Mulhouse is a city and commune in eastern France, close to the Swiss and German borders. With a population of 112,063 in 2013 and 284,739 inhabitants in the metropolitan area in 2012, it is the largest city in the Haut-Rhin département, the second largest in the Alsace region after Strasbourg. Mulhouse is the principal commune of the 33 making up the communauté d'agglomération Mulhouse Alsace Agglomération. Mulhouse is famous for its museums the Cité de l’Automobile and the Musée Français du Chemin de Fer the largest automobile and railway museums in the world. An industrial town nicknamed "the French Manchester", Mulhouse is the main seat of the Upper Alsace University, where is found the secretariat of the European Physical Society. Mulhouse is the chief city of an arrondissement of the Haut-Rhin département, of which it is a sub-prefecture. Legends mention the origin of Mulhouse in 58 BC, but the first written records of the town date from the twelfth century, it was part of the southern Alsatian county of Sundgau in the Holy Roman Empire.
From 1354 to 1515, Mulhouse was part of the Décapole, an association of ten Free Imperial Cities in Alsace. The city joined the Swiss Confederation as an associate in 1515 and was therefore not annexed by France in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 like the rest of the Sundgau. An enclave in Alsace, it was a free and independent Calvinist republic, known as Stadtrepublik Mülhausen, associated with the Swiss Confederation until, after a vote by its citizens on 4 January 1798, it became a part of France in the Treaty of Mulhouse signed on 28 January 1798, during the Directory period of the French Revolution. Starting in the middle of the eighteenth century, the Koechlin family pioneered cotton cloth manufacturing. André Koechlin built machinery and started making railroad equipment in 1842; the firm in 1839 employed 1,800 people. It was one of the six large French locomotive constructors until the merger with Elsässische Maschinenbau-Gesellschaft Grafenstaden in 1872, when the company became Société Alsacienne de Constructions Mécaniques.
After the Prussian victory in the Franco-Prussian War, Mulhouse was annexed to the German Empire as part of the territory of Alsace-Lorraine. The city was occupied by French troops on 8 August 1914 at the start of World War I, but they were forced to withdraw two days in the Battle of Mulhouse; the citizens of Alsace who unwisely celebrated the appearance of the French army were left to face German reprisals, with several citizens sentenced to death. After World War I ended in 1918, French troops entered Alsace. Germany ceded the region to France under the Treaty of Versailles. After the Battle of France in 1940, it was occupied by German forces until its return to French control at the end of World War II in May 1945; the town's development was stimulated first by the expansion of the textile industry and tanning, subsequently by chemical and Engineering industries from the mid 18th century. Mulhouse was for a long time called the French Manchester; the town has enduring links with Louisiana, from which it imported cotton, with the Levant.
The town's history explains why its centre is small. Two rivers run through both tributaries of the Rhine. Mulhouse is 100 kilometres away from Strasbourg and Zürich, it lies close enough to Basel and Freiburg, Germany to share the EuroAirPort international airport with these two cities. Mulhouse's climate is temperate oceanic, but its location further away from the ocean gives the city colder winters with some snow, hot and humid summers, in comparison with the rest of France. Medieval Mulhouse consists of a lower and an upper town; the lower town was the inner city district of merchants and craftsmen. It developed around the Place de la Réunion. Nowadays this area is pedestrianised; the upper town developed from the eighteenth century on. Several monastic orders were established there, notably the Franciscans, Poor Clares and Knights of Malta; the Nouveau Quartier is the best example of urban planning in Mulhouse, was developed from 1826 on, after the town walls had been torn down. It is focused around the Place de la République.
Its network of streets and its triangular shape are a good demonstration of the town's desire for a planned layout. The planning was undertaken by the architects G. Félix Fries; this inner city district was occupied by rich families and the owners of local industries, who tended to be liberal and republican in their opinions. The Rebberg district consists of grand houses inspired by the colonnaded residences of Louisiana cotton planters; this was the town's vineyard. The houses here were built as terraces in the English style, a result of the town's close relationship with Manchester, where the sons of industrialists were sent to study. Hôtel de Ville; the town hall was built in 1553 in the Rhenish Renaissance style. Montaigne described it as a "palais magnifique et tout doré" in 1580, it is known for its trompe l'œil paintings, its pictures of allegories representing the vices and virtues. Workers' qu
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Baden is a historical territory in South Germany, situated along right bank of the Upper Rhine. The margraves of Baden originated from the house of Zähringen. Baden is named after Hohenbaden Castle in Baden-Baden. Hermann II of Baden first claimed the title of Margrave of Baden in 1112. A united Margraviate of Baden existed from this time until 1535, when it was split into the two Margraviates of Baden-Durlach and Baden-Baden. Following a devastating fire in Baden-Baden in 1689, the capital was moved to Karlsruhe; the two parts were reunited in 1771 under Margrave Charles Frederick. The restored Margraviate of Baden was elevated to the status of electorate in 1803. In 1806, the Electorate of Baden, receiving territorial additions, became the Grand Duchy of Baden; the Grand Duchy of Baden was a state within the German Empire until 1918, succeeded by the Republic of Baden within the Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany. During 1945–1952, South Baden and Württemberg-Baden were territories under French and American occupation, respectively.
