Musical film is a film genre in which songs sung by the characters are interwoven into the narrative, sometimes accompanied by dancing. The songs advance the plot or develop the film's characters, but in some cases, they serve as breaks in the storyline as elaborate "production numbers." The musical film was a natural development of the stage musical after the emergence of sound film technology. The biggest difference between film and stage musicals is the use of lavish background scenery and locations that would be impractical in a theater. Musical films characteristically contain elements reminiscent of theater. In a sense, the viewer becomes the diegetic audience, as the performer looks directly into the camera and performs to it; the 1930's through the early 1950's are considered to be the golden age of the musical film, when the genre's popularity was at its highest in the Western world. Disney's Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, the earliest Disney animated feature film, was a musical which won an honorary Oscar for Walt Disney at the 11th Academy Awards.
Musical short films were made by Lee de Forest in 1923–24. Beginning in 1926, thousands of Vitaphone shorts were made, many featuring bands and dancers; the earliest feature-length films with synchronized sound had only a soundtrack of music and occasional sound effects that played while the actors portrayed their characters just as they did in silent films: without audible dialogue. The Jazz Singer, released in 1927 by Warner Brothers, was the first to include an audio track including non-dietetic music and diegetic music, but it had only a short sequence of spoken dialogue; this feature-length film was a musical, featuring Al Jolson singing "Dirty Hands, Dirty Face", "Toot, Tootsie", "Blue Skies", "My Mammy". Historian Scott Eyman wrote, "As the film ended and applause grew with the houselights, Sam Goldwyn's wife Frances looked around at the celebrities in the crowd, she saw'terror in all their faces', she said, as if they knew that'the game they had been playing for years was over'." Still, only isolated sequences featured "live" sound.
In 1928, Warner Brothers followed this up with another Jolson part-talkie, The Singing Fool, a blockbuster hit. Theaters scrambled to install the new sound equipment and to hire Broadway composers to write musicals for the screen; the first all-talking feature, Lights of New York, included a musical sequence in a night club. The enthusiasm of audiences was so great that in less than a year all the major studios were making sound pictures exclusively; the Broadway Melody had a show-biz plot about two sisters competing for a charming song-and-dance man. Advertised by MGM as the first "All-Talking, All-Singing, All-Dancing" feature film, it was a hit and won the Academy Award for Best Picture for 1929. There was a rush by the studios to hire talent from the stage to star in lavishly filmed versions of Broadway hits; the Love Parade starred Maurice Chevalier and newcomer Jeanette MacDonald, written by Broadway veteran Guy Bolton. Warner Brothers produced the first screen operetta, The Desert Song in 1929.
They photographed a large percentage of the film in Technicolor. This was followed by the first all-color, all-talking musical feature, entitled On with the Show; the most popular film of 1929 was the second all-color, all-talking feature, entitled Gold Diggers of Broadway. This film broke all box office records and remained the highest-grossing film produced until 1939; the market became flooded with musicals and operettas. The following all-color musicals were produced in 1929 and 1930 alone: The Show of Shows, The Vagabond King, Follow Thru, Bright Lights, Golden Dawn, Hold Everything, The Rogue Song, Song of the Flame, Song of the West, Sweet Kitty Bellairs, Under a Texas Moon, Bride of the Regiment, Whoopee!, King of Jazz, Viennese Nights, Kiss Me Again. In addition, there were scores of musical features released with color sequences. Hollywood released more than 100 musical films in 1930, but only 14 in 1931. By late 1930, audiences had been oversaturated with musicals and studios were forced to cut the music from films that were being released.
