University of Bristol
The University of Bristol is a red brick research university located in Bristol, United Kingdom. It received its royal charter in 1909, although like the University of the West of England and the University of Bath, it can trace its roots to the Merchant Venturers' Technical College, founded as a school in 1595 by the Society of Merchant Venturers, its key predecessor institution, University College, had been in existence since 1876. Bristol is organised into six academic faculties composed of multiple schools and departments running over 200 undergraduate courses situated in the Tyndalls Park area of the city; the university had a total income of £642.7 million in 2017/18, of which £164.0 million was from research grants and contracts. It is the largest independent employer in Bristol; the University of Bristol is ranked 44th by the QS World University Rankings 2018, is ranked amongst the top 10 of UK universities by QS, THE, ARWU. A selective institution, it has an average of 6.4 to 13.1 applicants for each undergraduate place.
It was ranked 9th in the UK amongst multi-faculty institutions for the quality of its research and for its Research Power in the 2014 Research Excellence Framework. Current academics include 21 fellows of the Academy of Medical Sciences, 13 fellows of the British Academy, 13 fellows of the Royal Academy of Engineering and 44 fellows of the Royal Society; the university has been associated with 13 Nobel laureates throughout its history, including Paul Dirac, Sir William Ramsay, Cecil Frank Powell, Sir Winston Churchill, Dorothy Hodgkin, Hans Albrecht Bethe, Max Delbrück, Gerhard Herzberg, Sir Nevill Francis Mott, Sir Paul Nurse, Harold Pinter, Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio and most 2015 Economics Nobel Prize winner Angus Deaton. Bristol is a member of the Russell Group of research-intensive British universities, the European-wide Coimbra Group and the Worldwide Universities Network, of which the university's previous vice-chancellor, Eric Thomas, was chairman from 2005 to 2007. In addition, the university holds an Erasmus Charter, sending more than 500 students per year to partner institutions in Europe.
The earliest antecedent of the university was the engineering department of the Merchant Venturers' Technical College which became the engineering faculty of Bristol University. The university was preceded by Bristol Medical School and University College, founded in 1876, where its first lecture was attended by only 99 students; the university was able to apply for a royal charter due to the financial support of the Wills and Fry families, who made their fortunes in tobacco plantations and chocolate, respectively. The Wills Family made a vast fortune from the tobacco industry and gave generously to the city and university; the royal charter was gained in May 1909, with 288 undergraduates and 400 other students entering the university in October 1909. Henry Overton Wills III became its first chancellor; the University College was the first such institution in the country to admit women on the same basis as men. However, women were forbidden to take examinations in medicine until 1906. Since the founding of the university itself in 1909, it has grown and is now one of the largest employers in the local area, although it is smaller by student numbers than the nearby University of the West of England.
Bristol is spread over a considerable geographic area. Most of its activities, are concentrated in the area of the city centre, referred to as the "University Precinct", it is a member of the Russell Group of research-led UK universities, the Coimbra Group of leading European universities and the Worldwide Universities Network. After the founding of the University College in 1876, Government support began in 1889. After mergers with the Bristol Medical School in 1893 and the Merchant Venturers' Technical College in 1909, this funding allowed the opening of a new medical school and an engineering school—two subjects that remain among the university's greatest strengths. In 1908, gifts from the Fry and Wills families £100,000 from Henry Overton Wills III, were provided to endow a University for Bristol and the West of England, provided that a royal charter could be obtained within two years. In December 1909, the King erected the University of Bristol. Henry Wills became Conwy Lloyd Morgan the first vice-chancellor.
Wills died in 1911 and in tribute his sons George and Harry built the Wills Memorial Building, starting in 1913 and finishing in 1925. Today, it houses parts of the academic provision for earth sciences and law, graduation ceremonies are held in its Great Hall; the Wills Memorial Building is a Grade II* listed building. In 1920, George Wills bought the Victoria Rooms and endowed them to the university as a Students' Union; the building now is a Grade II * listed building. At the point of foundation, the university was required to provide for the local community; this mission was behind the creation of the Department of Extra-Mural Adult Education in 1924 to provide courses to the local community. This mission continues today. Among the famous names associated with Bristol in this early period is Paul Dirac, who graduated in 1921 with a degree in engineering, before obtaining a second degree in mathematics in 1923 from Cambridge. For his subsequent pioneering work on quantum mechanics, he was awarded the 1933 Nobel Prize for Physics.
