian Federation Siberia and Turkey. In middle Europe, it is found within Austria, the Czech Republic, the Netherlands and Switzerland. In northern Europe, in Denmark, Norway and the United Kingdom. In southeastern Europe, within Bulgaria, Greece and Romania, it is found in southwestern Europe, in France and Spain. In Northern America, it is found in the United States. Chives are grown for their scapes and leaves, which are used for culinary purposes as a flavoring herb, provide a somewhat milder flavor than those of other Allium species.
Chives have a wide variety of culinary uses, such as in traditional dishes in France and elsewhere. In his 1806 book Attempt at a Flora, Retzius describes how chives are used with pancakes, soups and sandwiches, they are an ingredient of the gräddfil sauce with the traditional herring dish served at Swedish midsummer celebrations. The flowers may be used to garnish dishes. In Poland and Germany, chives are served with quark cheese. Chives are one of the fines herbes of French cuisine, the others being tarragon and parsley. Chives can be found fresh at most markets year-round, making them available. Retzius describes how farmers would plant chives between the rocks making up the borders of their flowerbeds, to keep the plants free from pests; the growing plant repels unwanted insect life, the juice of the leaves can be used for the same purpose, as well as fighting fungal infections and scab. The medicinal properties of chives are weaker, they have mild stimulant and antiseptic properties. As chives are served in small a
A pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus of the family Pinaceae. Pinus is the sole genus in the subfamily Pinoideae; the Plant List compiled by the Royal Botanic Gardens and Missouri Botanical Garden accepts 126 species names of pines as current, together with 35 unresolved species and many more synonyms. The modern English name "pine" derives from Latin pinus, which some have traced to the Indo-European base *pīt- ‘resin’. Before the 19th century, pines were referred to as firs. In some European languages, Germanic cognates of the Old Norse name are still in use for pines—in Danish fyr, in Norwegian fura/fure/furu, Swedish fura/furu, Dutch vuren, German Föhre—but in modern English, fir is now restricted to fir and Douglas fir. Pine trees are evergreen, coniferous resinous trees growing 3–80 m tall, with the majority of species reaching 15–45 m tall; the smallest are Siberian dwarf pine and Potosi pinyon, the tallest is an 81.79 m tall ponderosa pine located in southern Oregon's Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest.
Pines are long lived and reach ages of 100–1,000 years, some more. The longest-lived is Pinus longaeva. One individual of this species, dubbed "Methuselah", is one of the world's oldest living organisms at around 4,600 years old; this tree can be found in the White Mountains of California. An older tree, now cut down, was dated at 4,900 years old, it was discovered in a grove beneath Wheeler Peak and it is now known as "Prometheus" after the Greek immortal. The bark of most pines is thick and scaly; the branches are produced in regular "pseudo whorls" a tight spiral but appearing like a ring of branches arising from the same point. Many pines are uninodal, producing just one such whorl of branches each year, from buds at the tip of the year's new shoot, but others are multinodal, producing two or more whorls of branches per year; the spiral growth of branches and cone scales may be arranged in Fibonacci number ratios. The new spring shoots are sometimes called "candles"; these "candles" offer foresters a means to evaluate fertility of the vigour of the trees.
Pines have four types of leaf: Seed leaves on seedlings are borne in a whorl of 4–24. Juvenile leaves, which follow on seedlings and young plants, are 2–6 cm long, green or blue-green, arranged spirally on the shoot; these are produced for six months to five years longer. Scale leaves, similar to bud scales, are small and not photosynthetic, arranged spirally like the juvenile leaves. Needles, the adult leaves, are green and bundled in clusters called fascicles; the needles can number from one to seven per fascicle, but number from two to five. Each fascicle is produced from a small bud on a dwarf shoot in the axil of a scale leaf; these bud scales remain on the fascicle as a basal sheath. The needles persist depending on species. If a shoot is damaged, the needle fascicles just below the damage will generate a bud which can replace the lost leaves. Pines are monoecious, having the male and female cones on the same tree, though a few species are sub-dioecious, with individuals predominantly, but not wholly, single-sex.
The male cones are small 1–5 cm long, only present for a short period, falling as soon as they have shed their pollen. The female cones take 1.5–3 years to mature after pollination, with actual fertilization delayed one year. At maturity the female cones are 3–60 cm long; each cone has numerous spirally. The seeds are small and winged, are anemophilous, but some are larger and have only a vestigial wing, are bird-dispersed. At maturity, the cones open to release the seeds, but in some of the bird-dispersed species, the seeds are only released by the bird breaking the cones open. In others, the seeds are stored in closed cones for many years until an environmental cue triggers the cones to open, releasing the seeds; the most common form of serotiny is pyriscence, in which a resin binds the cones shut until melted by a forest fire. Pines are gymnosperms; the genus is divided into two subgenera, which can be distinguished by cone and leaf characters: Pinus subg. Pinus, the yellow, or hard pine group with harder wood and two or three needles per fascicle Pinus subg.