For example, Life of the Party was produced as an all-color, all-talking musical comedy. Before it was released, the songs were cut out; the same thing happened to Fifty Million Frenchmen and Manhattan Parade both of, filmed in Technicolor. Marlene Dietrich sang songs in her films, Rodgers and Hart wrote a few well-received films, but their popularity waned by 1932; the public had come to associate color with musicals and thus the decline in their popularity resulted in a decline in color productions. The taste in musicals revived again in 1933 when director Busby Berkeley began to enhance the traditional dance number with ideas drawn from the drill precision he had experienced as a soldier during World War I. In films such as 42nd Street and Gold Diggers of 1933, Berkeley choreographed a number of films in his unique style. Berkeley's numbers begin on a stage but transcend the limitations of theatrical space: his ingenious routines, involving human bodies forming patterns like a kaleidoscope, could never fit onto a real stage and the intended perspective is viewing from straight above.
Musical stars such as Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers were among the most popular and highly
Britt Ekland is a Swedish actress and singer. She appeared in numerous films in her heyday throughout the 1960s and 1970s, including critically acclaimed roles in William Friedkin's The Night They Raided Minsky's, the British crime film Get Carter, which established her as a movie sex symbol, she starred in the British cult horror film The Wicker Man and appeared as a Bond girl in The Man with the Golden Gun. Her high-profile social life and her 1964 marriage to actor Peter Sellers attracted considerable press attention, leading to her being one of the most photographed celebrities in the world during the 1970s. Ekland was born Britt-Marie Eklund in Stockholm, Sweden to Maj Britt, a secretary, Sven Axel Eklund, who ran an upscale clothing store in Stockholm and was captain of the Swedish national curling team. Ekland's mother died of Alzheimer's disease in the 1980s. Ekland grew up with three younger brothers, has said that she was overweight for much of her childhood: "I was heavy. God, I was brutal-looking.
I always tried to be funny to make up for the fact that I was fat and ugly." As a teenager, Ekland left school to travel with a theatre company, was spotted by a talent agent in a coffee shop while in Italy, who sent her to London to audition for films. Ekland began her career with bit parts and uncredited walk-on roles, including her first onscreen role in G. I. Blues; this was followed with a small supporting part in The Happy Thieves. She had small roles in the Swedish films Kort är sommaren and Det är hos mig han har varit, before landing her first major supporting part in the George Marshall Western Advance to the Rear. In 1964, she appeared in the Christmas television film A Carol for Another Christmas with her then-husband, Peter Sellers, she followed this with After the Fox starring Sellers. This was followed with a lead role as an Amish girl turned New York City burlesque dancer in William Friedkin's musical The Night They Raided Minsky's, which earned Ekland critical acclaim. Next came Stiletto, a crime drama, based on a novel by Harold Robbins, co-starring Alex Cord.
She starred in a string of Italian films, Machine Gun McCain, The Conspirators, as Antigone in The Cannibals. In 1971, she was cast as a leading lady and gun moll in the iconic crime film Get Carter, opposite Michael Caine, which established her as a blonde bombshell; the 1970s saw Ekland in several horror films, including What the Peeper Saw as a disturbed bride. Her most iconic horror role came in the 1973 cult horror film The Wicker Man, in which she played a Pagan villager and seductress. Other roles included in the thriller The Ultimate Thrill and the British drama Baxter!. On television, she was cast in the TV film The Six Million Dollar Man: Wine and War opposite Lee Majors. Ekland's next prominent role came when she was cast as the lead Bond girl, Mary Goodnight, in the James Bond film The Man with the Golden Gun, which received mixed reviews but furthered Ekland's status as a sex symbol. In 1976 she provided the French spoken part at the end of boyfriend Rod Stewart's hit single "Tonight's the Night".
Ekland portrayed biographical characters, such as the one based on real-life actress Anny Ondra in the television movie Ring of Passion. Ekland was featured in the horror pictures The Monster Club and Satan's Mistress. Ekland had supporting roles in independent films, appeared in the comedy film Fraternity Vacation, followed by a role in the slasher film Moon in Scorpio and as prostitute Mariella Novotny in the feature film Scandal about the Profumo Affair, she has guest-starred on various television series, including an appearance on the popular series Superboy, playing an alien disguised as Lara, Superboy's biological mother, during the show's second season in 1990. Ekland published a beauty and fitness book, Sensual Beauty: How to Achieve It, followed by a fitness video in 1992. In the BBC television series I Love the'70s she hosted the 1971 episode in homage to her role as "Anna" in the film Get Carter. Ekland's career has consisted of stage and television, with her last feature film role being in The Children.
