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Mark Shuttleworth

Mark Richard Shuttleworth is a South African and British entrepreneur, the founder and CEO of Canonical Ltd. the company behind the development of the Linux-based Ubuntu operating system. In 2002, he became the first South African to travel to space as a space tourist, he holds dual citizenship from South Africa and the United Kingdom. Born in Welkom in South Africa's Orange Free State to a surgeon and a nursery-school teacher, Shuttleworth attended school at Western Province Preparatory School, followed by one term at Rondebosch Boys' High School, at Bishops/Diocesan College, where he was Head Boy in 1991. Shuttleworth obtained a Bachelor of Business Science degree in Finance and Information Systems at the University of Cape Town, where he lived in Smuts Hall; as a student, he became involved in the installation of the first residential Internet connections at the university. In 1995, Shuttleworth founded Thawte Consulting, a company which specialized in digital certificates and Internet security.

In December 1999, Thawte was acquired by earning Shuttleworth R3.5 billion. In September 2000, Shuttleworth formed HBD Venture Capital, a business incubator and venture capital provider. In March 2004 he formed Canonical Ltd. for the promotion and commercial support of free software projects the Ubuntu operating system. In December 2009, Shuttleworth stepped down as the CEO of Canonical Ltd, Jane Silber took Canonical CEO position. Shuttleworth resumed the position of CEO of Canonical in July 2017 at the end of Silber's tenure. In the 1990s, Shuttleworth participated as one of the developers of the Debian operating system. In 2001, he formed the Shuttleworth Foundation, a nonprofit organisation dedicated to social innovation which funds educational and open source software projects in South Africa, such as the Freedom Toaster. In 2004, he returned to the free software world by funding the development of Ubuntu, a Linux distribution based on Debian, through his company Canonical Ltd. In 2005, he made an initial investment of 10 million dollars.

In the Ubuntu project, Shuttleworth is referred to with the tongue-in-cheek title "Self-Appointed Benevolent Dictator for Life". To come up with a list of names of people to hire for the project, Shuttleworth took six months of Debian mailing list archives with him while travelling to Antarctica aboard the icebreaker Kapitan Khlebnikov in early 2004. In September 2005, he purchased a 65% stake of Impi Linux. On 15 October 2006, it was announced that Mark Shuttleworth became the first patron of KDE, the highest level of sponsorship available; this relationship ended in 2012, together with financial support for Kubuntu, the Ubuntu variant with KDE as main desktop. On 17 December 2009, Mark announced that, effective March 2010, he would step down as CEO of Canonical to focus energy on product design and customers. Jane Silber, COO at Canonical since 2004, took on the job of CEO at Canonical. In September 2010, he received an honorary degree from the Open University for this work. On 9 November 2012, Shuttleworth and Kenneth Rogoff took part in a debate opposite Garry Kasparov and Peter Thiel at the Oxford Union, entitled "The Innovation Enigma".

On 25 October 2013, Shuttleworth and Ubuntu were awarded the Austrian anti-privacy Big Brother Award for sending local Ubuntu Unity Dash searches to Canonical servers by default. A year earlier in 2012 Shuttleworth had defended the anonymisation method used. Shuttleworth gained worldwide fame on 25 April 2002, as the second self-funded space tourist and the first-ever South African in space. Flying through Space Adventures, he launched aboard the Russian Soyuz TM-34 mission as a spaceflight participant, paying US$20,000,000 for the voyage. Two days the Soyuz spacecraft arrived at the International Space Station, where he spent eight days participating in experiments related to AIDS and genome research. On 5 May 2002, he returned to Earth on Soyuz TM-33. In order to participate in the flight, Shuttleworth had to undergo one year of training and preparation, including seven months spent in Star City, Russia. While in space he had a radio conversation with Nelson Mandela and a 14-year-old South African girl, Michelle Foster, who asked him to marry her.

He politely dodged the question, stating that he was "very honoured at the question" before changing the subject. The terminally ill Foster was provided the opportunity to have a conversation with Mark Shuttleworth and Nelson Mandela by the Reach for a Dream foundation, he has a private jet, a Bombardier Global Express, referred to as Canonical One but is in fact owned through his HBD Venture Capital company. The dragon depicted on the side of the plane is the HBD Venture Capital mascot. Upon moving R2.5 billion in capital from South Africa to the Isle of Man, the South African Reserve Bank imposed a R250 million levy in order to release his assets. Shuttleworth appealed, after a lengthy legal battle, the Reserve Bank was ordered to repay the R250 million, plus interest. Shuttleworth announced that he would be donating the entire amount to a trust which will be established to help others take cases to the Constitutional Court. On 18 June 2015 the Constitutional Court of South Africa reversed and set aside the findings of the lower courts, ruling that the dominant purpose of exit charge was to regulate conduct rather than to raise revenue.