Vicious (TV series)
Vicious is a British television sitcom shown on ITV. The series stars Ian McKellen and Derek Jacobi as Freddie and Stuart, an elderly gay couple who have been together for 50 years but endure a love/hate relationship; the series premiered on 29 April 2013 with 5.78 million viewers. On 14 May 2016, McKellen and Jacobi appeared as Freddie and Stuart during the Eurovision Song Contest where they are seen watching the contest. In 2016, the show was cancelled by ITV and a finale special aired on 16 December 2016. Vicious is set around the lives of ageing partners Freddie and Stuart, who have lived together in their Covent Garden flat for 49 years. Freddie was a struggling actor and Stuart worked in a bar when they first met, but their careers are over and their lives now consist of entertaining their frequent guests, making sure that their aged dog Balthazar is still breathing, hurling antagonising comments towards each other. Ian McKellen as Freddie Thornhill. Freddie has been the partner of Stuart for 48 years at the time the first series begins, the pair have a love/hate relationship.
From Wigan, Freddie is an actor on stage and radio. He has a role on Downton Abbey as "Cook Staff #4" and is offered a role on Call the Midwife, he comes to establish a father-son relationship with Ash. He and Stuart get married after five decades of being together in the Series 2 finale, despite breaking up after Freddie lies about getting an acting job that they need for the money. In the Finale special, Freddie reveals his vulnerable side when Ash leaves to go on a university scholarship in New York. Derek Jacobi as Stuart Bixby. Stuart has been with Freddie for 48 years when the series begins, they have a love/hate relationship. From Leytonstone, Stuart was a manager at a bar, but he gave it up at an unspecified point in his life. Stuart was attracted to the much younger Ash upon meeting him, but soon Stuart, along with Freddie, assumes the role of a surrogate "grandfather" to Ash, he and Freddie marry in the Series 2 finale. However, they nearly broke up for good after Freddie lied about getting an acting job, the money from which they needed to pay for the wedding.
Stuart's mother Mildred dies at the wedding. Frances de la Tour as Violet Crosby. Violet has been friends with Stuart for many years. While sometimes being coarse or aggressive to Violet and Stuart do care for her well-being, which shows when Violet journeys to Argentina to meet her internet boyfriend Ignacio, who ends up fleecing her. Violet is rather promiscuous, when she first meets Freddie and Stuart's upstairs neighbour Ash, she becomes attracted to him. Violet is married to a low-life named Jasper in Series 2, she hasn't seen him in months. Violet gives up on her marriage after speaking with Jasper's six ex-wives, they divorce after he makes a scene at Freddie and Stuart's wedding. Violet becomes a lesbian in the Finale special. Iwan Rheon as Ash Weston; when Ash first moves into the apartment above Freddie and Stuart's, he introduces himself to them, over time, Ash becomes integrated into Freddie and Stuart's circle, becomes the subject of the affections of Violet and Stuart's close friend.
Like Freddie, Ash is from Wigan. Ash is shown to be troubled at times, as he has said that both his parents are in prison and he wakes up screaming in the night; as such and Stuart come to serve as role models for Ash. Ash tries proposing to his girlfriend Jess in Series 2, only to be turned down because she doesn't love him, he subsequently serves as Freddie's best man. In the Finale special, Ash is offered a scholarship for a university in New York on a four-year grant, reluctantly accepts it, saying goodbye to Freddie and Stuart. Marcia Warren as Penelope. Penelope has been friends with Freddie and Stuart for many years, Penelope once had a one-night stand with Stuart before the latter realised his true sexuality. Penelope appears to be suffering from senile dementia, forgetting the most basic things such as where she is or why she is there. However, she appears to be a deep thinker, just like her friends, comes to accept Ash with open arms. Penelope is closest to Mason, whom in her senility, once mistook him for her long-dead husband, Robert.
