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Brad Carson

Brad Rogers Carson is an American lawyer and politician from the state of Oklahoma who served as the Acting Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness from 2015–16. In that role, he initiated a number of notable reforms to include opening up all combat positions to women, open service by transgender service members, new recruiting and retention practices. A member of the Democratic Party, he served in the United States House of Representatives from 2001 to 2005, he served as Undersecretary of the Army from 2014 to 2015 and as General Counsel of the Army from 2012 to 2014. Carson is a senior advisor at the Boston Consulting Group. Carson has been a Professor of Public Policy for the last two years at the University of Virginia's Frank Batten School of Leadership and Public Policy, he is the only person to have voted on the authorization of the Iraq War in Congress and to have subsequently fought in it. Carson was born in Arizona, his father worked for the Bureau of Indian Affairs. During Carson's childhood the family relocated a number of times, resulting in Carson being raised in several different Native American communities, including reservations in Nevada and Kansas, as well as the Eastern Band Cherokee Reserve in North Carolina.

As a teenager, Carson moved back to Oklahoma, where his family has roots in the Cherokee Nation, of which Carson is an enrolled member. Carson studied at Jenks High Baylor University, where he was elected to Phi Beta Kappa, he became the first student at Baylor in 55 years to be awarded a Rhodes Scholarship. As a Rhodes Scholar, Carson went to Trinity College and earned a second BA in Politics and Economics, he attended the University of Oklahoma College of Law, graduating at the top of his class in 1994. According to The Almanac of American Politics, Carson had intended to attend Yale Law School, only to change his mind while at Oxford. After graduation from the University of Oklahoma, Carson took a job at a prestigious Oklahoma law firm, Crowe & Dunlevy. In 1996, his firm was awarded the Exceptional Contribution to Legal Services Award by Legal Services of Eastern Oklahoma. In 1997 Carson was selected as a White House Fellow, where he was assigned to The Pentagon as a Special Assistant to the Secretary of Defense.

In 2000, he was elected as a Democrat to the United States House of Representatives from Oklahoma's 2nd Congressional District, located in the northeastern part of the state. In the primary, Carson defeated long-term state representative Bill Settle, chairman of the Appropriations Committee in the Oklahoma House of Representatives. After redistricting changed the political composition of his district to be much more favorable to a Democratic candidate, Carson was reelected in 2002 with nearly 75 percent of the vote. During his tenure in Congress, Carson was seen as a moderate Democrat, he was a member of the conservative Democratic Blue Dog Coalition. He served on the Transportation Committee, the Natural Resources Committee, the Small Business Committee. On October 10, 2002, Brad Carson was among the 81 House Democrats who voted in favor of authorizing the invasion of Iraq. In 2004, Carson sought the open U. S. Senate seat being vacated by retiring Republican Don Nickles. Despite Carson's loss, election analyst Stuart Rothenberg called the Carson campaign one of the four best run campaigns in the nation in 2004.

The Weekly Standard called him "The Perfect Democrat" After the election, Carson wrote an article for The New Republic, the subject of much discussion. After the 2004 Senate election, Carson's term in the United States Congress expired on January 3, 2005. Carson indicated that he had no immediate plans to seek political office, and, in January 2005, he accepted a semester-long teaching fellowship specializing in U. S. politics at Harvard University. Upon leaving Harvard, he returned to his hometown of Claremore and worked as Chief Executive Officer of Cherokee Nation Businesses, owned by the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma in Catoosa, Oklahoma; as an expert in Indian law, Carson oversaw one of the largest businesses in the state, with thousands of employees, hundreds of millions of dollars in revenue, more than a dozen in-house lawyers who specialized in Indian and corporate law. In December 2008, Carson left his post at Cherokee Nation Businesses to deploy to Iraq as an Intelligence Officer in the U.