She appeared on stage as a cast member in Cinderella at the Regent Theatre, Stoke-on-Trent in December 1999 and January 2000. She appeared in Grumpy Old Women Live, participated in December 2007 in the Swedish reality show Stjärnorna på slottet along with Peter Stormare, Arja Saijonmaa, Jan Malmsjö and Magnus Härenstam, in December 2007 and January 2008 she starred again in Cinderella at the Wyvern Theatre, Swindon, she appeared as a guest on the British daytime television show Loose Women, in January 2008. From December 2008 to January 2009, Britt starred in Cinderella at the Shaw Theatre in London. In a rare instance of her singing, she performed the song My Prince recorded by Lara Pulver on the album Act One – Songs from the Musicals of Alexander S. Bermange. In 2009 -- 10, she played the Fairy Godmother in Cinderella at Torquay. In December 2010, she starred as the'Fairy Pea Pod' in Jack and the Beanstalk at the Kings Theatre
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition which has developed from the practices and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. Adherents of Anglicanism are called "Anglicans"; the majority of Anglicans are members of national or regional ecclesiastical provinces of the international Anglican Communion, which forms the third-largest Christian communion in the world, after the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. They are in full communion with the See of Canterbury, thus the Archbishop of Canterbury, whom the communion refers to as its primus inter pares, he calls the decennial Lambeth Conference, chairs the meeting of primates, the Anglican Consultative Council. Some churches that are not part of the Anglican Communion or recognized by the Anglican Communion call themselves Anglican, including those that are part of the Continuing Anglican movement and Anglican realignment. Anglicans base their Christian faith on the Bible, traditions of the apostolic Church, apostolic succession and the writings of the Church Fathers.
Anglicanism forms one of the branches of Western Christianity, having definitively declared its independence from the Holy See at the time of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement. Many of the new Anglican formularies of the mid-16th century corresponded to those of contemporary Protestantism; these reforms in the Church of England were understood by one of those most responsible for them, Thomas Cranmer, the Archbishop of Canterbury, others as navigating a middle way between two of the emerging Protestant traditions, namely Lutheranism and Calvinism. In the first half of the 17th century, the Church of England and its associated Church of Ireland were presented by some Anglican divines as comprising a distinct Christian tradition, with theologies and forms of worship representing a different kind of middle way, or via media, between Protestantism and Roman Catholicism – a perspective that came to be influential in theories of Anglican identity and expressed in the description of Anglicanism as "Catholic and Reformed".
The degree of distinction between Protestant and Catholic tendencies within the Anglican tradition is a matter of debate both within specific Anglican churches and throughout the Anglican Communion. Unique to Anglicanism is the Book of Common Prayer, the collection of services in one Book used for centuries; the Book is acknowledged as a principal tie that binds the Anglican Communion together as a liturgical rather than a confessional tradition or one possessing a magisterium as in the Roman Catholic Church. After the American Revolution, Anglican congregations in the United States and British North America were each reconstituted into autonomous churches with their own bishops and self-governing structures. Through the expansion of the British Empire and the activity of Christian missions, this model was adopted as the model for many newly formed churches in Africa and Asia-Pacific. In the 19th century, the term Anglicanism was coined to describe the common religious tradition of these churches.