Mark Shuttleworth's homepage Spacefacts biography of Mark Shuttleworth "Ubuntu: The Entrepreneur who wan

MV Clansman (1964)

MV Clansman was the second of a trio of hoist-loading car ferries built for David MacBrayne Ltd in 1964 and operated on the Mallaig to Armadale, Skye route for ten years. Converted to ro-ro operation, she operated on the Isle of Mull and Arran services. Underpowered and troubled by mechanical breakdowns, she was taken out of service after just 20 years; the Secretary of State for Scotland ordered a trio of near-identical car ferries for the Western Isles. Hall, Russell & Company of Aberdeen won the contract to build them, ahead of fifteen other British yards; the new ferries were owned by the Scottish Office and registered in Leith. They were chartered to David MacBrayne Ltd and were all equipped to serve as floating nuclear shelters, in the event of national emergency; this included vertical sliding watertight doors that could seal off the car deck aft of the hoist. Clansman, the second of the trio, was launched on 16 January 1964 and entered service on 5 June 1964. To combat the limitations of hoist operation, Clansman underwent a nine-month refit at Troon, from October 1972, to convert her to a drive-through ferry.

Hoist and side-ramps were removed and bow and stern ramps were fitted. She was lengthened by 36 feet forward of the superstructure, her passenger accommodation was raised to increase headroom in the car deck. Twin rudders and a new 4-ton bow-thrust unit were added, her machinery was converted to be bridge controlled, she emerged in the new CalMac livery, but was not re-engined, to lead to her premature downfall. As fitted, Clansman had a car deck that could take 50 cars. Hydraulic lifts and side-ramps allowed vehicles to drive on and off conventional piers at any state of tide. Vehicles were turned on the hoist platform and at the stern end of the vehicle deck, using 14-foot-diameter manual turntables; the hoists avoided the cost of installing linkspans on the piers, but the process was slow and restricted the length and weight of vehicles that could be carried. On the enclosed upper deck, there was a bright cafeteria/restaurant aft, with a substantial galley and pantry. Forward were a little shop and the pursers' office.

Forward on the promenade deck was a well-fitted observation lounge, with comfortable armchairs. The interiors of Clansman were designed by John McNeece. There was ample open deck space aft of this lounge; the funnel and two lifeboats stood with the bridge forward. The vessel had sleeping accommodation for 51 below the car deck. In 1973 Clansman had bow and stern doors allowing full ro-ro operation. Clansman entered service on the Mallaig to Armadale, Skye crossing, replacing the former Outer Isles mail steamer Lochmor, displaced by the arrival of MV Hebrides, her primary function was as a relief vessel and she was under-employed on the summer Skye crossing. From June 1967, she added Minch crossings to her summer roster to Lochboisdale, from 1971 to Castlebay. In 1969, Clansman become the first MacBrayne vessel to circumnavigate Britain when she sailed to London for a ten-day "Highland Fling" extravaganza thrown by the Highlands and Islands Development Board. For five months in early 1970 she had a yellow funnel while on charter to the CSP, operating between Gourock and Dunoon, awaiting the new MV Iona.

1971 saw varied service, with a temporary service from Oban to Port Askaig and Colonsay, relief on the Inner Isles Mail. Following her 1972/73 rebuild at the Ailsa yard in Troon, Clansman took over the new Ullapool to Stornoway car ferry service, inaugurated earlier in 1973 by MV Iona; the service was disrupted when Iona suffered an engine failure in June 1973 and Clansman was rushed to the Minch while work continued on board and soon broke down herself. The service settled down, but Clansman was both vulnerable to serious weather and too slow and by 1974 was replaced by the new MV Suilven. Clansman spent several seasons before moving to Arran. Clansman continued to deputise on the Ullapool to Stornoway service throughout the 1970s and early 1980s while Suilven went for overhaul. Withdrawn from service following a serious mechanical breakdown in March 1984, Clansman was sold to Torbay Seaways for a new service to the Channel Islands; the inability to construct a linkspan, led to her sister. Clansman was sold to Maltese owners for Red Sea service.

Her last entry in Lloyd's Register was in 1994-95

Sharp (music)

In music, sharp, dièse, or diesis means higher in pitch. More in musical notation, sharp means "higher in pitch by one semitone". Sharp is the opposite of flat, a lowering of pitch. An associated sharp symbol that resembles the number sign "#", ♯, occurs in key signatures or as an accidental. For instance, the music below has a key signature with three sharps and the note, A♯, has a sharp accidental. Moreover, under twelve-tone equal temperament, B♯, for instance, sounds the same as, or is enharmonically equivalent to, C natural, E♯ is enharmonically equivalent to F♮. In other tuning systems, such enharmonic equivalences in general do not exist. To allow extended just intonation, composer Ben Johnston uses a sharp to indicate a note is raised 70.6 cents, or a flat to indicate a note is lowered 70.6 cents. In intonation, sharp can mean "slightly higher in pitch". If two simultaneous notes are out-of-tune, the higher-pitched one is "sharp" with respect to the other. Furthermore, the verb sharpen means to raise the pitch of a note by a small musical interval.

