Samuel Langhorne Clemens, known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American writer, entrepreneur and lecturer. He was lauded as the "greatest humorist this country has produced", William Faulkner called him "the father of American literature", his novels include The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and its sequel, the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, the latter called "The Great American Novel". Twain was raised in Hannibal, which provided the setting for Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn, he served an apprenticeship with a printer and worked as a typesetter, contributing articles to the newspaper of his older brother Orion Clemens. He became a riverboat pilot on the Mississippi River before heading west to join Orion in Nevada, he referred humorously to his lack of success at mining, turning to journalism for the Virginia City Territorial Enterprise. His humorous story, "The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County", was published in 1865, based on a story that he heard at Angels Hotel in Angels Camp, where he had spent some time as a miner.
The short story brought international attention and was translated into French. His wit and satire, in prose and in speech, earned praise from critics and peers, he was a friend to presidents, artists and European royalty. Twain earned a great deal of money from his writings and lectures, but he invested in ventures that lost most of it—such as the Paige Compositor, a mechanical typesetter that failed because of its complexity and imprecision, he filed for bankruptcy in the wake of these financial setbacks, but he overcame his financial troubles with the help of Henry Huttleston Rogers. He paid all his creditors in full though his bankruptcy relieved him of having to do so. Twain was born shortly after an appearance of Halley's Comet, he predicted that he would "go out with it" as well. Samuel Langhorne Clemens was born on November 30, 1835, in Florida, the sixth of seven children born to Jane, a native of Kentucky, John Marshall Clemens, a native of Virginia, his parents met when his father moved to Missouri, they were married in 1823.
Twain was of Cornish and Scots-Irish descent. Only three of his siblings survived childhood: Orion and Pamela, his sister Margaret died when Twain was three, his brother Benjamin died three years later. His brother Pleasant Hannibal died at three weeks of age; when he was four, Twain's family moved to Hannibal, Missouri, a port town on the Mississippi River that inspired the fictional town of St. Petersburg in The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Slavery was legal in Missouri at the time, it became a theme in these writings, his father was an attorney and judge, who died of pneumonia in 1847, when Twain was 11. The next year, Twain left school after the fifth grade to become a printer's apprentice. In 1851, he began working as a typesetter, contributing articles and humorous sketches to the Hannibal Journal, a newspaper that Orion owned; when he was 18, he left Hannibal and worked as a printer in New York City, Philadelphia, St. Louis, Cincinnati, joining the newly formed International Typographical Union, the printers trade union.
He educated himself in public libraries in the evenings, finding wider information than at a conventional school. Twain describes his boyhood in Life on the Mississippi, stating that "there was but one permanent ambition" among his comrades: to be a steamboatman. Pilot was the grandest position of all; the pilot in those days of trivial wages, had a princely salary – from a hundred and fifty to two hundred and fifty dollars a month, no board to pay. As Twain describes it, the pilot's prestige exceeded that of the captain; the pilot had to:...get up a warm personal acquaintanceship with every old snag and one-limbed cottonwood and every obscure wood pile that ornaments the banks of this river for twelve hundred miles. Twain studied the Mississippi, learning its landmarks, how to navigate its currents and how to read the river and its shifting channels, submerged snags, rocks that would "tear the life out of the strongest vessel that floated", it was. Piloting gave him his pen name from "mark twain", the leadsman's cry for a measured river depth of two fathoms, safe water for a steamboat.
As a young pilot, Clemens served on the steamer A. B. Chambers with Grant Marsh, who became famous for his exploits as a steamboat captain on the Missouri River; the two liked each other, admired one another, maintained a correspondence for many years after Clemens left the river. While training, Samuel convinced his younger brother Henry to work with him, arranged a post of mud clerk for him on the steamboat Pennsylvania. On June 13, 1858, the steamboat's boiler exploded. Twain claimed to have foreseen this death in a dream a month earlier, which inspired his interest in parapsychology. Twain held himself responsible for the rest of his life, he continued to work on the river and was a river pilot until the Civil War broke out in 1861, when traffic was curtaile
The 37th G8 summit was held on May 26–27, 2011, in Deauville, France. Previous G8 summits have been hosted by France in locations; the Group of Six was an unofficial forum which brought together the heads of the richest industrialized countries: France, Italy, the United Kingdom and the United States starting in 1976. The G7, meeting for the first time in 1979, was formed with the addition of Canada. Hence, The G8, meeting for the first time in 1997, was formed with the addition of Russia. In addition, the President of the European Commission has been formally included in summits since 1981; the summits were not meant to be linked formally with wider international institutions. The G8 summits have inspired widespread debates and demonstrations; the form and functions of the G8 were reevaluated as the G-20 summits evolved into the premier forum for discussing and monitoring international economic cooperation. The "new G8" is refocusing on the subjects of common interest to the G8 countries, including geopolitical and security issues.
