The Guthrie Theater, founded in 1963, is a center for theater performance, production and professional training in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The concept of the theater was born in 1959 in a series of discussions between Sir Tyrone Guthrie, Oliver Rea and Peter Zeisler. Disenchanted with Broadway, they intended to form a theater with a resident acting company, to perform classic plays in rotating repertory, while maintaining the highest professional standards; the Guthrie Theater has performed in two main-stage facilities. The first building was designed by Ralph Rapson, included a 1,441-seat thrust stage designed by Tanya Moiseiwitsch, was operated from 1963–2006. After closing its 2005–2006 season, the theater moved to its current facility designed by Jean Nouvel. In 1982, the theater won the Regional Theatre Tony Award. In 1959, Sir Tyrone Guthrie published a small invitation in the drama page of The New York Times soliciting communities' interest and involvement in a resident theater. Out of the seven cities that responded, the Twin Cities showed not only interest but eagerness for the project.
Frank Whiting, the director of the University of Minnesota Theater, introduced Guthrie to the arts community in the Twin Cities and helped gather support that persuaded Guthrie to locate his theater in Minneapolis. With the help of the newly founded Tyrone Guthrie Theater Foundation a fundraising effort raised over US$2 million; the new theater was completed in 1963 in time for the May 7 opening of Hamlet. During its first season the Guthrie featured well known stage actors Hume Cronyn, Jessica Tandy and Zoe Caldwell and featured a group of younger actors including George Grizzard, Ellen Geer and Joan van Ark. Tyrone Guthrie served as Artistic Director until 1966 and continued to direct at the theater he founded until 1969, two years before his death. In 1966 Douglas Campbell was named Artistic Director. Throughout the 1960s the Guthrie found critical acclaim in its productions of Henry V, St. Joan, Caucasian Chalk Circle, Three Sisters and The House of Atreus. In 1968 the production of The House of Atreus was taken on the road in a national tour, a first for a resident theater.
Starting in 1968, the Guthrie began a tradition of producing plays on smaller stages in the Twin Cities area, including the Crawford-Livingston Theater in St. Paul and The Other Place. In 1971, Michael Langham became artistic director and produced classic plays including Oedipus Rex, Love's Labour's Lost, She Stoops to Conquer, A Streetcar Named Desire. After Langham left in 1977, the Guthrie crossed a milestone of sorts when for the first time it selected an artistic director, not a respected collaborator or friend of Tyrone Guthrie; that year Alvin Epstein was selected as artistic director and was the first American to fill that role. In 1980 Liviu Ciulei replaced Epstein. Ciulei was the former artistic director of Teatrul Bulandra in Romania and had a profound influence on the Guthrie, he challenged audiences with his bold theatrical interpretations and his contemporary and international style. Ciulei's interest in theater didn't stop at the productions themselves, he was a designer and architect and one of the first things he did was to redesign the theater itself.
His changes allowed more structural flexibility in the stage to allow each production a unique physical presentation. While Ciulei was not able to attain all the goals he had envisioned, he was able to maintain and advance the Guthrie's national and international reputation as a first-rate example of American theater and drew critical success with productions of classics such as Peer Gynt, The Marriage of Figaro, A Midsummer Night's Dream, The Seagull, Tartuffe, he was able to reestablish the Guthrie’s commitment to acting ensembles by gathering together a rotating repertory in his last season as Artistic Director in 1985. In 1982 the theater won the Regional Theatre Tony Award; that year the Guthrie turned to Garland Wright, who had spent some time as Liviu Ciulei’s associate artistic director in the early 1980s as Ciulei's replacement. Wright had shared a vision with Ciulei that included the desire to have a second, smaller stage that could act as a lab to enable the exploration of new work and performance techniques.
Born out of this vision was the Guthrie Laboratory located in the Minneapolis Warehouse District. Wright shared a desire to keep the concept of a resident acting company alive and used his ensembles to great effect, he was able to combine critical and popular success with a series of productions that helped reestablish a large and loyal audience base. Productions from this period include The Misanthrope, Richard III, The Screens, a trilogy of Richard II, Henry IV and Henry V, Medea and As You Like It. Wright created a series of outreach programs designed to garner interest in theater among young people and involving high school and colleague instructors. Garland Wright announced his resignation in 1994 and after an international search for his successor, Joe Dowling was chosen as the Guthrie's seventh artistic director. Dowling had gained an international reputation with his work at Ireland's national theater, the Abbey Theatre, including becoming the Abbey's youngest artistic director in its long history.