Philip Voss as Mason Thornhill. Mason is Freddie's brother, though this isn't revealed until late into Series 2 because their relationship is toxic. Mason can be just as acid-tongued as his brother, sometimes more so. Despite being gay himself, Mason expresses disgust at Freddie and Stuart's relationship, shows compassion for anyone or anything. One exception, would have to be Penelope, whom he is quite close to and quite fond of. Series 1Alexandra Roach as Chloe. Chloe is introduced as the vegan girlfriend of Ash, is shown to be "quirky". Despite her squeaky clean relationship with Ash, the cracks begin to show at a dinner party held by Ash's neighbours Freddie and Stuart, as she continually witnesses Freddie and Stuart and becomes drunk, she mouths off at Freddie, defended by Stuart, who orders Chloe to leave. She and Ash break up. Hazel Douglas as Mildred. Mildred is the mother of Stuart, who chats to her on the phone not out of choice, but necessity, she has no idea of Stuart's relationship with Freddie, despite the fact that they have lived together for nearly 50 years, not only that, she is vying for grandchildren from Stuart.
When Stuart's upstairs neighbour Ash accidentally invites M
Royal Shakespeare Company
The Royal Shakespeare Company is a major British theatre company, based in Stratford-upon-Avon, England. The company produces around 20 productions a year; the RSC plays in London, Newcastle upon Tyne and on tour across the UK and internationally. The company's home is in Stratford-upon-Avon, where it has redeveloped its Royal Shakespeare and Swan theatres as part of a £112.8-million "Transformation" project. The theatres re-opened in November 2010, having closed in 2007; the new buildings attracted 18,000 visitors within the first week and received a positive media response both upon opening, following the first full Shakespeare performances. Performances in Stratford-upon-Avon continued throughout the Transformation project at the temporary Courtyard Theatre; as well as the plays of Shakespeare and his contemporaries, the RSC produces new work from living artists and develops creative links with theatre-makers from around the world, as well as working with teachers to inspire a lifelong love of William Shakespeare in young people and running events for everyone to explore and participate in its work.
The RSC celebrated its fiftieth birthday season from April–December 2011, with two companies of actors presenting the first productions designed for the new Royal Shakespeare and Swan Theatre stages. The 2011-season began with performances of Macbeth and a re-imagined lost play The History of Cardenio; the fiftieth birthday season featured The Merchant of Venice with Sir Patrick Stewart and revivals of some of the RSC's greatest plays, including a new staging of Marat/Sade. For the London 2012 Festival as part of the Cultural Olympiad, the RSC produced the World Shakespeare Festival, featuring artists from across the world performing in venues around the UK. In 2013, the company began live screenings of its Shakespeare productions – called Live from Stratford-upon-Avon – which are screened around the world. In 2016, the company collaborated with Intel and The Imaginarium Studios to stage The Tempest, bringing performance capture to the Royal Shakespeare Theatre for the first time. There have been theatrical performances in Stratford-upon-Avon since at least Shakespeare's day, though the first recorded performance of a play written by Shakespeare himself was in 1746 when Parson Joseph Greene, master of Stratford Grammar School, organised a charitable production to fund the restoration of Shakespeare's funerary monument.
John Ward's Birmingham-based company, the Warwickshire Company of Comedians, agreed to perform it. A surviving copy of the playbill records; the first building erected to commemorate Shakespeare was David Garrick's Jubilee Pavilion in 1769, there have been at least 17 buildings used to perform Shakespeare's plays since. The first permanent commemorative building to Shakespeare's works in the town was a theatre built in 1827, in the gardens of New Place, but has long since been demolished; the RSC's history began with the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre, the brainchild of a local brewer, Charles Edward Flower. He donated a two-acre site by the River Avon and in 1875 launched an international campaign to build a theatre in the town of Shakespeare's birth; the theatre, a Victorian-Gothic building seating just over 700 people, opened on 23 April 1879, with a performance of Much Ado About Nothing, a title which gave ammunition to several critics. The Memorial, a red brick Gothic cathedral, designed by Dodgshun and Unsworth of Westminster, was unkindly described by Bernard Shaw as "an admirable building, adaptable to every purpose except that of a theatre."
