Saudi Arabian–led intervention in Yemen
A military intervention was launched by Saudi Arabia in 2015, leading a coalition of nine countries from the Middle East and Africa, in response to calls from the internationally recognized pro-Saudi president of Yemen Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi for military support after he was ousted by the Houthi movement due to economic and political grievances, fled to Saudi Arabia. Code-named Operation Decisive Storm, the intervention is said to be in compliance with Article 2 of the UN Charter by the international community; the intervention consisted of a bombing campaign on Houthi rebels and saw a naval blockade and the deployment of ground forces into Yemen. The Saudi-led coalition has attacked the positions of the Houthi militia, loyalists of the former President of Yemen, Ali Abdullah Saleh supported by Iran; the Houthis who had pressured Mansur Hadi for reforms, say that they took power through a popular revolution and are defending Yemen from a western backed invasion. The Saudi-led bombings soon expanded to most of Western Yemen including civilian targets and was followed by UAE-led deployment of ground forces in the South.
Fighter jets and ground forces from Egypt, Jordan, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar and Academi took part in the operation. Djibouti and Somalia made their airspace, territorial waters, military bases available to the coalition; the United States provided intelligence and logistical support, including aerial refueling and search-and-rescue for downed coalition pilots. It accelerated the sale of weapons to coalition states; the US and Britain have deployed their military personnel in the command and control centre responsible for Saudi-led air strikes on Yemen, having access to lists of targets. Pakistan was called on by Saudi Arabia to join the coalition, but its parliament voted to maintain neutrality. On 21 April 2015, the Saudi-led military coalition announced an end to Operation Decisive Storm, saying the intervention's focus would "shift from military operations to the political process". Saudi Arabia and its coalition partners announced the launch of a political and peace efforts, which they called Operation Restoring Hope.
The coalition did not stop its use of force, saying it would respond to threats and prevent Houthi militants from operating within Yemen. Qatar was suspended from the coalition due to the 2017 Qatar diplomatic crisis, Morocco ended their participation in 2019 due to deterioration of Morocco–Saudi Arabia relations following Al Arabiya's alleged documentary questioning Moroccan sovereignty in Western Sahara; the war has received widespread criticism and had a dramatic worsening effect on Yemen's humanitarian situation, that reached the level of a "humanitarian disaster" or "humanitarian catastrophe", some have labelled it as a genocide. After the Saudi-led coalition declared the entire Saada Governorate a military target, the UN's Humanitarian Coordinator for Yemen and Human Rights Watch said that air strikes by the Saudi-led coalition on Saada city in Yemen were in breach of international law. On 1 July 2015 UN declared for Yemen a "level-three" emergency—the highest UN emergency level—for a period of six months.
Human rights groups blamed the Saudi-led military coalition for killing civilians and destroying health centers and other infrastructure with airstrikes. The de facto blockade left 78% of the Yemeni population in urgent need of food and medical aid. Aid ships are allowed. In one incident, coalition jets prevented an Iranian Red Crescent plane from landing by bombing Sanaʽa International Airport's runway, which blocked aid delivery by air; as of 10 December 2015, more than 2,500,000 people had been internally displaced by the fighting. Many countries evacuated more than 23,000 foreign citizens from Yemen. More than 1,000,000 people fled Yemen for Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Ethiopia and Oman; the war has caused a humanitarian crisis, including a famine which has threatened 13 million people, as well as an outbreak of cholera which has infected an estimated 1.2 million. In November 2018, UNICEF described Yemen as "a living hell for children" saying that every 10 minutes a child is dying due to preventable diseases as a result of the war.
More than 85,000 children under age 5 may have died of starvation. Saudi-backed Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi, running unopposed as the only candidate for president, won the 2012 Yemeni elections. Since August 2014, the Houthis, a Zaidi Shia movement and militant group thought to be backed by Iran, dissatisfied with Hadi government's decisions and the new constitution, arranged mass protests which culminated into their takeover of the Yemeni government in 2015, declaring victory of the revolution and drafting a new constitution when Hadi's provisional government had expired its term. Saudi Arabia and other countries denounced this as an unconstitutional coup d'état. In military operations on the ground, the Houthis were supported by sections of the Yemeni armed forces loyal to former president Ali Abdullah Saleh, removed from power as part of the 2011 Arab Spring uprisings. Houthi leaders claimed that Saudi Arabia was trying to break the alliance between the Houthis and Saleh's supporters, reports claimed that Saleh's son Ahmed Ali Saleh had traveled to the Saudi capital to attempt to broker a deal to end the airstrikes.