Under Dowling's artistic leadership, the Guthrie has enjoyed unprecedented growth. Subscriptions are at an all-time high of more than 32,000, up more than 50% from the beginning of Dowling's tenure. Dowling's time at the Guthrie Theater has been marked by a return to regional touring, co-productions by visiting international theater companies, collaborations with local theater companies, his own dynamic productions of the classics. Paired with an innovative philosophy that inc
Red Line (Los Angeles Metro)
The Red Line is a heavy rail subway line running between Downtown Los Angeles and North Hollywood via the districts of Hollywood and Mid-Wilshire. In North Hollywood it connects with the Orange Line service for stations to the Warner Center in Woodland Hills and Chatsworth, it is operated by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority. The Red Line, one of six lines forming the Metro Rail rapid transit system, opened in stages between 1993 and 2000. Together with the Purple Line, these two heavy rail lines combine to form L. A. Metro Rail's busiest line; as of October 2013, the combined Red and Purple lines averaged 169,478 boardings per weekday. Beginning in 2019, the line will be renamed to the B Line while retaining its red coloring; the Red Line is a 16.4-mile line that begins at Union Station and travels southwest through Downtown Los Angeles, passing the Civic Center, Pershing Square and the Financial District. At 7th St/Metro Center, travelers can connect to Metro Expo Line.
From here, the train travels between 7th Street and Wilshire Boulevard west through Pico-Union and Westlake, arriving at Wilshire/Vermont in the city's Mid-Wilshire/Koreatown district. Up to this point, the track is shared with the Metro Purple Line: at Wilshire/Vermont, the two lines diverge. From here, the Red Line travels north along Vermont, west along Hollywood Boulevard, traveling through Koreatown and Hollywood; the line turns northwest and crosses into the San Fernando Valley, where it terminates in North Hollywood. This route matches a branch of the old Red Car system, dismantled during The Great American Streetcar Scandal. Trains run between 4:30 a.m. and 1:00 a.m. the following morning. On Friday and Saturday evenings, trains are extended until 2:00 a.m. of the following morning. First and last train times are as follows: To/From North Hollywood Eastbound First Train to Union Station: 4:32 a.m. Last Train to Union Station: 1:02 a.m. Westbound First Train to North Hollywood: 4:10 a.m.
Last Train to North Hollywood: 12:21 a.m. Trains on the Red Line operate every ten minutes during peak hours Monday through Friday, they operate every twelve minutes during the daytime weekdays and all day on the weekends after 10 a.m.. Night service is every 20 minutes; the current Red Line is the product of a long-term plan to connect Downtown Los Angeles to central and western portions of the city with a heavy rail subway system. Planned in the 1980s to travel west down Wilshire Boulevard to Fairfax Avenue and north to the San Fernando Valley, a methane explosion at a Ross Dress for Less clothing store near Fairfax in 1985, just as construction got underway, led to a legal prohibition on tunneling in a large part of Mid-Wilshire. Instead, after some wrangling, a new route was chosen up Vermont Avenue to Hollywood Boulevard; the line opened in three minimum operating segments: MOS-1, which consisted of the original five stations from Union Station to Westlake/MacArthur Park, opened on January 30, 1993.
MOS-2B, which consisted of five new stations from Wilshire/Vermont to Hollywood/Vine which opened in 1999. MOS-3, which added new stations and extended the Red Line from Hollywood/Vine to its final terminus at North Hollywood, opened in 2000; the route known as the Red Line was intended to continue beyond its eastern terminus at Union Station to East Los Angeles. At the north end of the route, the Red Line was to turn west from North Hollywood station toward Warner Center. Trouble during the Red Line's construction, including a 1995 sinkhole that led to the project switching to a new contractor, led to a 1998 ballot proposition that banned revenue from existing sales taxes being used to dig subway tunnels in Los Angeles County, which put an end to expansion of the Red Line for the foreseeable future; the route to Warner Center was turned into a bus rapid transitway service. In the early 21st century, new sales tax Measures R and M were approved voters to provide funds for subway development.