From 1919, under the direction of William Bridges-Adams and after a slow start, its resident New Shakespeare Company became one of the most prestigious in Britain. The theatre received a Royal Charter of Incorporation in 1925. On the afternoon of 6 March 1926, when a new season was about to commence rehearsals, smoke was seen. Fire broke out, the mass of half-timbering chosen to ornament the interior provided dry tinder. By the following morning the theatre was a blackened shell; the company transferred its Shakespeare festivals to a converted local cinema. Fund-raising began for the rebuilding of the theatre, with generous donations arriving from philanthropists in America. In January 1928, following an open competition, 29-year-old Elisabeth Scott was unanimously appointed architect for the new theatre which became the first important work erected in the United Kingdom from the designs of a woman architect. George Bernard Shaw commented, her modernist plans for an art deco structure came under fire from many directions but the new building was opened triumphantly on William Shakespeare's birthday, 23 April 1932.
It came under the direction of Sir Barry Jackson in 1945, Anthony Quayle from 1948 to 1956 and Glen Byam Shaw 1957–1959, with an impressive roll-call of actors. Scott's building, with some minor adjustments to the stage, remained in constant use until 2007 when it was closed for a major refit of the interior. Timeline: 1932 – new Shakespeare Memorial Theatre opens, abutting the remains of the old. 1961 – chartered name of the corporation and the Stratford theatre becomes ‘Royal Shakespeare.’ 1974 – The Other Place opened, created from a prefabricated former store/rehearsal room in Stratford. 1986 – the Swan Theatre opened, created from the shell of the 1879 Memorial Theatre. 1991 – Purpose-built new Other Place, designed by Michael Reardon, opens. September 2004 – The vision for the renewal of the Royal Shakespeare Theatre transformation is announced. July 2006 – The Courtyard Theatre opens with a staging of Michael Boyd’s Histories. November 2010 – The Royal Shakespeare and Swan T
Sir Jonathan Wolfe Miller, CBE is an English theatre and opera director, author, television presenter and medical doctor. After training in medicine, specialising in neurology, in the late 1950s, he came to prominence in the early 1960s in the comedy revue Beyond the Fringe with Peter Cook, Dudley Moore and Alan Bennett. Miller began directing operas in the 1970s and is one of the world's leading opera directors with several classic productions to his credit, his best-known production is his 1982 "Mafia"-styled Rigoletto set in 1950s Little Italy, Manhattan. In its early days he was an associate director at the National Theatre and ran the Old Vic Theatre; as a writer/presenter of more than a dozen BBC documentaries, he has become a well-known television personality and familiar public intellectual in both Britain and the United States. Miller grew up in London, in a well-connected Jewish family of Lithuanian descent, his father Emanuel, who suffered from severe rheumatoid arthritis, was a military psychiatrist, subsequently a paediatric psychiatrist in Harley House.
His mother Betty Miller was a biographer. Miller's sister Sarah worked in television for many years and retained an involvement with Judaism that he, an atheist, has always eschewed, he was educated at Taunton School and St Paul's School, London where he developed an early interest in the biological sciences. While at St Paul's School, at the age of 12, Miller met and became close friends with Oliver Sacks and Oliver's best friend Eric Korn, friendships which remained crucial throughout the rest of their lives, as long as life and mind endured. Miller studied natural sciences and medicine at St John's College, where he was a member of the Cambridge Apostles, before going on to train at University College Hospital in London. While studying medicine, Miller was involved in the Cambridge Footlights, appearing in the revues Out of the Blue and Between the Lines. Good reviews for these shows, for Miller's performances in particular, led to him performing on a number of radio and TV shows while continuing his studies.