Double sharps are raise a note by two semitones, or one whole tone. They should not be confused with a ghost note. In order to lower a double sharp by one semitone to a sharp, it would be denoted as a ♮♯. In modern notation the natural sign is omitted. Less a score indicates other types of sharps. A half sharp raises a note by a quarter tone = 50 cents, may be marked with various symbols including. A sharp-and-a-half may be denoted. Although uncommon, a triple sharp can sometimes be found, it raises a note by three semitones. The sharp symbol resembles the number sign. Both signs have two sets of parallel double-lines. However, a drawn sharp sign has two slanted parallel lines that rise from left to right, to avoid obscuring the staff lines; the number sign, in contrast, has two horizontal strokes in this place. In addition, while the sharp always has two vertical lines, the number sign may or may not contain vertical lines; the order of sharps in key signature notation is F♯, C♯, G♯, D♯, A♯, E♯, B♯, each extra sharp being added successively in the following sequence of major keys: C→G→D→A→E→B→F♯→C♯.

The order of flats is based on the same natural notes in reverse order: B♭, E♭, A♭, D♭, G♭, C♭, F♭, encountered in the following series of major keys: C→F→B♭→E♭→A♭→D♭→G♭→C♭. In the above progression, the key of C♯ major may be more conveniently written as the harmonically equivalent key D♭ major, C♭ major may be more conveniently written as B major. Nonetheless, it is possible to extend the order of sharp keys yet further, through C♯→G♯→D♯→A♯→E♯→B♯→F→C, adding the double-sharped notes F, C, G, D, A, E and B, for the flat keys from C♭ major to C major, but with progressively decreasing convenience and usage. In Unicode, assigned sharp signs are as follows: U+266F ♯ MUSIC SHARP SIGN U+1D12A MUSICAL SYMBOL DOUBLE SHARP U+1D130 MUSICAL SYMBOL SHARP UP U+1D131 MUSICAL SYMBOL SHARP DOWN U+1D132 MUSICAL SYMBOL QUARTER TONE SHARP Electronic tuner

Lucia Migliaccio

Lucia Migliaccio, Duchess of Floridia was the second wife of Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies. Their marriage was morganatic and Lucia was never a Queen consort, she was a daughter of Vincenzo Migliaccio, Duke di Floridia, his wife, Dorotea Borgia dei Marchesi del Casale, inherited her father's dukedom. Her mother came from Spain. Lucia Migliaccio had several sons, a daughter, Lucia Borbone, who married Salvatore Sagnelli. Both of them are buried near Caserta, she married first Prince di Partanna. They had five children: Giuseppe Grifeo Marianna Grifeo Vincenzo Grifeo Leopoldo Grifeo Luigi GrifeoOn 27 November 1814, Lucia married Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies known as Ferdinand III of Sicily, in Palermo; the bride was the groom sixty-three. Their marriage created a scandal as it took place on September 8, 1814, within three months of the death of his first wife Queen Maria Carolina of Austria. Protocol rules required at least one-year period of mourning. By Ferdinand had practically abdicated his power by naming his eldest son Prince Francis as his regent and delegating most decisions to him.

His deceased queen, Maria Carolina, herself had been considered the de facto ruler of Sicily until 1812. Lucia after her marriage had limited influence and little interest in politics. Ferdinand was restored to the throne of the Kingdom of Naples by right of his victory on the Battle of Tolentino over Joachim Murat. On 8 December 1816 he merged the thrones of Sicily and Naples under the name of the throne of the Two Sicilies, with Francis still serving as his regent and Lucia as his morganatic spouse. Ferdinand continued to rule until his death on 4 January 1825. Lucia survived him by three months, she was buried in the Church of Naples. Media related to Lucia Migliaccio of Floridia at Wikimedia Commons Her profile in

Helmut Zilk

Helmut Zilk was an Austrian journalist and politician in the Austrian Social Democratic Party. He served as mayor of Vienna between 1984 and 1994. Born in Vienna, Zilk was Mayor of Vienna from 1984 to 1994. In December 1993 he was injured when he opened a letter bomb, sent to his home in Innere Stadt by Franz Fuchs. Zilk died after arriving home sick from a vacation in Portugal, he was married to Dagmar Koller. In October 1998, the newspaper Süddeutsche Zeitung accused Helmut Zilk of having collaborated with Czechoslovak secret police during the 1960s, he denied the accusations. Based on this and on information from the StB archives, Zilk was denied a planned Czech medal of honour; the affair was covered by Czech and Austrian media. In 1998 the Czech presidential office cleared president Havel apologized to him in person. In 2009, the StB documents on Zilk were made public; these documents record 58 meetings between Zilk and secret police agents during 1965–68. Zilk had provided information about the political situation in Austria and assessments of individual Austrian politicians.