While the Red Line does not figure into active expansion plans, several concepts have been proposed that would build off of it. Former Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa has mentioned extending the Red Line from its current North Hollywood Station terminus along Lankershim Boulevard to the northeastern San Fernando Valley, with a terminus in Sylmar. One long-term possibility might be an underground extension of another mile or two to a future high-rise housing district, or to a multi-modal transportation hub station at Bob Hope Airport in Burbank, a distance of four miles, it would go under Oxnard Street, the NoHo West development, Laurel Canyon Blvd, Vanowen Street to the Burbank Airport. In 2006 a large number of housing units, including a high-rise tower was completed near the North Hollywood station. Planned high-rise housing developments further to the north, including the NoHo West development which broke ground in March 2017 and the possibility of establishing a direct connection to the planned California High-Speed Rail station at Burbank Airport have been suggested as additional justification for an extension of the line from its current terminus in North Hollywood.
In 2010, at the request of L. A. City Councilman Tom LaBonge, Metro staff studied the possibility of adding a station along the west bank of the Los Angeles River to 6th Street and Santa Fe Avenue; the study concluded that such an extension, completed at
In theatre, a thrust stage is one that extends into the audience on three sides and is connected to the backstage area by its upstage end. A thrust has the benefit of greater intimacy between performers and the audience than a proscenium, while retaining the utility of a backstage area. Entrances onto a thrust are most made from backstage, although some theatres provide for performers to enter through the audience using vomitory entrances. A theatre in the round, exposed on all sides to the audience, is without a backstage and relies on entrances in the auditorium or from under the stage; as with an arena, the audience in a thrust stage theatre may view the stage from three or more sides. Because the audience can view the performance from a variety of perspectives, it is usual for the blocking and scenery to receive thorough consideration to ensure that no perspective is blocked from view. A high backed chair, for instance, when placed stage right, could create a blind spot in the stage left action.
The thrust stage is the earliest stage type in western theatre, first appearing in Greek theatres, its arrangement was continued by the pageant wagon. As pageant wagons evolved into Elizabethan theatre, many of that era's works, including those of Shakespeare, were performed on theatre with an open thrust stage, such as those of the Globe Theatre; the thrust stage concept was out of use for centuries, was resurrected in 1953 by the Stratford Shakespeare Festival of Canada. Their Festival Theatre was under a tent, until a permanent thrust stage theatre facility was constructed in 1957. Since that time dozens of other thrust stage venues have been built using the concept. Prairie Theatre Exchange in Winnipeg, Manitoba The Maclab Theatre at the Citadel Theatre in Edmonton, Alberta The Festival Theatre at the Atlantic Theatre Festival in Wolfville, Nova Scotia The Festival Theatre at the Stratford Shakespeare Festival in Stratford, Ontario The Studio-théâtre at Place des Arts, Quebec The UFV Theatre at the University of the Fraser Valley in Chilliwack, British Columbia The BMO Mainstage at Bard on the Beach in Vancouver, British Columbia The Chief Dan George Theatre at the University of Victoria in Victoria, British Columbia A Noise Within in Pasadena, CA The ANTA Washington Square Theatre in Greenwich Village, New York The Octagon Stage at the Alabama Shakespeare Festival in Montgomery, Alabama The Mark Taper Forum in Los Angeles, CA The Berkeley Repertory Theatre in Berkeley, CA The SLO Repertory Theatre in San Luis Obispo, CA The PCPA Marian Theatre in Santa Maria, CA The PCPA Solvang Festival Theatre in Solvang, CA The John W. Huntington Theatre at Hartford Stage in Hartford, Connecticut The La Nouba stage in Downtown Disney in Florida The Alhambra Dinner Theatre in Jacksonville, Florida The Gateway Theatre in Chicago The Chicago Shakespeare Theatre in Chicago The Ethel M. Barber Theater at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois The Guthrie Theater in Minneapolis The Greenbelt Arts Center in Greenbelt, Maryland The Court Street Theatre in Nashua, New Hampshire The Seacoast Repertory Theatre in Portsmouth, New Hampshire The Crossroads Theater in New Brunswick, New