The word Anglican originates in Anglicana ecclesia libera sit, a phrase from the Magna Carta dated 15 June 1215, meaning "the Anglican Church shall be free". Adherents of Anglicanism are called Anglicans; as an adjective, "Anglican" is used to describe the people and churches, as well as the liturgical traditions and theological concepts developed by the Church of England. As a noun, an Anglican is a member of a church in the Anglican Communion; the word is used by followers of separated groups which have left the communion or have been founded separately from it, although this is considered as a misuse by the Anglican Communion. The word Anglicanism came into being in the 19th century; the word referred only to the teachings and rites of Christians throughout the world in communion with the see of Canterbury, but has come to sometimes be extended to any church following those traditions rather than actual membership in the modern Anglican Communion. Although the term Anglican is found referring to the Church of England as far back as the 16th century, its use did not become general until the latter half of the 19th century.
In British parliamentary legislation referring to the English Established Church, there is no need for a description. When the Union with Ireland Act created the United Church of England and Ireland, it is specified that it shall be one "Protestant Episcopal Church", thereby distinguishing its form of church government from the Presbyterian polity that prevails in the Church of Scotland; the word Episcopal is preferred in the title of the Episcopal Church and the Scottish Episcopal Church, though the full name of the former is The Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States of America. Elsewhere, the term "Anglican Church" came to be preferred as it distinguished these churches from others that maintain an episcopal polity. Anglicanism, in its structures and forms of worship, is understood as a distinct Christian tradition representing a middle ground between what are perceived to be the extremes of the claims of 16th-century Roman Ca
Oliver! is a 1968 British musical drama film directed by Carol Reed, written by Vernon Harris, based on the stage musical of the same name. Both the film and play are based on Charles Dickens's novel Oliver Twist; the film includes such musical numbers as "Food, Glorious Food", "Consider Yourself", "As Long as He Needs Me", "You've Got to Pick a Pocket or Two", "Where Is Love?". Filmed at Shepperton Film Studio in Surrey, it was a Romulus Films production and was distributed internationally by Columbia Pictures. At the 41st Academy Awards for 1968, Oliver! was nominated for eleven Academy Awards and won six, including Best Picture, Best Director for Reed, an Honorary Award for choreographer Onna White. At the 26th Golden Globe Awards, the film won two Golden Globes: for Best Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy, Best Actor – Musical or Comedy for Ron Moody; the British Film Institute ranked Oliver! the 77th greatest British film of the 20th century. In 2017, a poll of 150 actors, writers and critics for Time Out magazine ranked it the 69th best British film ever.
At a workhouse in Dunstable, the governors hold a sumptuous banquet while the orphans are served their daily gruel and dream of enjoying "Food, Glorious Food". Forced by some of the other boys, Oliver approaches Mr. Bumble and Mrs. Bumble and asks for more to eat. Enraged, Bumble takes Oliver to the governors for punishment. Paraded in the street to be sold to the highest bidder, Oliver is purchased by an undertaker; when his apprentice insults Oliver's mother, Oliver is thrown in the cellar. Alone in the dark, surrounded by empty coffins, Oliver wonders "Where Is Love?" before escaping through a window grate. After a week on the road, Oliver reaches London, he meets the Artful Dodger. Dodger brings Oliver to a hideout for young pickpockets led by Fagin, who instructs the gang in the art of stealing, declaring that "You've Got to Pick a Pocket or Two" to get by. Fagin meets with Bill Sikes, a burglar. Sikes's girlfriend, ponders her life. In the morning and her friend Bet arrive at the hideout to collect Sikes's money.
The boys mock Oliver for his manners. Dodger attempts to be just as gentlemanly. Fagin sends the boys out for the day. Dodger steals a wallet from Mr. Brownlow. Fearing Oliver will lead the police to the gang and Sikes send Nancy to court. Oliver is too terrified to speak, but before the verdict is finalized, a witness arrives and proclaims Oliver's innocence. Brownlow takes Oliver in, while Fagin send Dodger to follow them, to Nancy's displeasure. Oliver wakes up in Mr. Brownlow's house, watches from his balcony the merchants and inhabitants of Bloomsbury Square singing about this particular morning being so beautiful. Meanwhile and Bill decide to abduct Oliver and bring him back to the den with Nancy's help. Nancy, who has come to care for Oliver, at first refuses to help, but Bill physically abuses her, forcing her into obedience. In spite of this, Nancy still loves Bill, believes he loves her too; the next morning at Mr. Brownlow's house in Bloomsbury, Mr. Brownlow sends Oliver to return some books to the library.