After the Soviet occupation of Czechoslovakia Ladislav Bittman, one of the agents in contact with Zilk, defected to the West and leaked information about him. Some Czech media speculated that the continued political and journalistic career of Zilk, in spite of being uncovered, was due to some other agency recruiting and supporting him. Media related to Helmut Zilk at Wikimedia Commons

1999 Loomis truck robbery

The 1999 Loomis truck robbery was a robbery of a Loomis, Fargo & Co. Semi-trailer truck on March 24, 1999 as it transported money from Sacramento, California to San Francisco. At some point during the transit, one or more robbers boarded the truck, cut a hole in the roof, removed 2.3 million dollars, exited the truck with the money evading detection by the truck's driver and guards. The robbery was not discovered until after the truck arrived at its destination. No suspects were identified by authorities and the robbery is now a cold case; the exact tools and methods used by robber or robbers were never conclusively determined. On a rainy night at 7:30 PM on March 24, 1999, a semi-trailer truck departed the Loomis Depot in Sacramento for a money transport run to the depot in San Francisco, using Interstate 80. While the cab portion of the truck was armored, the trailer carrying the money was not; the trailer was made of simple aluminum, with the only security measures being a locked door equipped with an alarm.

For years, Loomis had used unarmored trailers to transport their coin shipments, figuring coins alone were such a meager amount of money that they did not require heavy security. But starting in the 1990s, Loomis began including paper money in their shipments as a cost-saving measure. Onboard was 58-year old driver Howard Brown, along with guards Frank Ken Montgomery. Other than traffic lights and stop signs, the trip from Sacramento to San Francisco involved only one stop, at a truck scale in near Fairfield, California. After this, the truck proceeded on to its destination, arriving at the Loomis depot in San Francisco around 9:40 PM. Bettencourt unlocked the rear doors, opened them up, was shocked to discover the floor of the trailer was covered in rainwater, he saw a large hole in the roof telling the San Francisco Chronicle, "My eyes just kind of looked up at the ceiling of the truck. The hole had a jagged shape with the edges pointed down into the truck, it was not a cleanly cut hole. It had a trapdoor-type of look to it."At first the guards thought the truck had been hit by lightning, or maybe by a meteor, but this was soon ruled out as they discovered 270 pounds of cash, worth about 2.3 million dollars, was missing.

Bettencourt told the San Francisco Chronicle, "He was a Houdini in my mind.... This is the most daring robbery, he did this without us having a clue. Everything that he needed to go right, did go right." The subsequent criminal investigation of the robbery was handled by the FBI, which cleared the driver and guards of the truck as suspects. The FBI determined the hole in the roof had been cut from the outside, not by a stowaway hiding in the trailer; the only significant piece of evidence they found in the trailer was an old worn out Dutch military duffle bag with the initials "MOV" on it, implying that it had been issued by the Netherlands Ministry of Defense some time around the 1950s or 1960s. They found a baggage tag on the bag from the Netherlands railroad; the FBI found two witnesses, motorists driving behind the truck. They reported that as the truck pulled into the weight station near Fairfield, they saw a man in dark clothing jump off the truck and run through roadside fields in the direction of nearby Solano Community College.

The man did not appear to be carrying anything. The robber counted on the truck stopping at the scales in Cordelia, "something we didn't do all the time but 99 percent of the time," Bettencourt said, it was never determined how many people were involved, nor how they carried the robbery out. Since the trailer did not have a ladder attached to the outside, the doors were still locked with the alarm set when it reached its destination, the primary theory is that the robbery started back in Sacramento as the truck was pulling out of the depot, it is believed that the robber or robbers jumped from the roof of the depot onto the top of the trailer. During the 1 hour trip between Sacramento and the truck scale near Fairfield, they cut their way through the roof, dropped down into the trailer, put the stolen money in bags, threw them out onto the side of the road to be retrieved either by themselves or by accomplices following the truck in a vehicle. Once the truck stopped at the weight station, the robber or robbers took the opportunity to jump off the truck and make their escape.

Spokesman for the FBI's Sacramento office Nick Rossi told the San Francisco Chronicle, "I cannot think of any similar case nationwide. It harkens back to train robberies." No suspects were found, despite the FBI investigation and Loomis offering a large money reward for leads. Shortly after the robbery, Loomis discontinued the practice of transporting paper money in unarmored trailers. In fact, they had been in the process of switching to armored trailers at the time the robbery took place. Mike Tawney, an executive vice president at Loomis, told the San Francisco Chronicle, "This was one of the few we had left.... This may have been the last truck."