S. Navy, he was officer-in-charge of weapons intelligence teams embedded with the U. S. Army's 84th Explosive Ordnance Disposal Battalion in the nine southern provinces of Iraq. For this work, Carson received, among the Bronze Star. On his return, he was elected to the board of Cherokee Nation Businesses. In January 2010, Carson assumed a position as professor of business and law and at the University of Tulsa and as director of the National Energy Policy Institute, a non-profit energy policy organization funded by billionaire George Kaiser's family foundation. In his academic work, Carson has written extensively about the economics of renewable energy, he has contributed journalism to The Weekly Standard, The New Republic and Democracy: A Journal of Ideas. In 2010, Carson contributed to a symposium issue of Democracy: A Journal of Ideas, in which he was one of ten writers discussing the future of progressive political thought and politics, he is the author of several other works, including a guide to federal appellate practice, a work co-authored with Judge Rober

Paul E. Stein

Lieutenant General Paul E. Stein was the thirteenth Superintendent of the United States Air Force Academy. Stein was born in 1944 in Louisiana. Starting quarterback for the Falcons, Stein graduated from the Air Force Academy in 1966. Following graduation, Stein remained at the Academy to begin his career as an assistant coach for the Falcons. In addition to the Air Force Academy's education, Stein earned a master's degree in Business Administration from Florida State University, graduated from the Air Command and Staff College and Air War College, the Program for Senior Executives in National and International Security at Harvard University. Stein has served in a variety of staff positions, including deputy chief of staff for personnel, chief of staff of Tactical Air Command and commander, Keesler Technical Training Center, Keesler Air Force Base, Mississippi. Before assuming his duties as Superintendent of the Air Force Academy, he was the Air Force director of legislative liaison in Washington, D.

C.. Six years after his retirement, one year after his death, General Stein's tenure as Superintendent was scrutinized in light of the Air Force Academy sexual assault scandal. Stein's actions and leadership of the Academy were reviewed in the Fowler Report, the Air Force Working Group Report, the Report of the Defense Task Force on Sexual Harassment & Violence at the Military Service Academies. General Stein retired from active duty on September 1, 1997, he died on January 2002 from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Air Force Distinguished Service Medal Legion of Merit with one oak leaf cluster. Meritorious Service Medal with two oak leaf clusters. Air Force Commendation Medal with one oak leaf cluster. National Defense Service Medal with service star. Marco Fidel Suarez Medal. Official U. S. Air Force bio at the Wayback Machine


Synchytrium is a large genus of plant pathogens within the phylum Chytridiomycota. Species are known as false rust or wart disease. 200 species are described, all are obligate parasites of angiosperms, ferns, or mosses. Early species were mistakenly classified among the higher fungi because of their superficial similarity to the rust fungi. Anton de Bary and Mikhail S. Woronin recognized the true nature of these fungi and established the genus to accommodate Synchytrium taraxaci, which grows on dandelions, S. succisae, which grows on Succisa pratensis. Synchytrium taraxaci is the type of the genus; the genus has been divided into 6 subgenera based on differences in life cycles. Members of Synchytrium are endobiotic and inoperculate; this means Synchytrium species grow inside of the host cell, produce structures other than a zoosporangium, do not release zoospores through a lid-like structure. Zoospores of other members of Chytridiomycota give rise to one zoosorangium or a polycentric thallus capable of producing many zoosporangia.

In Synchytrium, the zoospore nucleus divides many times with each daughter nucleus giving rise to a zoosporangium. This produces a cluster of clonal zoosporangia enveloped with a membrane; this cluster is called a sorus. The zoospore can give rise to the sorus directly or it can act as a prosorus; the difference is demonstrated in the life cycle, discussed below. Most species share the same initial developmental stages; the released zoospores swim until they find a suitable host and will use amoeboid movement to better orient themselves to a host plant cell. After the zoospore attaches to a host cell, a narrow germ tube forms and penetrates the host cell, an epidermal cell. An exception to this is S. minutum. After penetration, the zoospore cytoplasm flows into the host cell; the Synchytrium nucleus travels toward the host cell nucleus and becomes enveloped in host cyctoplasm. After this point, differences arise among Synchytrium species. Species fall into one of two broad categories: long cycled.