As Oliver stops to enjoy a puppet show with other children and Bill appear and grab Oliver. They bring him back to Fagin's den, where Nancy saves Oliver from a beating from Sikes after the boy tries to flee. Nancy remorsefully reviews their life. Fagin tries to act as an intermediary. Left alone, Fagin wonders. In response to a letter from Mr. Brownlow, Mr. and Mrs. Bumble visit Mr. Brownlow with a necklace, found on Oliver's mother. Mr. Brownlow realises they are not interested in Oliver's parentage, only money, gives them some money and throws them out, but recognizes the necklace as his niece's, realizes that Oliver is his great-nephew. Nancy visits Mr. Brownlow, explains how she abducted Oliver, promises to deliver Oliver to him safely that night on London Bridge. Bill takes Oliver to rob a house, but Oliver accidentally wakes up the owner after entering the house. Bill brings Oliver to the pub. Bill sets his dog Bullseye to watch Oliver. Wanting to sneak Oliver out of there, Nancy starts singing a pub song so everyone can join in and create a distraction.
When Bullseye starts barking, Bill follows her. At London Bridge, he catches up with clubs Nancy to death, he grabs Oliver and runs off. Mr. Brownlow discovers Nancy's body. A large crowd forms. Bullseye, who had turned on his master, returns to the scene and the crowd follows him to the hideout. Fagin and his boys leave their hideout the back way in panic; the crowd finds Bill at the entrance to the hideout, but the stairway collapses, Bill escapes with Oliver to the Thames Embankment. He appears at the top of the bridge, threatening to kill him. Bill is shot to death by a policeman. Fagin, who has lost all the jewels he has hidden over the years, is walking alone in the street, he again talks to himself about becoming an honest man. Dodger appears with a stolen wallet, the two dance off into the sunset and to their renewed life of crime together; the next day, Mr. Brownlow brings Oliver back to his house, Oliver hugs
Sir Carol Reed was an English film director best known for Odd Man Out, The Fallen Idol, The Third Man, Oliver!. For Oliver!, he received the Academy Award for Best Director. Odd Man Out was the first recipient of the BAFTA Award for Best British Film; the Fallen Idol won the second BAFTA Award for Best British Film. The British Film Institute voted The Third Man the greatest British film of the 20th century. Carol Reed was born in Putney, south-west London, he was his mistress, May Pinney Reed. He was educated at Canterbury, he embarked on an acting career while still in his late teens. A period in the theatrical company of the thriller writer Edgar Wallace followed, Reed became his personal assistant in 1927. Apart from acting in a few Wallace derived films himself, Reed became involved in adapting his work for the screen during the day while he was a stage manager in the evenings; the connection with Wallace ended with his death in Hollywood during February 1932. Taken on by Basil Dean, Reed worked for his Associated Talking Pictures, successively for ATP as a dialogue director, second-unit director and assistant director.
His films in the role working under Dean were Autumn Crocus, Lorna Doone and Loyalties and Java Head. His earliest films as director were "quota quickies". Of his experience making Midshipman Easy his first solo directorial project he was harsh on himself. "I was indefinite and indecisive", he said later. "I thought I had picked up a lot about cutting and camera angles, but now, when I had to make all the decisions myself and was not just mentally approving or criticising what somebody else decided, I was pretty much lost. I realised that this was the only way to learn – by making mistakes." Graham Greene reviewing films for The Spectator, was much more forgiving, commenting that Reed "has more sense of the cinema than most veteran British directors". Of Reed's comedy Laburnum Grove, he wrote: "Here at last is an English film one can unreservedly praise", he was perceptive about Reed's potential, describing the film as "thoroughly workmanlike and unpretentious, with just the hint of a personal manner which makes one believe that Mr. Reed, when he gets the right script, will prove far more than efficient."Reed's career began to develop with The Stars Look Down, from the A. J. Cronin novel, which features Michael Redgrave in the lead role.