Saudi media claim that his son had approached Riyadh seeking such a deal. By September 2014, Houthi fighters captured Sanaʽa, topplin
Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor
The Lockheed Martin F-22 Raptor is a fifth-generation, single-seat, twin-engine, all-weather stealth tactical fighter aircraft developed for the United States Air Force. The result of the USAF's Advanced Tactical Fighter program, the aircraft was designed as an air superiority fighter, but has ground attack, electronic warfare, signal intelligence capabilities; the prime contractor, Lockheed Martin, built most of the F-22's airframe and weapons systems and conducted final assembly, while Boeing provided the wings, aft fuselage, avionics integration, training systems. The aircraft was variously designated F-22 and F/A-22 before it formally entered service in December 2005 as the F-22A. After a protracted development and despite operational issues, the USAF considered the F-22 critical to its tactical air power; when the aircraft was introduced, the USAF stated that it was unmatched by any known or projected fighter. The F-22's combination of stealth, aerodynamic performance, situational awareness gives the aircraft unprecedented air combat capabilities.
The high cost of the aircraft, a lack of clear air-to-air missions due to delays in Russian and Chinese fighter programs, a ban on exports, development of the more versatile F-35 led to the end of F-22 production. A final procurement tally of 187 operational production aircraft was established in 2009, the last F-22 was delivered to the USAF in 2012. In 1981, the U. S. Air Force identified a requirement for an Advanced Tactical Fighter to replace the F-15 Eagle and F-16 Fighting Falcon. Code named "Senior Sky", this air superiority fighter program was influenced by the emerging worldwide threats, including development and proliferation of Soviet Su-27 "Flanker"- and MiG-29 "Fulcrum"-class fighter aircraft, it would take advantage of the new technologies in fighter design on the horizon, including composite materials, lightweight alloys, advanced flight control systems, more powerful propulsion systems, stealth technology. The request for proposals was issued in September 1985. Of the seven bidding companies and Northrop were selected on 31 October 1986.
Lockheed teamed with Boeing and General Dynamics while Northrop teamed with McDonnell Douglas, the two teams undertook a 50-month demonstration/validation phase, culminating in the flight test of two technology demonstrator prototypes, the YF-22 and the YF-23 respectively. The program was managed by the Advanced Tactical Fighter Systems Program Office located at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base; each team produced one for each of the two engine options. The Lockheed-led team employed thrust vectoring nozzles on YF-22 for enhanced maneuverability in dogfights. Efforts to control the ATF's weight and cost drove out certain requirements during development. Side-looking radars were deleted, the dedicated infra-red search and track system was downgraded from multi-color to single color and deleted as well; however and cooling provisions were retained to allow for future addition of these components. The ejection seat requirement was downgraded from a fresh design to the existing McDonnell Douglas ACES II.
After the flight test demonstration/validation of the prototypes, on 23 April 1991, Secretary of the USAF Donald Rice announced the YF-22 as the winner of the ATF competition. The YF-23 design was considered faster, while the YF-22 was more maneuverable; the aviation press speculated that the Lockheed-led team's design was more adaptable to the U. S. Navy's Navalized Advanced Tactical Fighter, but by 1992, the Navy had abandoned NATF. While the overall shapes are similar, the F-22 would have several notable differences from the YF-22; the swept-back angle of the leading edge was decreased from 48° to 42°, while the vertical stabilizers were shifted rearward and decreased in area by 20%. To improve pilot visibility, the canopy was moved forward 7 inches, the engine intakes moved rearward 14 inches; the shapes of the wing and stabilator trailing edges were refined to improve aerodynamics and stealth characteristics. Increasing weight during development caused slight reductions in maneuver performance.
Prime contractor Lockheed Martin Aeronautics manufactured the majority of the airframe and performed final assembly at Dobbins Air Reserve Base in Marietta, Georgia. F-22 production supported over 1,000 subcontractors and suppliers from 46 states and up to 95,000 jobs, which increased Congressional support. Production spanned 15 years at a peak rate of two airplanes per month; the first F-22, an Engineering. Manufacturing and Development aircraft with tail number 4001, was unveiled at Marietta, Georgia, on 9 April 1997, first flew on 7 September 1997. In 2006, the F-22 development team won the Collier Trophy, American aviation's most prestigious award. Due to the aircraft's advanced nature, contractors have been targeted by cyberattacks and technology theft; the USAF envisioned ordering 750 ATFs at a total program cost of $44.3 billion and procurement cost of $26.2 billion in fiscal year 1985 dollars, with production beginning in 1994. The 1990 Major Aircraft Review led by Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney reduced this to 648 aircraft beginning in 1996.
By 1997, funding instability had further cut the total to 339, again reduced to 277 by 2003. In 2004, the Department of Defense further reduced this to 183 operational aircraft, despite the USAF's preference for 381. A multi-year procurement plan was implemented in 2006 to save $15 billion, program's total cost projected to be $62 billion for 183 F-22s distributed
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U. S. allies or partner nations. With the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the Navy is the third largest of the service branches, it has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March 2018, making it the second-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force. The U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, established during the American Revolutionary War and was disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter.