Short cycled species follow one of two lines of development: sori, zoospore or resting spore, zoospore. Long cycled species follow a general pathway of prosori/sori, zoospore, resting spore, prosori/sori, zoospore; the nuances in life cycles are used to delineate the subgenera. Species in this subgenus are long cycled and begin as a uninucleate thallus that functions as a prosorus; the primary nucleus of the parasite grows within the host cyctoplasm. At a point, it will produce a new germ tube and exits out of the envelope, it divides numerous times with each daughter nucleus partitioned into a developing sporangium. An envelope forms around the cluster of sporangia and the cluster becomes a sorus; the sporangia release zoospores that infect other cells. These develop into resting spores. Upon germination, the resting spores function as prosori. Karling included the genus Micromyces within this subgenus. Species in this subgenus develop in a similar fashion as those in subgenus Microsynchytrium, except that the resting spore functions as a sporangium during germination.

In these species, the zoospores can develop into either a prosori, as in Microsynchytrium, or they can fuse to form a flagellated zygote. The zygote becomes a resting spore. Synchytrium endobioticum is included in this subgenus; this subgenus is referred to as Eusynchytrium. Species in this group do not form prosori; the sorus forms directly from the zoospore nucleus. Several generations can be produced during the summer. Resting spores are developed in the winter. Upon germination, the resting spore acts as a sporangium; the type, Synchytrium taraxaci, is placed in this subgenus. These species develop in a similar fashion as Eusynchytrium except that the resting spore acts as a prosorus upon germination; this subgenus is a "dumping ground" for species with incompletely known life cycles. It would seem that the primary nucleus forms a resting spore that acts as a prosorus upon germination. However, these species will need to be more examined for proper placement. Species in this group are short cycled.

The zoospore nucleus forms a sorus. Resting spores are either unknown or absent. To date, sexual reproduction is only described in four species: Synchytrium endobioticum, S. fulgens, S. macroporosum, S. psophocarpi. Synchytrium species have been reported from various habitats, from the tropics to the arctic regions. Three species, S. lacunosum, S. potentille, S. gei, are alpine in nature and have been reported to occur abundantly up to 11,500 feet. Synchytrium potentille zoospores have been observed swimming in melted snow. Outbreaks of Synchytrium occur in moist environments, such as temporary swamps inundated meadows, ditches; the environment of the host plant always determines the intensity of infection. Infection occurs during the seedling stage and produces galls on the host plant; these galls can be the result of the infected cell enlarging or a combination of enlargement of the infected cell with the enlargement and division of neighboring cells. Infections are not destructive with the noted exceptions of Synchytrium endobioticum, S. vaccinnii, S. sesamicola, S. oxalydis, S. geranii, S. cookii.

As in other members of Chytridiomycota, dispersal through the zoospore is limited to the immediate environment of the host cell. Long range dispersal can be achieved through other stages. For

Alfred Wolf (sailor)

Alfred Wolf was a United States Navy sailor who distinguished himself in combat during World War II and died in action. A U. S. Navy destroyer. Alfred Wolf was born in Germany on 1 August 1923, he enlisted in the United States Naval Reserve at New York City on 7 January 1942 and went through United States Marine Corps Recruit Training at Newport, Rhode Island, between 11 January 1942 and 11 February 1942. Following further instruction at the Naval Operating Base, Norfolk at Norfolk, Virginia, he entered the Naval Armed Guard School at Little Creek, Virginia, on 23 March 1942. After completing the intensive training given the men preparing for Naval Armed Guard assignments at Little Creek, Wolf reported aboard the Liberty ship SS Samuel Chase on 20 April 1942 and was serving in that ship when she departed Iceland for the northern Soviet Union as part of Convoy PQ 17 on 27 June 1942. German planes continued their raids over the next few days; the convoy's heavy supporting force of warships was drawn off.