Greene wrote that Reed "has at last had his chance and magnificently taken it." He observed that "one forgets the casting altogether: he handles his players like a master, so that one remembers them only as people." The scripts of several of Reed's films in this period were written by Frank Launder and Sidney Gilliat, with the screenwriters and director working for producer Edward Black, who released through the British subsidiary of 20th Century Fox. The best known of these films are Night Train to Munich, with Rex Harrison; the film, although inaccurate, is set during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. From 1942, Reed served in the Royal Army Ordnance Corps: he was granted the rank of Captain and placed with the film unit, with the Directorate of Army Psychiatry. For the latter body a training film, The New Lot, was made, recounting the experiences of five new recruits, it had a script by Eric Ambler and Peter Ustinov, with contributions from Reed, was produced by Thorold Dickinson.
It was remade as The Way Ahead. Reed made his three most regarded films just after the war, beginning with Odd Man Out, with James Mason in the lead, it is the tale of an injured IRA leader's last hours in an unidentified Northern Irish city. In fact, Belfast was used for the location work, it was the producer Alexander Korda, to whom Reed was now signed, who introduced the director to the novelist Graham Greene. The next two films were made from screenplays by Greene: The Third Man; the Third Man was co-produced by David O. Selznick and Korda, with the American actors Orson Welles and Joseph Cotten in two of the leading roles. Reed insisted on casting Welles as Harry Lime, although Selznick had wanted Noël Coward for the role; the film required six weeks of location work in Vienna, during which time it was Reed himself who accidentally discovered Anton Karas, the zither player responsible for the film's music, in a courtyard outside a small Viennese restaurant. Reed once said: "A picture should end.
I don’t think anything in life ends'right'". While Greene wanted Holly Martins and Anna Schmidt to reconcile at the end of the film, after Lime, her lover, is killed by Martins, Reed insisted that Anna should ignore him and walk on. "The whole point of the Valli character in that film is that she’d experienced a fatal love – and comes along this silly American!"According to the film critic Derek Malcolm, The Third Man is the "best film noir made out of Britain". The film won the Grand Prix at the Cannes Film Festival, the predecessor of the Palme d'Or. Outcast of the Islands, based on a novel by Joseph Conrad, is thought to mark the start of his creative decline; the Man Between is dismissed as a rehash of The Third Man. It "makes no startling impact, such as we have learned to expect from its director, on either the mind or the heart", complained Virginia Graham in The Spectator. While the fable A Kid for Two Farthings, Re
Jack Wild was an English actor and singer, best known for his debut role as the Artful Dodger in Oliver!, for which he received an Academy Award nomination for Best Supporting Actor as well as Golden Globe and BAFTA nominations. Wild is known for his roles as Jimmy in the NBC children's television series H. R. Pufnstuf and in the accompanying 1970 feature film as well as Much the Miller's Son in Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves. Wild was born into a working class family in Lancashire, he moved to Hounslow, in Middlesex, with his parents and his older brother Arthur in 1960 at the age of eight, where he got a job helping the milkman, which paid about five shillings. He was discovered while playing football with his brother in the park by theatrical agent June Collins, mother of Phil Collins. Collins enrolled both Jack and Arthur at the Barbara Speake Stage School, an independent school in Acton in West London; the Wild brothers sought acting roles to supplement their parents' income. In the autumn of 1964 the pair were cast in the West End theatre production of Lionel Bart's Oliver!.