Strobus, the white, or soft pine group with softer wood and five needles per fascicle Pines are native to the Northern Hemisphere, in a few parts of the tropics in the Southern Hemisphere. Most regions of the Northern Hemisphere host some native species of pines. One species crosses the equator in Sumatra to 2°S. In North America, various species occur in regions at latitudes from as far north as 66°N to as far south as 12°N. Pines may be found in a large variety of environments, ranging from semi-arid desert to rainforests, from sea level up to 5,200 metres, from the coldest to the hottest environments on Earth, they occur in mountainous areas with favorable soils and at least some water. Various species have been introduced to temperate and subtropical regions of both hemisp
Coriander known as Chinese parsley, the stems and leaves of which are called cilantro in North America, is an annual herb in the family Apiaceae. All parts of the plant are edible, but the fresh leaves and the dried seeds are the parts most traditionally used in cooking. Most people perceive the taste of coriander leaves as a tart, lemon/lime taste, but a smaller group of about 4–14% of people tested think the leaves taste like bath soap, as linked to a gene which detects aldehyde chemicals present in both. Coriander is native to regions spanning from southern Europe and northern Africa to southwestern Asia, it is a soft plant growing to 50 cm tall. The leaves are variable in shape, broadly lobed at the base of the plant, slender and feathery higher on the flowering stems; the flowers are borne in small umbels, white or pale pink, with the petals pointing away from the center of the umbel longer than those pointing toward it. The fruit is dry schizocarp 3 -- 5 mm in diameter. First attested in English in the late 14th century, the word "coriander" derives from the Old French: coriandre, which comes from Latin: coriandrum, in turn from Ancient Greek: κορίαννον, derived from Ancient Greek: κόρις, kóris, was given on account of its foetid, bed bug-like smell.
The earliest attested form of the word is the Mycenaean Greek ko-ri-ja-da-na written in Linear B syllabic script which evolved to koriannon or koriandron, koriander. Cilantro is the Spanish word for coriander deriving from coriandrum, it is the common term in North American English for coriander leaves, due to their extensive use in Mexican cuisine. Although native to Iran, coriander grows wild over a wide area of Western Asia and Southern Europe, prompting the comment: "It is hard to define where this plant is wild and where it only established itself." Fifteen desiccated mericarps were found in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B level of the Nahal Hemar Cave in Israel, which may be the oldest archaeological find of coriander. About half a litre of coriander mericarps was recovered from the tomb of Tutankhamen, because this plant does not grow wild in Egypt and Hopf interpret this find as proof that coriander was cultivated by the ancient Egyptians. Coriander seems to have been cultivated in Greece since at least the second millennium BC.
One of the Linear B tablets recovered from Pylos refers to the species as being cultivated for the manufacture of perfumes, it was used in two forms: as a spice for its seeds and as a herb for the flavour of its leaves. This appears to be confirmed by archaeological evidence from the same period. All parts of the plant are edible, but the fresh leaves and the dried seeds are the parts most traditionally used in cooking, Coriander is used in cuisines throughout the world; the leaves are variously referred to as coriander leaves, fresh coriander, Chinese parsley, or cilantro. Coriander may be confused with culantro, an Apiaceae like coriander, but from a different genus. Culantro has a distinctly different spiny appearance, a more potent volatile leaf oil and a stronger aroma; the leaves have a different taste with citrus overtones. The fresh leaves are an ingredient in many South Asian foods. In Portugal, chopped coriander is used in the bread soup Açorda, in India, chopped coriander is a garnish on Indian dishes such as dal.
As heat diminishes their flavour, coriander leaves are used raw or added to the dish before serving. In Indian and Central Asian recipes, coriander leaves are used in large amounts and cooked until the flavour diminishes; the leaves spoil when removed from the plant, lose their aroma when dried or frozen. The dry fruits are known as coriander seeds; the word "coriander" in food preparation may refer to these seeds, rather than to the plant. The seeds have a lemony citrus flavour when crushed, due to terpenes pinene, it is described as warm, nutty and orange-flavoured. The variety C. s. vulgare has a fruit diameter of 3–5 mm, while var. C. s. microcarpum fruits have a diameter of 1.5–3 mm. Large-fruited types are grown by tropical and subtropical countries, e.g. Morocco and Australia, contain a low volatile oil content, they are used extensively for blending purposes in the spice trade. Types with smaller fruit are produced in temperate regions and have a volatile oil content around 0.4-1.8%, so are valued as a raw material for the preparation of essential oil.
Coriander is found both as whole dried seeds and in ground form. Roasting or heating the seeds in a dry pan heightens the flavour and pungency. Ground coriander seed loses flavour in storage and is best ground fresh. Coriander seed is a spice in garam masala and Indian curries which employ the ground fruits in generous amounts together with cumin, acting as a thickener in a mixture called dhana jeera. Roasted coriander seeds, called dhana dal, are eaten as a snack, they are the main ingredient of the two south Indian dishes rasam. Outsid