They were united with Württemberg-Hohenzollern to form the modern Federal State of Baden-Württemberg in 1952. History of Baden-Württemberg List of states in the Holy Roman Empire Baden in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
Vevey is a town in Switzerland in the canton of Vaud, on the north shore of Lake Geneva, near Lausanne. The German name Vivis is no longer used, it was the seat of the district of the same name until 2006, is now part of the Riviera-Pays-d'Enhaut District. It is part of the French-speaking area of Switzerland. Vevey is home to the world headquarters of the international food and beverage company Nestlé, founded here in 1867. Milk chocolate was invented in Vevey by Daniel Peter in 1875, with the aid of Henri Nestlé; the residence of British American actor and comedian Charlie Chaplin was in Vevey, where he lived from 1952 until his death in 1977. A piloti settlement existed here as early as the 2nd millennium BC. Under Rome, it was known as Vibiscum, it was mentioned for the first time by the ancient Greek astronomer and philosopher Ptolemy, who gave it the name Ouikos. In the Middle Ages it was a station on the Via Francigena, it was ruled by the bishopric of Lausanne, under the Blonay family. Vevey lived through a period of prosperity after the Vaud Revolution of 1798.
In the 19th century industrial activities included mechanical engineering at the Ateliers de Constructions Mécaniques de Vevey and tobacco. Vevey has an area, as of 2009, of 2.4 square kilometers. Of this area, 0.07 km2 or 2.9% is used for agricultural purposes, while 0.11 km2 or 4.6% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 2.13 km2 or 89.5 % is settled, 0.04 km2 or 1.7 % is either lakes. Of the built up area, industrial buildings made up 2.9% of the total area while housing and buildings made up 51.3% and transportation infrastructure made up 26.9%. Power and water infrastructure as well as other special developed areas made up 1.7% of the area while parks, green belts and sports fields made up 6.7%. Out of the forested land, all of the forested land area is covered with heavy forests. Of the agricultural land, 0.4% is used for growing crops and 1.7% is pastures. All the water in the municipality is flowing water; the municipality was the capital of the Vevey District until it was dissolved on 31 August 2006, Vevey became the capital of the new district of Riviera-Pays-d'Enhaut.
The blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Per pale Or and Azure, two Letters V interlaced counterchanged. Vevey has a population of 19,827; as of 2008, 43.2% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 16.2%. It has changed at a rate of 3.4 % due to births and deaths. Most of the population speaks French as their first language, with Italian being second most common and Portuguese being third. There are 7 people who speak Romansh; the age distribution, as of 2009, in Vevey is. Of the adult population, 2,543 people or 14.1 % of the population are between 29 years old. 3,059 people or 17.0% are between 30 and 39, 2,852 people or 15.9% are between 40 and 49, 2,059 people or 11.5% are between 50 and 59. The senior population distribution is 1,516 people or 8.4% of the population are between 60 and 69 years old, 1,131 people or 6.3% are between 70 and 79, there are 806 people or 4.5% who are between 80 and 89, there are 138 people or 0.8% who are 90 and older.
As of 2000, there were 6,936 people who never married in the municipality. There were 6,966 married individuals, 1,065 widows or widowers and 1,235 individuals who are divorced; as of 2000, there were 7,830 private households in the municipality, an average of 2. Persons per household. There were 3,667 households that consist of only one person and 334 households with five or more people. Out of a total of 8,012 households that answered this question, 45.8% were households made up of just one person and there were 39 adults who lived with their parents. Of the rest of the households, there are 1,694 married couples without children, 1,754 married couples with children There were 527 single parents with a child or children. There were 149 households that were made up of unrelated people and 182 households that were made up of some sort of institution or another collective housing. In 2000 there were 264 single family homes out of a total of 1,286 inhabited buildings. There were 565 multi-family buildings, along with 329 multi-purpose buildings that were used for housing and 128 other use buildings that had some housing.