Arthur in the title role and Jack as Charley Bates, a member of Fagin's gang. Wild was chosen to play the Artful Dodger for the 1968 movie version of Oliver!. His performance received critical acclaim and several nominations: Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor - Nominated at the 41st Academy Awards Golden Globe Award for Most Promising Newcomer - Nominated at 26th Golden Globe Awards BAFTA Award for Most Promising Newcomer - Nominated at 22nd British Academy Film Awards In the spring of 1966, Wild left the stage show of Oliver! to make the film serial Danny the Dragon for the Children's Film Foundation. Wild's first speaking roles on TV were an episode of Out of the Unknown, the third part of the BBC's version of the Wesker Trilogy, I'm Talking About Jerusalem. H appeared in episodes of Z-Cars, The Newcomers and George and the Dragon, it was at the 1968 premiere of Oliver! that Wild met brothers Sid and Marty Krofft, who thought he would make a good lead for a show they were developing called H.
R. Pufnstuf. Wild starred in this American family television series that launched in 1969. Pufnstuf was a segment in the second season of The Banana Splits Adventure Hour, despite 2 episodes remaining unaired until 2018, he starred in the movie Pufnstuf. Other roles followed, including the films Flight of the Doves; the latter film reunited him with Ron Moody, who had played Fagin in Oliver!. In 1972 he appeared as a stowaway in an episode of the BBC TV's The Onedin Line. In 1973 he played Reg in The 14, a British film directed by David Hemmings about children in London's East End orphaned by the death of their mother. Wild embarked on a recording career, cutting one album for Capitol Records- containing the single "Some Beautiful" that received a lot of airplay on Radio Luxembourg, but didn't chart highly - and two for Buddah Records in the early 1970s; the three albums were called Everything's Coming Up Roses and Beautiful World. However, by now Wild was becoming tired of being typecast in younger roles.
He was 17 years-old when he played the 11 year-old lead in H. R. Pufnstuf. In 1999, Wild lamented, "When I first entered in the show business, of course I didn't mind playing younger roles; however it did bug me. I'm not saying. During the early 1970s, Wild was considered a teen heartthrob, alongside David Cassidy and Barry Williams. By 1973, aged 21, he was an alcoholic and diabetic. After exhausting his remaining fortune, Wild lived with his retired father for a few years, his alcoholism resulted in numerous hospital stays. In 1981 he was supposed to star with Suzi Quatro in a series about a modern-day Bonnie and Clyde for British television, but it was cancelled at the last minute, his alcoholism ruined both his career and marriage to Gaynor Jones, who left him in 1985 because of his excessive drinking. He admitted his alcoholism was so debilitating, he had been incapable of doing any kind of work. Wild stopped drinking on 6 March 1989 after joining the Christian support group Alcoholics Victorious.
He returned to the big screen in a few minor roles, such as in the 1991 Kevin Costner film Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves and as a peddler in Basil. For the most part, he spent the remainder of his career working in theatre, his last major appearance was in Tayla Goodman's rock musical Virus. The show ran for two weeks at the Theatre Nottingham. For his final film appearance, he had a minor role in Moussaka & Chips, where he once again worked with Ron Moody. Wild first met Welsh-born actress Gaynor Jones when they were around 12 years old at the Barbara Speake stage school. After he left in 1966, he didn't see her again until Christmas of 1970, they married on 14 February 1976. She left him in 1985 because of his chronic drinking. In 2000, Wild was diagnosed with oral cancer, blaming the disease on his drinking and smoking habits, he underwent chemotherapy and had a piece of his tongue and both vocal cords removed in July 2004, leaving him unable to speak. Wild had to communicate through Claire L Harding, for the rest of his life.