Jersey The George Street Playhouse in New Brunswick, New Jersey The Circle in the Square Theatre, New York City The Vivian Beaumont Theater at Lincoln Center, New York The Mystère theater in the Treasure Island hotel in Paradise, Nevada The Carolina Actors Studio Theatre in Charlotte, North Carolina The Paul Green Theatre at PlayMakers Repertory Company in Chapel Hill, North Carolina The O'Reilly Theater in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania The Kleberg Stage at the Zach Theatre in Austin, Texas The Blackfriars Playhouse at the American Shakespeare Center in Staunton, Virginia The Playhouse at the Overture Center for the Arts in Madison, Wisconsin The American Players Theatre in Spring Green, Wisconsin ArtsWest Playhouse and Gallery in Seattle, Washington The Todd Wehr Theater at the Marcus Center for the Performing Arts in Milwaukee, Wisconsin The Barksdale Theatre at the Shops at Willow Lawn in Richmond, Virginia The Lowell Davies Festival Theatre at the Old Globe in San Diego, California Centre Stage-South Carolina in Greenville, South Carolina Theatre Suburbia in Houston, Texas Playcrafters Barn Theatre in Moline, Illinois Shanklin Theatre, University of Evansville, Indiana Shea's 710 Theatre, New York Waldbühne, Berlin Numerous Greek theatres, such as the one in Epidaurus The Questors Theatre, Ealing The Crucible Theatre in Sheffield, England The Gulbenkian Theatre in Canterbury, England The Globe Theatre in London, England.
All other Elizabethan Theatres were in the same style. The Olivier Theatre in the National Theatre, London The Everyman Theatre in Liverpool, England The Chichester Festival Theatre. Notable for the fact that the stage is hexagonal, is surrounded by the audience on three sides; the Swan Theatre in Stratford-upon-Avon, England The Courtyard Theatre in Stratford-upon-Avon, England Elmbank Studios, Ayr The Quarry Theatre at the West Yorkshire Playhouse, Leeds The Riverside Theatre in Coleraine, Northern Ireland Prithvi Theatre, Mumbai Ranga Shankara, Bangalore Jagriti Theatre, Bangalore Bhartendu Natya Academy, Uttar Pradesh The York Theatre, part of the Seymour Centre, Sydney George Jenkins Theatre in Frankston, Victoria "RSC Transformation: The thrust stage". Archived from the original on August 9, 2013. "Stage Types - Thrust". Theatre Design. Mystère theatre diagram Diagram of Cirque du Soleil's Mystère theatre Thrust stage diagram
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Anthony Duquette was an American artist who specialized in designs for stage and film. Duquette was born in California, he grew up between Los Angeles, where he wintered with his family, Three Rivers, where they lived the rest of the year. As a student, Duquette was awarded scholarships at both the Chouinard Art Institute in Los Angeles and the Yale School of the Theatre. After graduating from Chouinard, he began working in advertising, creating special environments for the latest seasonal fashions, he began to free-lance for designers such as William Haines, James Pendleton and Adrian. In the early 1940s, Duquette's parents and siblings moved permanently to Los Angeles, where Duquette had been living since 1935. During this time Duquette was discovered by socialite Elsie de Wolfe. Through the patronage of de Wolfe and her husband Sir Charles Mendl, Duquette established himself as one of the leading designers in Los Angeles, he worked for films, including many Metro Goldwyn Mayer productions under the auspices of producer Arthur Freed and director Vincente Minnelli.
Duquette designed costumes and settings for the movies, interiors for Mary Pickford and Buddy Rogers and special furnishings for Lady Mendl, as well as numerous night clubs and public places. He served in the United States Army for four years during the Second World War and received an honorable discharge. After the liberation of Paris, he accompanied Sir Charles and Lady Mendl on their return trip to Europe and was introduced to their friends on the continent. Upon his return from Europe in 1947, Duquette continued his works for private clients and for the theatre and motion pictures, he presented his first exhibition at the Mitch Liesen Gallery in Los Angeles and shortly thereafter was asked to present his works at the Pavilion de Marsan of the Louvre Museum, Paris. Duquette was the first American artist to have a one-man show at the Louvre. Returning from a year in France, where he received design commissions from the Duke and Duchess of Windsor and the Alsatian industrialist Commandant Paul Louis Weiller, Duquette held a one-man showing of his works at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art.
