In military munitions, a fuze is the part of the device that initiates function. In some applications, such as torpedoes, a fuze may be identified by function as the exploder; the relative complexity of the earliest fuze designs can be seen in cutaway diagrams. A fuze is a device. In addition, a fuze will have safety and arming mechanisms that protect users from premature or accidental detonation. For example, an artillery fuze's battery is activated by the high acceleration of cannon launch, the fuze must be spinning before it will function. "Complete bore safety" can be achieved with mechanical shutters that isolate the detonator from the main charge until the shell is fired. A fuze may contain only the electronic or mechanical elements necessary to signal or actuate the detonator, but some fuzes contain a small amount of primary explosive to initiate the detonation. Fuzes for large explosive charges may include an explosive booster. Professional publications about explosives and munitions distinguish the "fuse" and "fuze" spelling.
The UK Ministry of Defence states: FUSE: Cord or tube for the transmission of flame or explosion consisting of cord or rope with gunpowder or high explosive spun into it. FUZE: A device with explosive components designed to initiate a main charge. Oliver Hogg states the following about fuze: The word "fuze" is spelt "fuse" by those unaquainted with artillery usage; this is incorrect. "Fuse", derived from fusus, the past participle of fundo, means "to melt", e.g. the term "fuse-wire" used in electrical circuits. "Fuze", on the other hand, is the shortened or modern method of spelling "fuzee", meaning a tube filled with combustible material. It is a derivation of a spindle and from the French fusee, a spindle full of thread, it is well to make this point at the outset. It was spelled with either's' or'z', both spellings can still be found. In the United States and some military forces, fuze is used to denote a sophisticated ignition device incorporating mechanical and/or electronic components as opposed to a simple burning fuse.
The situation of usage and the characteristics of the munition it is intended to activate affect the fuze design e.g. its safety and actuation mechanisms. Artillery fuzes are tailored to function in the special circumstances of artillery projectiles; the relevant factors are the projectile's initial rapid acceleration, high velocity and rapid rotation, which affect both safety and arming requirements and options, the target may be moving or stationary. Artillery fuzes may be initiated by a timer mechanism, impact or detection of proximity to the target, or a combination of these. Requirements for a hand grenade fuze are defined by the projectile's small size and slow delivery over a short distance; this necessitates manual arming before throwing as the grenade has insufficient initial acceleration for arming to be driven by "setback" and no rotation to drive arming by centrifugal force. Aerial bombs can be detonated either by a fuze, which contains a small explosive charge to initiate the main charge, or by a "pistol", a firing pin in a case which strikes the detonator when triggered.
The pistol may be considered a part of the mechanical fuze assembly. The main design consideration is that the bomb that the fuze is intended to actuate is stationary, the target itself is moving in making contact. Relevant design factors in naval mine fuzes are that the mine may be static or moving downward through the water, the target is moving on or below the water surface above the mine. Time fuzes detonate after a set period of time by using one or more combinations of mechanical, pyrotechnic or chemical timers. Depending on the technology used, the device may self-destruct some seconds, hours, days, or months after being deployed. Early artillery time fuzes were nothing more than a hole filled with gunpowder leading from the surface to the centre of the projectile; the flame from the burning of the gunpowder propellant ignited this "fuze" on firing, burned through to the centre during flight igniting or exploding whatever the projectile may have been filled with. By the 19th century devices more recognisable as modern artillery "fuzes" were being made of selected wood and trimmed to burn for a predictable time after firing.
These were still fired from smoothbore muzzle-loaders with a large gap between the shell and barrel, still relied on flame from the gunpowder propellant charge escaping past the shell on firing to ignite the wood fuze and hence initiate the timer. In the mid-to-late 19th century adjustable metal time fuzes, the fore-runners of today's time fuzes, containing burning gunpowder as the delay mechanism became common, in conjunction with the introduction of rifled artillery. Rifled guns introduced a tight fit between shell and barrel and hence could no longer rely on the flame from the propellant to initiate the timer; the new metal fuzes use the shock of firing and/or the projectiles's rotation to "arm" the fuze and initiate the timer: hence introducing a safety factor absent. During World War I, mechanical, or clockwork, time fuzes were introduced for artillery by Germany, some variants are still in use; as late
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
The BLU-82B/C-130 weapon system, known under program "Commando Vault" and nicknamed "Daisy Cutter" in Vietnam for its ability to flatten a section of forest into a helicopter landing zone, is an American 15,000-pound conventional bomb, delivered from either a C-130 or an MC-130 transport aircraft. 225 were constructed. It was used during military operations in Vietnam, the Gulf War and Afghanistan; the BLU-82 was retired in 2008 and replaced with the more powerful GBU-43/B MOAB. The designation "BLU" stands for Bomb Live Unit. Designed to create an instant clearing in the jungles of Vietnam, the BLU-82B/C-130 was test-dropped there from a CH-54 Tarhe "Flying crane" helicopter, it was used in Afghanistan as an anti-personnel weapon and as an intimidation weapon because of its large blast radius combined with a visible flash and audible sound at long distances. It is one of the largest conventional weapons to be used, outweighed only by a few earthquake bombs, thermobaric bombs, demolition bombs.