The two met when he was working with the Beanstalk in Worthing. They married in Bedford in September 2005. Wild died on 1 March 2006, he was buried in Bedfordshire. At the time of his death, he and his wife, had been working on his autobiograp
Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young
Crosby, Stills & Nash is a vocal folk rock supergroup made up of American singer-songwriters David Crosby and Stephen Stills and English singer-songwriter Graham Nash. They are known as Crosby, Nash & Young when joined by Canadian singer-songwriter Neil Young, an occasional fourth member, they are noted for their intricate vocal harmonies tumultuous interpersonal relationships, political activism, lasting influence on American music and culture. Crosby, Stills & Nash were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and all three members were inducted for their work in other groups. Neil Young has been inducted as a solo artist and as a member of Buffalo Springfield. Prior to the formation of CSN, each member of the band had belonged to another prominent group. David Crosby played guitar and wrote songs with the Byrds. Due to internal friction, Crosby was dismissed from the Byrds in late 1967. By early 1968, Buffalo Springfield had disintegrated, after aiding in putting together the band's final album, Stills was unemployed.
Stills and Crosby began meeting jamming. The result of one encounter in Florida on Crosby's schooner was the song "Wooden Ships", composed in collaboration with another guest, Jefferson Airplane's Paul Kantner. Graham Nash had been introduced to Crosby when the Byrds had toured the United Kingdom in 1966, when the Hollies ventured to California in 1968, Nash resumed his acquaintance with him. At a party in July 1968 at Joni Mitchell's house, Nash asked Stills and Crosby to repeat their performance of a new song by Stills, "You Don't Have To Cry", with Nash improvising a third part harmony; the vocals gelled, the three realized that they had a good vocal chemistry. It is disputed by members of the group whether it was at the house of Cass Elliot. Stephen Stills recalls that it was at the house of Cass Elliot - he would have been too intimidated to sing as a group in front of Joni Mitchell for the first time. Nash and Crosby insist. Creatively frustrated with the Hollies, Nash decided to quit the band and work with Crosby and Stills.
After an unsuccessful audition with The Beatles' Apple Records, they were signed to Atlantic Records by Ahmet Ertegün, a fan of Buffalo Springfield and was disappointed by that band's demise. From the outset, given their previous experiences, the trio decided not to be locked into a group structure, they used their surnames as identification to ensure independence and a guarantee that the band could not continue without one of them, unlike both the Byrds and the Hollies. They picked up a management team in Elliot Roberts and David Geffen, who got them signed to Atlantic and would help to gain clout for the group in the industry. Roberts kept the band focused and dealt with egos, while Geffen handled the business deals, since, in Crosby's words, they needed a "shark" and Geffen was it. Stills was signed to Atlantic Records through his Buffalo Springfield contract. Crosby had been released from his Byrds deal with Columbia, as he was considered to be unimportant and too difficult to work with.
Nash, was still signed to Epic Records through The Hollies. Ertegun worked out a deal with Clive Davis to trade Nash to Atlantic in exchange for Richie Furay and Poco, his new band; the trio's first album, Stills & Nash, was released in May 1969. The eponymously titled album was a major hit in the United States, peaking at #6 on the Billboard album chart during a 107-week stay that spawned two Top 40 hits and significant airplay on FM radio; the album earned a RIAA triple platinum certification in 1999 and quadruple platinum certification in 2001. With the exceptions of drummer Dallas Taylor and a handful of rhythm and acoustic guitar parts from Crosby and Nash, Stills handled most of the instrumentation on the album, which left the band in need of additional personnel to be able to tour, a necessity given the debut album's commercial impact. Retaining Taylor, the band tried to hire a keyboard player. Stills approached virtuoso multi-instrumentalist Steve Winwood, occupied with the newly formed group Blind Faith.
Ertegün suggested former Buffalo Springfield member Neil Young managed by Elliot Roberts, as a obvious choice. Stills and Nash held reservations, but after several meetings, the trio expanded to a quartet with Young a full partner. The terms of the contract allowed Young full freedom to maintain a parallel career with his new band, Crazy Horse, they completed the rhythm section with former Buffalo Springfield bassist Bruce Palmer. However, Palmer was let go due to his persistent personal problems following rehearsals at the Cafe au Go Go in New York City's Greenwich Village. Teenaged Motown session bassist Greg Reeves joined in Palmer's place at t