In 2000, a total of 7,752 apartments were permanently occupied, while 1,117 apartments were seasonally occupied and 430 apartments were empty. As of 2009, the construction rate of new housing units was 6.8 new units per 1000 residents. As of 2003 the average price to rent an average apartment in Vevey was 1067.93 Swiss francs per month. The average rate for a one-room apartment was 567.76 CHF, a two-room apartment was about 787.77 CHF, a three-room apartment was about 1014.16 CHF and a six or more room apartment cost an average of 1817.64 CHF. The average apartment price in Vevey was 95.7% of the national average of 1116 CHF. The vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2010, was 0.45%. The historical population is given in the following chart: There are 14 structures in Vevey that are listed as Swiss heritage site of nat
Asparagus, or garden asparagus, folk name sparrow grass, scientific name Asparagus officinalis, is a perennial flowering plant species in the genus Asparagus. Its young shoots are used as a spring vegetable, it was once classified in the lily family, like the related Allium species and garlic, but the Liliaceae have been split and the onion-like plants are now in the family Amaryllidaceae and asparagus in the Asparagaceae. Sources differ as to the native range of Asparagus officinalis, but include most of Europe and western temperate Asia, it is cultivated as a vegetable crop. Asparagus is a herbaceous, perennial plant growing to 100–150 cm tall, with stout stems with much-branched, feathery foliage; the "leaves" are in fact needle-like cladodes in the axils of scale leaves. The root system is adventitious and the root type is fasciculated; the flowers are bell-shaped, greenish-white to yellowish, 4.5–6.5 mm long, with six tepals fused together at the base. It is dioecious, with male and female flowers on separate plants, but sometimes hermaphrodite flowers are found.
The fruit is a small red berry 6–10 mm diameter, poisonous to humans. Plants native to the western coasts of Europe are treated as Asparagus officinalis subsp. Prostratus Corb. Distinguished by its low-growing prostrate stems growing to only 30–70 cm high, shorter cladodes 2–18 mm long, it is treated as Asparagus prostratus Dumort, by some authors. Asparagus has been used as a vegetable owing to its distinct flavor, in medicine due to its diuretic properties and its purported function as an aphrodisiac, it is pictured as an offering on an Egyptian frieze dating to 3000 BC. In ancient times, it was known in Syria and in Spain. Greeks and Romans ate it fresh when in season, dried the vegetable for use in winter. Roman Epicureans froze its sprouts high in the Alps for the Feast of Epicurus. Emperor Augustus created the "Asparagus Fleet" for hauling the vegetable, coined the expression "faster than cooking asparagus" for quick action. A recipe for cooking asparagus is given in one of the oldest surviving collection of recipes.
In the second century BC, the Greek physician Galen respected within Roman society, mentioned asparagus as a beneficial herb, but as dominance of the Roman empire waned, asparagus' medicinal value drew little attention. Until al-Nafzawi's The Perfumed Garden; that piece of writing celebrates its pruported aphrodisiacal power that the Indian Ananga Ranga attributes to "special phosphorus elements" that counteract fatigue. By 1469, asparagus was cultivated in French monasteries. Asparagus appears to have been little noticed in England until 1538, in Germany until 1542; the finest texture and the lmost palatable yet least bitter taste is found in the plants' young tips, but by the time the plant has begun to branch and assume its mature form, it has become too bitter to be considered palatable. The points d'amour were served as a delicacy to Madame de Pompadour. Asparagus became available to the New World in the United States. Only young asparagus shoots are eaten: once the buds start to open, the shoots turn woody.
Water makes up 93% of asparagus's composition. Asparagus is low in calories and is low in sodium, it is a good source of vitamin B6, calcium and zinc, a good source of dietary fibre, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin K, riboflavin, niacin, folic acid, phosphorus, copper and selenium, as well as chromium, a trace mineral that regulates the ability of insulin to transport glucose from the bloodstream into cells. The amino acid asparagine gets its name from asparagus, as the asparagus plant is rich in this compound; the shoots are prepared and served in a number of ways around the world as an appetizer or vegetable side dish. In Asian-style cooking, asparagus is stir-fried. Cantonese restaurants in the United States serve asparagus stir-fried with chicken, shrimp, or beef, it may be grilled over charcoal or hardwood embers, is used as an ingredient in some stews and soups. In recent years, asparagus eaten raw, as a component of a salad, has regained popularity. Asparagus can be pickled and stored for several years.