Six near-misses from German bombers on 10 July 1942 caused heavy damage to Samuel Chase, snapping all steam lines, cutting off all auxiliaries, blowing the compass out of the binnacle. Seaman First Class Wolf and her other gunners fought their weapons efficiently and courageously in what naval historian Samuel Eliot Morison called "the grimmest convoy battle of the entire war." Morison lauded the Naval Armed Guard crews of three particular PQ 17 merchant ships: SS Washington, SS Daniel Morgan, SS Samuel Chase. "Their clothing was inadequate and their ammunition insufficient," he wrote, "but their fighting spirit never failed." Samuel Chase managed to survive the ordeal of PQ 17, part of a pitiful remnant of the original convoy. Detached from Samuel Chase on 24 October 1942, Wolf reported aboard the United States Army Transport USAT Henry R. Mallory at New York City on 12 November 1942. On 17 November 1942, the transport departed for Reykjavík, stopped at St. John's in the Dominion of Newfoundland and Halifax, Nova Scotia, in Canada before returning via Boston, Massachusetts, to New York City.

Henry R. Mallory once more visited Reykjavík, departing New York City on 24 January 1943, she was en route to New York City on her return voyage in Convoy SC 118 when the German submarine U-402 torpedoed and sank her on the morning of 7 February 1943. Seaman 1st Class Wolf was not among the survivors. For his part in the gallant defense of Samuel Chase during her battle as a part of Convoy PQ 17, Seaman 1st Class Wolf earned a Letter of Commendation which praised his meritorious conduct in action. During World War II, the U. S. Navy destroyer escort USS Alfred Wolf was named for Seaman First Class Wolf, but her construction was cancelled in 1944 before she could be launched; this article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here


The Munsee or mə́n'si·w are a subtribe of the Lenape constituting one of the three great divisions of that nation and dwelling along the upper portion of the Delaware River, the Minisink, the adjacent country in New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania. From their principal totem they were called the Wolf tribe of the Lenape, they were considered the most warlike portion of their nation and assumed the leadership in war councils. They were prominent in the early history of New York and New Jersey, being among the first nations of that region to meet the European settlers; the Munsee occupied the headwaters of the Delaware River in present-day New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, extending south to the Lehigh River, held the west bank of the Hudson River from the Catskill mountains nearly to the New Jersey line. They were bordered by the Mahican and Wappinger on the north and east, the Lenape on the south and southeast, they were regarded as a buffer between the southern Lenape and the Iroquois Confederacy based in present-day New York south of the Great Lakes.

Their council village was Minisink in Sussex County, New Jersey. The bands along the Hudson were prominent in the early history of New York, but as European-American settlements increased, most of the Munsee moved south to join their relatives along the Delaware. In 1669 they aided the Esopus tribe in attacking the Dutch colonists, were defeated by Martin Cregier. By a noted fraudulent treaty known as the Walking Purchase, the main body of the Munsee was forced to move from the Delaware River about the year 1740, they settled on the Susquehanna River, on lands assigned them by the Iroquois -. Soon afterward they moved westward. Most became incorporated with that group. In 1756 those remaining in New York were placed upon lands in Schoharie County and were incorporated with the Mohawk. A considerable body, the Christian Munsee, who were converted by the Moravian missionaries, drew off from the rest and formed a separate organization, most of them moving to Canada during the American Revolution.

Others joined Stockbridge people in Wisconsin. The majority were incorporated in the Lenape, with whom they participated in their subsequent wars and removals; those who kept the name of Munsee were in three bands in the early 20th century, in Canada and the United States. Two had consolidated with remnants of other nations; these nations were the Munsee of the Thames, Canada, 120. The Stockbridge-Munsee Community is a federally recognized tribe in United States. Christian Munsee Minisink Munsee-Delaware Nation Munsee language Moravian 47, Ontario Stockbridge-Munsee Community Ripley, George. "Munsees". The American Cyclopædia; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.. "Munsee". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. Penford, Saxby Voulaer. "Romantic Suffern - The History of Suffern, New York, from the Earliest Times to the Incorporation of the Village in 1896", Tallman, N. Y. 1955, "Munsee Indians". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920