There followed other one-man exhibitions of Duquette's works, including at the M. H. de Young Museum and Palace of the Legion of Honor in San Francisco, the California Museum of Science and Industry and Municipal Art Gallery in Los Angeles, the El Paso Museum of Art, the Santa Barbara Museum of Art, the Museum of the City of New York, as well as one-man exhibitions in Dallas, Rio de Janeiro and Phoenix, Arizona. In 1956, with his wife Elizabeth, he opened a salon in the converted silent film studios of actress Norma Talmadge, where they entertained friends such as Arthur Rubenstein, Aldous Huxley, Jascha Heifitz and Greta Garbo. During the 1960s and'70s, the Duquettes continued to travel extensively, working in Austria and France as well as New York, San Francisco, South America and Asia. Duquette created interiors for Doris Duke, Norton Simon, J. Paul Getty, a castle in Ireland for Elizabeth Arden and a penthouse in the Hawaiian Islands, he designed interiors for commercial and public spaces like the Hilton Hawaiian Village, Sheraton Universal Hotel, sculptures and tapestries for the Ritz Carlton Hotel in Chicago as well as the Los Angeles Music Center and the University of California at Los Angeles.
Designs for film and theatre include Yolanda and the Thief, Lovely to Look At, Ziegfeld Follies for MGM, as well as Jest of Cards and the Beast, Danses Concertantes for the San Francisco Ballet. Operas for which Duquette designed both costumes and settings include Der Rosenkavelier, The Magic Flute, Salome, his designs for the original Broadway production of Camelot won Duquette the Tony Award for Best Costume Design. His monumental work of environmental art Our Lady Queen of the Angels was created as a gift to the people of Los Angeles in honor of that city's lyrical name and in celebration of the bicentennial; this hugely successful multi-sensorial exhibit was seen by hundreds of thousands of visitors over a three-year period at the California State Museum of Science and Industry at Exposition Park. As part of the unique experience of "ethnic angels," Duquette included a poetic narration by Ray Bradbury, spoken by Charlton Heston. Duquette embellished the celebratory experience with original music by Garth Hudson.
The immense size of the building added to the effect, where from the 80 foot ceiling hung an 18-foot Madonna, dressed in an ornate and symbolic gown. She was surrounded by jeweled tapestries. All of this was enhanced by special lighting effects which changed the Madonna's facial color "to represent the four races." Duquette researched angels and learned every major world religion (Catholic, Moslem, Hindu believes in the same eight archangels. "Duquette writes that his'Angels' exhibit stresses over and over again'the brotherhood of man, an implied theme of this'celebration." He stated, "It is my hope that this celebrational environment, into which I have poured the aspirations of a lifetime, will transport the viewer to another dimension."In 1979, the Duquettes formed the Anthony and Elizabeth Duquette Foundation for the Living Arts, a non-profit public foundation whose purpose is to present museum-quality exhibitions of artistic and educational value to the public and to purchase and preserve Duquette's own works.
Exhibitions have been presented by the foundation at California's Mission San Fernando and through the Los Angeles Unified School District including "Designs for the Theatre", "The Art of the Found Object" and "The Fabric Mosaic Tapestry". T
Angels in America
Angels in America: A Gay Fantasia on National Themes is a two-part play by American playwright Tony Kushner. The work won numerous awards, including the Pulitzer Prize for Drama, the Tony Award for Best Play, the Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Play. Part one of the play premiered in 1991 and its Broadway opening was in 1993; the play is a complex metaphorical, at times symbolic examination of AIDS and homosexuality in America in the 1980s. Certain major and minor characters are deceased persons; the play contains multiple roles for several of the actors. And focusing on a gay couple in Manhattan, the play has several other storylines, some of which intersect; the two parts of the play are separately presentable and entitled Millennium Approaches and Perestroika, respectively. The play has been adapted into an HBO 2003 miniseries of the same title; the Seattle Times listed the series as among "Best of the filmed AIDS portrayals" on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of AIDS. Set in New York City, the play takes place between October 1985 and February 1986.