Some brands label shoots prepared in this way as "marinated". Stem thickness indicates the age of the plant, with the thicker stems coming from older plants. Older, thicker stalks can be woody. Peeled asparagus will poach much faster; the bottom portion of asparagus contains sand and soil, so thorough cleaning is advised before cooking. Green asparagus is eaten worldwide, though the availability of imports throughout the year has made it less of a delicacy than it once was. In Europe, the "asparagus season is a highlight of the foodie calendar"; as in continental Europe, due to the short growing season and demand for local produce, asparagus commands a premium price. White asparagus is popular in Europe and western Asia. White asparagus is the result of applying a blanching technique while the asparagus shoots are growing. To cultivate white asparagus, the shoots are covered wi
The Black Forest is a large forested mountain range in the state of Baden-Württemberg in southwest Germany. It is bounded by the Rhine valley to the south, its highest peak is the Feldberg with an elevation of 1,493 metres. The region is oblong in shape with a length of 160 km and breadth of up to 50 km; the Black Forest stretches from the High Rhine in the south to the Kraichgau in the north. In the west it is bounded by the Upper Rhine Plain; the Black Forest is the highest part of the South German Scarplands and much of it is densely wooded, a fragment of the Hercynian Forest of Antiquity. It lies upon rocks of the crystalline basement and Bunter Sandstone, its natural boundary with the surrounding landscapes is formed by the emergence of muschelkalk, absent from the Black Forest bedrock. Thanks to the fertility of the soil, dependent on the underlying rock, this line is both a vegetation boundary as well as the border between the Altsiedelland and the Black Forest, not permanently settled until the High Middle Ages.
From north to south the Black Forest extends for over 160 km, attaining a width of up to 50 kilometres in the south, up to 30 kilometres in the north. Tectonically the range forms a lifted fault block, which rises prominently in the west from the Upper Rhine Plain, whilst seen from the east it has the appearance of a forested plateau; the natural regions of the Black Forest are separated by various features: Geomorphologically, the main division is between the gentle eastern slopes with their rounded hills and broad plateaux and the incised, steeply falling terrain in the west that drops into the Upper Rhine Graben. It is here, in the west, where the highest mountains and the greatest local differences in height are found; the valleys are narrow and ravine-like. The summits are rounded and there are the remnants of plateaux and arête-like landforms. Geologically the clearest division is between east and west. Large areas of the eastern Black Forest, the lowest layer of the South German Scarplands composed of Bunter Sandstone, are covered by endless coniferous forest with their island clearings.
The exposed basement in the west, predominantly made up of metamorphic rocks and granites, despite its rugged topography, easier to settle and appears much more open and inviting today with its varied meadow valleys. The most common way of dividing the regions of the Black Forest is, from north to south; until the 1930s, the Black Forest was divided into the Northern and Southern Black Forest, the boundary being the line of the Kinzig valley. The Black Forest was divided into the forested Northern Black Forest, the lower, central section, predominantly used for agriculture in the valleys, was the Central Black Forest and the much higher Southern Black Forest with its distinctive highland economy and ice age glacial relief; the term High Black Forest referred to the highest areas of the South and southern Central Black Forest. The boundaries drawn were, quite varied. In 1931, Robert Gradmann called the Central Black Forest the catchment area of the Kinzig and in the west the section up to the lower Elz and Kinzig tributary of the Gutach.
A pragmatic division, oriented not just on natural and cultural regions, uses the most important transverse valleys. Based on that, the Central Black Forest is bounded by the Kinzig in the north and the line from Dreisam to Gutach in the south, corresponding to the Bonndorf Graben zone and the course of the present day B 31. In 1959, Rudolf Metz combined the earlier divisions and proposed a modified tripartite division himself, which combined natural and cultural regional approaches and was used, his Central Black Forest is bounded in the north by the watershed between the Acher and Rench and subsequently between the Murg and Kinzig or Forbach and Kinzig, in the south by the Bonndorf Graben zone, which restricts the Black Forest in the east as does the Freudenstadt Graben further north by its transition into the Northern Black Forest. The Handbook of the Natural Region Divisions of Germany published by the Federal Office of Regional Geography since the early 1950s names the Black Forest as one of six tertiary level major landscape regions within the secondary level region of the South German Scarplands and, at the same time, one of nine new major landscape unit groups.
It is divided into six so-called major units. This division was refined and modified in several, successor publications up to 1967, each covering individual sections of the map; the mountain range was divided into three regions. The northern boundary of the Central Black Forest in this classification runs south of the Rench Valley and the Kniebis to near Freudenstadt, its southern boundary varied with each edition. In 1998 the Baden-Württemberg State Department for Environmental Protection published a reworked Natural Region Division of Baden-Württemberg, it is restricted to the level of the natural regional major units and has been used since for the state's administration of nature conservation: The Black Forest Foothills (Schwarzwald-Rand