The forum continues to be in a process of transformation. The G8 is an unofficial annual forum for the leaders of Canada, the European Commission, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States; the 37th G8 summit was the last summit for French President Nicolas Sarkozy, Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi, Japanese Prime Minister Naoto Kan and Dmitry Medvedev as President of Russia. These summit participants represent the current core members of the international forum: Traditionally, the host country of the G8 summit sets the agenda for negotiations, but world events caused the list of topics to expand, including such issues such as the Fukushima nuclear accident the European sovereign debt crisis, the conflict in Libya, Iran's nuclear programme, Syria's crackdown on pro-democracy protests, the selection of a new managing director for the International Monetary Fund; the summit is a venue for resolving differences among its members. As a practical matter, the summit was conceived as an opportunity for its members to give each other mutual encouragement in the face of difficult economic decisions.
The G-8 has become a forum for political and strategic discussions, as a caucus within the G-20. The agenda for the summit included some issues. French general priorities included: New common challenges: the Internet, green growth and a sustainable economy, nuclear safety The'Arab Springs': a partnership for democracy Strengthening the partnership with Africa: a long-term vision Peace and security: traditional themes of the G8Some of the specific topics on the agenda were: Afghanistan; the slogan G8 dégage was a recurring element of the demonstrations. Protesters expressed their concerns about capitalism and what they perceive as the imperialism of western liberal democracies; the demonstrators are understood to be against globalisation. This annual gathering of international leaders is an international event, observed and reported by news media; the event brings leaders together not so they can dream up quick fixes, but to talk and think about them together. The 2011 summit meeting was marked by what the G8 called the "Deauville Partnership" with the people of North Africa.
As a start, $20 billion were pledged in support for Tunisian and Egyptian reforms due to the Arab Spring. Security planning was designed to ensure that the summit's formal agenda can remain the primary focus of the attendees' discussions. In 2010, President Sarkozy projected that the summits in Deauville and Cannes would cost "ten times less" than the preceding Canadian summits. For some, the G8 summit became a profit-generating event. For example, the G8 Summit magazines have been published under the auspices of the host nations for distribution to all attendees since 1998. According to the Mayor of Deauville, "Our main interest is the economic implications." E-G8 Forum 2011 G-20 Cannes summit G6 G7 International Panel on Climate Change United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Reinalda and Bertjan Verbeek.. Autonomous Policy Making by International Organizations. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-16486-3. NB: No official website is created for any G7 summit prior to 1995 -- see the 21st G7 summit
Salud Ortiz Carbajal is an American politician who has served as the United States Representative from California's 24th congressional district since January 2017. He is a member of the Democratic Party. Carbajal was born in Moroleón, Mexico, in 1964 and immigrated to the United States to Arizona settling in Oxnard, with his family, where his father worked as a farmworker. Carbajal attended the University of California, Santa Barbara, where he earned a bachelor's degree, Fielding Graduate University, where he earned a master's degree in organizational management. Carbajal served in the United States Marine Corps Reserve for eight years, including during the Gulf War, although he did not leave the contiguous United States. Carbajal was first elected to the Board of Supervisors of Santa Barbara County, California in 2004, representing the first district as a Democrat, he was reelected in 2008 and 2012. In 2015, Carbajal announced his intentions to run for the 24th district, after incumbent Democrat Lois Capps announced her retirement.
Carbajal was seen as one of the two Democratic frontrunners in the open primary, alongside Santa Barbara Mayor Helene Schneider, was rivaled by Republican frontrunners Assemblyman Katcho Achadjian, small businessman and former Congressional aide Justin Fareed. The primary field consisted of 4 Democrats, 3 Republicans, 2 independent candidates. In the primary on June 7, Carbajal came in first, with 31.9% of the vote, amounting to 66,402 total popular votes. The runner-up was Fareed, who received 20.5%. In the general election on November 8, Carbajal received 53.4% of the total vote over Fareed's 46.6%, which amounted to a popular vote margin of about 21,000 votes. Committee on Armed Services Subcommittee on Readiness Subcommittee on Tactical Air and Land Forces Committee on the Budget Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure New Democrat Coalition House Baltic Caucus Congressional Hispanic Caucus Congressional Asian Pacific American Caucus Climate Solutions Caucus Congressional Solar Caucus Carbajal lives in Santa Barbara, California and is married to Gina, with whom he has two children.
List of Hispanic Americans in the United States Congress Congressman Salud Carbajal official U. S. House website Campaign website Salud Carbajal at Curlie Appearances on C-SPAN Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress Profile at Vote Smart Financial information at the Federal Election Commission Legislation sponsored at the Library of Congress