He qualified as a medical doctor in 1959 and worked as a hospital house officer for two years, including at the Central Middlesex Hospital as house physician for gastroenterologist Dr. Francis Avery Jones. Miller helped to write and produce the musical revue Beyond the Fringe, which premiered at the Edinburgh Festival in August 1960; this launched, in addition to his own, the careers of Peter Cook and Dudley Moore. Miller quit the show shortly after its move from London to Broadway in 1962, took over as editor and presenter of the BBC's flagship arts programme Monitor in 1965. All these appointments were unsolicited invitations, the Monitor appointment arose because Miller had approached Huw Wheldon about taking up a place on the BBC's director training course. Wheldon assured him that he would "pick it up as he went along". Miller's first experience of directing a stage-play was for John Osborne, whose Under Plain Cover he directed in 1962. In 1964, he directed the play The Old Glory by the American poet Robert Lowell in New York City.
It was the first play produced at the American Place Theatre and starred Frank Langella, Roscoe Lee Brown, Lester Rawlins. The play won five Obie Awards in 1965 including an award for "Best American Play" as well as awards for Langella and Rawlins, he wrote and directed an adaptation for television of Alice in Wonderland for the BBC. He followed this with Whistle and I'll Come to You starring Michael Hordern, a television adaptation of M. R. James's 1904 ghost story "Oh, I'll Come to You, My Lad". By 1970, his reputation in British theatre was such that he mounted a National Theatre Company production of The Merchant of Venice starring Sir Laurence Olivier, he resigned as associate director. Miller held a research fellowship in the history of medicine at University College, London from 1970 to 1973. In 1974, he started directing and producing operas for Kent Opera and Glyndebourne, followed by a new production of The Marriage of Figaro for English National Opera in 1978. Miller has become one of the world's leading opera directors with classic productions being Rigoletto and the operetta The Mikado.
Miller drew upon his own experiences as a physician as writer and presenter of the BBC television series The Body in Question, which caused some controversy for showing the dissection of a cadaver. For a time, he was a vice-president of the Campaign for Homosexual Equality. In 1980, Miller was persuaded to join the troubled BBC Television Shakespeare project, he became producer and directed six of the plays himself, beginning with a well received Taming of the Shrew starring John Cleese. In the early 1980s, Miller was a frequent guest on PBS' Dick Cavett Show. Miller wrote and presented the BBC television series, accompanying book, States of Mind in 1983 and the same year directed Roger Daltrey as Macheath, the outlaw hero of the BBC's production of John Gay's 1728 ballad opera, The Beggar's Opera, he became chair of Edinburgh Festival Fringe board of directors. In 1984, he studied neuropsychology with Dr. Sandra Witelson at McMaster University in Hamilton, Canada, before becoming a neuropsychology research fellow at the University of Sussex the following year.
In 1990, Miller wrote and presented a joint BBC/Canadian production entitled, Born Talking: A Personal Inquiry into Language. The four-part series looke
Ten Plagues – A Song Cycle
Ten Plagues – A Song Cycle is the nineteenth solo studio album by the British singer/songwriter Marc Almond. It was released by Strike Force Entertainment / Cherry Red Records on 7 July 2014. Ten Plagues is a 2014 studio recording of the 2011 Edinburgh Festival Fringe Award-winning stage production of the same name; the production was well reviewed. The production is a song cycle duet for voice and piano and was written by Mark Ravenhill with music by Conor Mitchell. Almond wanted to work with Ravenhill after he saw the latter's Mother Clap's Molly House production, so he approached Ravenhill who wrote the Ten Plagues libretto in response. Ten Plagues is about the Great Plague of London of 1665 on one level but acts as a metaphor for "the hysteria with which the public habitually greets all threats of mass infection, from swine flu to SARS" and alludes to the "first onrush of AIDS"; the CD was released as a double digipak and came with a DVD of the live stage show filmed at Wilton's Music Hall.