The play begins with the funeral of Sarah Ironson, an elderly Jewish woman, whose rabbi eulogizes not only her, but her entire generation of immigrants who risked their lives to build a community for their children in a strange land. After the funeral, Sarah's grandson, Louis Ironson, learns that his lover Prior Walter, the last member of a long lived WASP family, has AIDS; as Prior's illness progresses, Louis becomes unable to cope and moves out, leaving Prior to deal with his abandonment. He is given emotional support by his friend Belize, an ex-drag queen and a hospital nurse, who must deal with Louis' self-castigating guilt and myriad excuses for his behavior. Joe Pitt, a Mormon, Republican clerk in the same judge's office where Louis holds a clerical job, is offered a position in Washington, D. C. by his mentor, the McCarthyist lawyer and power broker Roy Cohn. Joe hesitates to accept out of concern for his agoraphobic, valium-addicted wife Harper, who refuses to move. Harper suspects that Joe does not love her in the same way she loves him, confirmed when Joe confesses his homosexuality.
Harper retreats into drug-fueled escapist fantasies, including a dream where she crosses paths with Prior though the two of them have never met in the real world. Torn by pressure from Roy and a burgeoning infatuation with Louis, Joe drunkenly comes out to his conservative mother Hannah, who reacts badly. Concerned for her son, she sells her house in Salt Lake City and travels to New York to help repair his marriage. Meanwhile, a drug-addled Harper has fled their apartment after a confrontation with Joe, wandering the streets of Brooklyn believing she is in Antarctica as Joe and Louis tentatively begin an affair. Meanwhile, Roy Cohn discovers that he is dying. Defiantly refusing to publicly admit he is gay or has AIDS, Roy instead declares he has liver cancer. Facing disbarment for borrowing money from a client, Roy is determined to beat the case so he can die a lawyer and he attempts to position Joe in the Justice Department with the aim of having a friend in a useful place; when Joe at last refuses his offer, he collapses in pain.
As he awaits transport to the hospital, he is visited by the ghost of Ethel Rosenberg, whom he prosecuted in her trial for espionage, and, executed after Roy illegally lobbied the judge for the death penalty. Prior begins to hear an angelic voice telling him to prepare for her arrival, receives visits from a pair of ghosts who claim to be his own ancestors, who inform him he is a prophet. Prior does not know if they are real. At the end of Part One, Prior is visited by an angel, who crashes through his bedroom ceiling and proclaims that "the Great Work" has begun. At the funeral of a friend, a shaken Prior relates his encounter with the Angel to Belize. After revealing the presence of a mystical book underneath the tile in Prior's kitchen, the Angel reveals to him that Heaven is a beautiful city that resembles San Francisco, God, described as a great flaming Aleph, created the universe through copulation with His angels, who are all-knowing but unable to create or change on their own. God, bored with the angels, made mankind with the power to create.
The progress of mankind on Earth caused Heaven to suffer earthquake-like tremors and physically deteriorate. On the day of the San Francisco earthquake in 1906, God abandoned Heaven; the Angel brings Prior a message for mankind—"stop moving!"—in the belief that if man ceases to progress, Heaven will be restored. Belize believes that Prior is projecting his own fears of abandonment into an elaborate hallucination, but Prior suspects that his illness is the prophecy taking physical form, that the only way the Angel can force him to deliver her message is to die. Roy lands at the hospital in the care of Belize, where his condition declines, he manages to use his political clout to acquire a private stash of the experimental drug AZT, at the expense of withholding the drug from participants in a drug trial. Alone in a hospital, Cohn finds himself isolated, with only Belize, who despises him, the ghost of Ethel for company. Joe visits Roy, near death, receives a final, paternal blessing from his mentor.
However, when Joe confesses he has left Harper for a man, Roy rejects him in a violent reaction of fear and rage, ordering him to return to his wife and cover up his indiscretion. Prior goes to a Mormon visitor's center to research angels, where he meets Hannah, volunteering there and taking care of Harper, who has returned to reality but is now depressed; the two sha
Parade is a musical with a book by Alfred Uhry and music and lyrics by Jason Robert Brown. The musical premiered on Broadway in 1998 and won Tony Awards for Best Book and Best Original Score and six Drama Desk Awards; the show has had a U. S. national tour and numerous professional and amateur productions in both the U. S. and abroad. The musical dramatizes the 1913 trial of Jewish factory manager Leo Frank, accused and convicted of raping and murdering a thirteen-year-old employee, Mary Phagan; the trial, sensationalized by the media, aroused antisemitic tensions in Atlanta and the U. S. state of Georgia. When Frank's death sentence was commuted to life in prison by the departing Governor of Georgia, John M. Slaton due to his detailed review of over 10,000 pages of testimony and possible problems with the trial, Leo Frank was transferred to a prison in Milledgeville, where a lynching party seized and kidnapped him. Frank was taken to Phagan's hometown of Marietta, he was hanged from an oak tree.