Some of these include the Grand Slam and T12 earthquake bombs of late World War II, more the Russian Air Force FOAB and USAF GBU-43/B Massive Ordnance Air Blast bomb, the Massive Ordnance Penetrator. The BLU-82 uses ammonium aluminum; the warhead contains 12,600 pounds of low-cost GSX slurry. The Daisy Cutter has sometimes been incorrectly reported as a fuel-air explosive device. FAE devices consist of a flammable liquid and a dispersing mechanism, take their oxidizers from the oxygen in the air. FAEs run between 500 and 2,000 pounds. Making an FAE the size of a Daisy Cutter would be difficult because the correct uniform mixture of the flammable agent with the ambient air would be difficult to maintain if the agent were so dispersed. A conventional explosive is much more reliable in that regard if there is significant wind or thermal gradient; the BLU-82 produces an overpressure of 1,000 pounds per square inch near ground zero, tapering off as distance increases. It is detonated just above ground by a 38-inch fuze extender.
This results in a maximum destruction at ground level without digging a crater. This system depends upon the accurate positioning of the aircraft by either a fixed ground radar or on-board navigation equipment; the ground radar controller, or aircrew navigator if applicable, is responsible for positioning the aircraft prior to final countdown and release. Primary aircrew considerations include accurate ballistic and wind computations provided by the navigator, precision instrument flying with strict adherence to controller instructions. Due to its powerful blast effects, the minimum safe altitude for releasing this weapon is 6,000 feet above ground level; the BLU-82 was designed to clear helicopter landing zones and artillery emplacements in Vietnam. The first use of a BLU-82 occurred on 22 March 1970, when one was dropped north of Long Tieng, Laos during Campaign 139. During Operation Lam Son 719 in 1971 25 BLU-82 bombs were dropped on NVA and Pathet Lao forces in Laos, they were dropped by U.
S. C-130 aircraft not only to clear landing zones, but to strike against specific targets such as warehouses, vehicle parks, enemy troop concentrations. South Vietnamese VNAF aircraft dropped BLU-82 bombs on NVA positions in desperation to support ARVN troops in the Battle of Xuân Lộc in the last days of the Vietnam War. During the Mayaguez incident, a Lockheed MC-130 dropped one BLU-82 to assist U. S. Marine forces attempting to extract themselves from Koh Tang island. Eleven BLU-82Bs were palletized and dropped in five night missions during the 1991 Gulf War, all from Special Operations MC-130 Combat Talons; the initial drop tested the ability of the bomb to breach mine fields. Bombs were dropped as much for their psychological effect as for their anti-personnel effects. Due to the size of the conventional blast, a British SAS unit that witnessed the explosion mistakenly assumed the U. S. had used a nuclear weapon and radioed back to their headquarters exclaiming, "Sir, the blokes have just nuked Kuwait!".
The U. S. Air Force dropped several BLU-82s during the campaign to destroy Taliban and al-Qaeda bases in Afghanistan to attack and demoralize personnel and to destroy cave complexes. American forces began using the bomb in November 2001 and again a month during the Battle of Tora Bora. On 15 July 2008, airmen from the Duke Field 711th Special Operations Squadron, 919th Special Operations Wing dropped the last operational BLU-82 at the Utah Test and Training Range. M-121 Thermobaric weapon "Bomb Live Unit." U. S. Air Force National Museum. Pike, John. "BLU-82B." Federation of American Scientists, 24 March 2004. "Daisy Cutter." 3D Animated Short Film by Enrique Garcia & Ruben Salazar