The studio recording was not as well reviewed as divided critics. The Financial Times review by Ludovic Hunter-Tilney finds the libretto "routine" and calls the piano score "atonal", summarising that "the results fall flat". Neil Gardner of The Times liked it better, naming it "grimly fascinating" calling the piano score "barreling", whilst "versatile" Almond's vocals are "soaring". David Sheppard writes in the Mojo review that "Almond tackles tricky, convoluted melodies with great gusto" but closes by stating that accompanying live DVD "makes more sense". Libretto by Mark Ravenhill, music by Conor Mitchell. "Spring" –1:44 "A Comet" – 2:41 "Without a Word" – 4:50 "To Dream" – 2:55 "Market" – 1:59 "The Pit" – 3:44 "Farewell" – 3:00 "By Day" – 2:36 "A New Law" – 1:52 "Seeing You" – 5:34 "The Wig" – 4:32 "The Hermit" – 3:22 "Grief" – 4:05 "Quacker" – 2:57 "Return" – 5:48 "Ten Plagues / Epilogue" – 4:38 Marc Almond – vocals Conor Mitchell – piano
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian, changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, the Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust; the trust was created in 1936 to "secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of the Guardian free from commercial or political interference". The trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to maintain for The Guardian the same protections as were built into the structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than distributed to shareholders; the current editor is Katharine Viner: she succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. Since 2018, the paper's main newsprint sections have been published in tabloid format; as of November that year, its print edition had a daily circulation of 136,834.
The newspaper has an online edition, TheGuardian.com, as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia and Guardian US. The paper's readership is on the mainstream left of British political opinion, its reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing editorial has led to the use of the "Guardian reader" and "Guardianista" as often-pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning or "politically correct" tendencies. Frequent typographical errors in the paper led Private Eye magazine to dub it the "Grauniad" in the 1960s, a nickname still used today. In an Ipsos MORI research poll in September 2018 designed to interrogate the public's trust of specific titles online, The Guardian scored highest for digital-content news, with 84% of readers agreeing that they "trust what see in it". A December 2018 report of a poll by the Publishers Audience Measurement Company stated that the paper's print edition was found to be the most trusted in the UK in the period from October 2017 to September 2018.
It was reported to be the most-read of the UK's "quality newsbrands", including digital editions. While The Guardian's print circulation is in decline, the report indicated that news from The Guardian, including that reported online, reaches more than 23 million UK adults each month. Chief among the notable "scoops" obtained by the paper was the 2011 News International phone-hacking scandal—and in particular the hacking of the murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone; the investigation led to the closure of the News of the World, the UK's best-selling Sunday newspaper and one of the highest-circulation newspapers in history. In June 2013, The Guardian broke news of the secret collection by the Obama administration of Verizon telephone records, subsequently revealed the existence of the surveillance program PRISM after knowledge of it was leaked to the paper by the whistleblower and former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. In 2016, The Guardian led an investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing then-Prime Minister David Cameron's links to offshore bank accounts.
It has been named "newspaper of the year" four times at the annual British Press Awards: most in 2014, for its reporting on government surveillance. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle, a group of non-conformist businessmen, they launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. Taylor had been hostile to the radical reformers, writing: "They have appealed not to the reason but the passions and the suffering of their abused and credulous fellow-countrymen, from whose ill-requited industry they extort for themselves the means of a plentiful and comfortable existence, they do not toil, neither do they spin, but they live better than those that do." When the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the mill-owners' champions had the upper hand. The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, all of the Little Circle wrote articles for the new paper.
The prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would "zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty warmly advocate the cause of Reform endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, all serviceable measures". In 1825 the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until 1828; the working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called the Manchester Guardian "the foul prostitute and dirty parasite of the worst portion of the mill-owners". The Manchester Guardian was hostile to labour's claims. Of the 1832 Ten Hours Bill, the paper doubted whether in view of the foreign competition "the passing of a law positively enacting a gradual destruction of the cotton manufacture in this kingdom would be a much less rational procedure." The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators: " if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone.
They live on strife "The Manchester Guardian was critical of US President Abraham Lincoln's conduct during the US Civil War, writing on the news that Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated: "Of his rule, we can never speak except as a series of acts abhorrent to every true notion of constitutional right and human liberty " C. P. Scott ma