The events surrounding the investigation and trial led to two groups emerging: the revival of the defunct KKK and the birth of the Jewish Civil Rights organization, the Anti-Defamation League. Harold Prince turned to Brown to write the score. Prince's daughter, had brought Brown to her father's attention. Uhry, who grew up in Atlanta, had personal knowledge of the Frank story, as his great-uncle owned the pencil factory run by Leo Frank. In dramatizing the story and Uhry have emphasized the evolving relationship between Leo and his wife Lucille, their relationship shifts from cold to warm in songs like "Leo at Work/What am I Waiting For?," "You Don't Know This Man," "Do it Alone," and "All the Wasted Time". The poignancy of the couple, who fall in love in the midst of adversity, is the core of the work, it makes the tragic outcome – the miscarriage of justice – more disturbing. The show was Brown's first Broadway production, his music, according to critic Charles Isherwood, has "subtle and appealing melodies that draw on a variety of influences, from pop-rock to folk to rhythm and blues and gospel."The plot of the musical dramatizes the historical story and does not shy away from the conclusion of some that the killer was the factory janitor Jim Conley, the key witness against Frank at the trial.
The true villains of the piece are portrayed as the ambitious and corrupt prosecutor Hugh Dorsey and the rabid, anti-semitic publisher Tom Watson. The musical opens in Georgia, in the time of the American Civil War; the sounds of drums herald the appearance of a young Confederate soldier, bidding farewell to his sweetheart as he goes to fight for his homeland. The years pass and it is 1913; the young soldier has become an old one-legged veteran, preparing to march in the annual Confederate Memorial Day parade. As the Parade begins, Leo Frank, a Yankee Jew from Brooklyn, NYC, is uncomfortable in the town in which he works and lives, feeling out of place due to his Judaism and his college education, his discomfort is present in his relationship with his wife, who has planned an outdoor meal spoiled by Leo's decision to go into work on a holiday. Meanwhile, two local teens, Frankie Epps and Mary Phagan, ride flirt. Frankie wants Mary to go to the picture show with him, but Mary playfully resists, insisting her mother will not let her.
Mary leaves to collect her pay from the pencil factory managed by Frank. While Frank is at work, Lucille bemoans the state of their marriage, believing herself unappreciated by a man so wrapped up in himself, she wonders whether or not Leo was the right match for her. Mary Phagan arrives in Leo's office to collect her paycheck; that night, two policeman, Detective Starnes and Officer Ivey, rouse Frank from his sleep, without telling him why, demand he accompany them to the factory, where the body of Mary Phagan has been found raped and murdered in the basement. The Police suspects Newt Lee, the African-American night watchman who discovered the body. Throughout his interrogation, he maintains his innocence, but inadvertently directs Starnes' suspicion upon Frank, who did not answer his telephone when Lee called him to report the incident. Leo is arrested, but not charged, Mrs. Phagan, Mary's mother, becomes aware of Mary's death. Across town, a reporter named Britt Craig is informed about Mary's murder and sees the possibility of a career-making story.
Craig attends Mary's funeral, where the townspeople of Marietta are angry and baffled by the tragedy that has so unexpectedly shattered the community.. Frankie Epps swears revenge on Mary's killer, as does Tom Watson, a writer for The Jeffersonian, an extremist right-wing newspaper who has taken a special interest in the case. In the meantime, Governor Slaton pressures the local prosecutor Hugh Dorsey to get to the bottom of the whole affair. Dorsey, an ambitious politician with a "lousy conviction record", resolves to find the murderer. Dorsey, along with Starnes and Ivey interrogate Newt Lee. Dorsey releases Newt, reasoning that "hanging another Nigra ain't enough this time. We gotta do better." He attaches the blame to Leo Frank, sends Starnes and a reluctant Ivey out to find eyewitnesses. Craig exalts in his opportunity to cover a "real" story and begins an effective