The U. S. Navy played a major role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy and seizing control of its rivers, it played the central role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The US Navy emerged from World War II as the most powerful navy in the world; the 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a sizable global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean, it is a blue-water navy with the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward deployments during peacetime and respond to regional crises, making it a frequent actor in U. S. foreign and military policy. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, headed by the civilian Secretary of the Navy; the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, headed by the Secretary of Defense. The Chief of Naval Operations is the most senior naval officer serving in the Department of the Navy.
The mission of the Navy is to maintain and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas. The U. S. Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States; the Navy's three primary areas of responsibility: The preparation of naval forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war. The maintenance of naval aviation, including land-based naval aviation, air transport essential for naval operations, all air weapons and air techniques involved in the operations and activities of the Navy; the development of aircraft, tactics, technique and equipment of naval combat and service elements. U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is "to be prepared to conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest." As part of that establishment, the U. S. Navy's functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to "sealift" duties, it follows as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, with it, everything honorable and glorious.
Naval power... is the natural defense of the United States The Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors and shipbuilders. In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia; the rationale for establishing a national navy was debated in the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, make it easier to seek out support from foreign countries. Detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy the world's preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships and reported the captures to the Congress. On 13 October 1775, the Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels to be armed for a cruise against British merchant ships. S. Navy; the Continental Navy achieved mixed results.
In August 1785, after the Revolutionary War had drawn to a close, Congress had sold Alliance, the last ship remaining in the Continental Navy due to a lack of funds to maintain the ship or support a navy. In 1972, the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Elmo Zumwalt, authorized the Navy to celebrate its birthday on 13 October to honor the establishment of the Continental Navy in 1775; the United States was without a navy for nearly a decade, a state of affairs that exposed U. S. maritime merchant ships to a series of attacks by the Barbary pirates. The sole armed maritime presence between 1790 and the launching of the U. S. Navy's first warships in 1797 was the U. S. Revenue-Marine, the primary predecessor of the U. S. Coast Guard. Although the USRCS conducted operations against the pirates, their depredations far outstripped its abilities and Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794 that established a permanent standing navy on 27 March 1794; the Naval Act ordered the construction and manning of six frigates and, by October 1797, the first three were brought into service: USS United States, USS Constellation, USS Constitution.
Due to his strong posture on having a strong standing Navy during this period, John Adams is "often called the father of the American Navy". In 1798–99 the Navy was involved in an undeclared Quasi-War with France. From 18
Mark 81 bomb
The Mark 81 250 lb general purpose bomb is the smallest of the Mark 80 series of low-drag general-purpose bombs. Developed for United States military forces in the 1950s, it was first used during the Vietnam War; the bomb consists of a cast steel case with 96 lb of Composition Minol or Tritonal explosive. The power of the Mk 81 was found to be inadequate for U. S. military tactical use, it was discontinued, although license-built copies or duplicates of this weapon remain in service with various other nations. Development of a precision guided variant of the Mk 81 bomb was started due to its potential to reduce collateral damage compared to larger bombs, but this program has now been cancelled in favor of the Small Diameter Bomb. Mark 81 Snakeye fitted with a Mark 14 TRD to increase the bomb's drag after release; the bomb's increased air-time, coupled with its forgiving safe drop envelope, allowed for low-level bombing runs at slower speed. Used in the close air support role in Vietnam. Nicknamed "snake", as in the typical Vietnam support loadout of "snake and nape".
GBU-29 Joint Direct Attack Munition, a precision guided version of the Mark 81. Mark 82 bomb Mark 83 bomb Mark 84 bomb Notes Bibliography Mk81 GP Bomb Mk81 General Purpose Bomb DUMB BOMBS, FUZES, AND ASSOCIATED COMPONENTS
GBU-16 Paveway II
The GBU-16 Paveway II is an American Paveway-series laser-guided bomb, based on the Mk 83 general-purpose bomb, but with laser seeker and wings for guidance. The GBU-16 was introduced into service around 1976 and is used by the U. S. Air Force, U. S. Navy, U. S. Marine Corps, various NATO air forces, it has a 1,000 pound general purpose warhead. The bomb in the GBU-16 Paveway II is a 1,000 pound Mark 83 bomb. GBU-16 bombs are produced by defense giants Lockheed Raytheon. Raytheon began production after purchasing the product line from Texas Instruments. Lockheed Martin was awarded a contract to compete with Raytheon when there was a break in production caused by transferring manufacturing out of Texas. Raytheon production of the GBU-16 is centered in Arizona and New Mexico. Lockheed Martin production is centered in Pennsylvania. Laser Guided Bombs are labeled as "smart bombs" despite requiring external input in the form of laser designation of the intended target. According to Raytheon's fact sheet for the PAVEWAY 2, 99 deliveries of guided munitions will yield a circular error probable of only 3.6 feet, versus a CEP of 310 feet for 99 unguided bombs dropped under similar conditions.
Raytheon's official Paveway fact page Globalsecurity.org Paveway fact page