The various cultures collectively termed "Mound Builders" were inhabitants of North America who, during a circa 5,000-year period, constructed various styles of earthen mounds for religious, ceremonial and elite residential purposes. These included the pre-Columbian cultures of the Archaic period, Woodland period, Mississippian period. Since the 19th century, the prevailing scholarly consensus has been that the mounds were constructed by indigenous peoples of the Americas. Sixteenth-century Spanish explorers met natives living in a number of Mississippian cities, described their cultures, left artifacts. Research and study of these cultures and peoples has been based on archaeology and anthropology; the namesake cultural trait of the Mound Builders was the building of other earthworks. These burial and ceremonial structures were flat-topped pyramids or platform mounds, flat-topped or rounded cones, elongated ridges, sometimes a variety of other forms, they were built as part of complex villages.
The early earthworks built in Louisiana around 3500 BCE are the only ones known to have been built by a hunter-gatherer culture. The best-known flat-topped pyramidal structure, which at more than 100 ft tall is the largest pre-Columbian earthwork north of Mexico, is Monks Mound at Cahokia in present-day Collinsville, Illinois. At its maximum about CE 1150, Cahokia was an urban settlement with 20,000–30,000 people; some effigy mounds were constructed in the outlines of culturally significant animals. The most famous effigy mound, Serpent Mound in southern Ohio, ranges from 1 to just over 3 ft tall. 20 ft wide, more than 1,330 ft long, shaped as an undulating serpent. Many different tribal groups and chiefdoms, involving an array of beliefs and unique cultures over thousands of years, built mounds as expressions of their cultures; the general term, "mound builder", covered their shared architectural practice of earthwork mound construction. This practice, believed to be associated with a cosmology that had a cross-cultural appeal, may indicate common cultural antecedents.
The first mound building was an early marker of political and social complexity among the cultures in the Eastern United States. Watson Brake in Louisiana, constructed about 3500 BCE during the Middle Archaic period, is the oldest dated mound complex in North America, it is one of 11 mound complexes from this period found in the Lower Mississippi Valley. These mound builders were organized; the most complete reference for these earthworks is Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley, written by Ephraim G. Squier and Edwin H. Davis, it was published in 1848 by the Smithsonian Institution. Since many of the features which the authors documented have since been destroyed or diminished by farming and development, their surveys and descriptions are still used by modern archaeologists. All of the sites which they identified as located in Kentucky came from the manuscripts of C. S. Rafinesque. Hernando de Soto, the Spanish conquistador, who during 1540–1542, traversed what became the Southeast United States, encountered many different mound-builder peoples descendants of the great Mississippian culture.
The mound-building tradition still existed in the southeast during the mid-16th century. De Soto observed people living in fortified towns with lofty mounds and plazas, surmised that many of the mounds served as foundations for priestly temples. Near present-day Augusta, Georgia, de Soto encountered a mound-building group ruled by a queen, Cofitachequi, she told him. The artist Jacques le Moyne, who had accompanied French settlers to northeastern Florida during the 1560s noted many Native American groups using existing mounds and constructing others, he produced a series of watercolor paintings depicting scenes of native life. Although most of his paintings have been lost, some engravings were copied from the originals and published in 1591 by a Flemish company. Among these is a depiction of the burial of an aboriginal Floridian tribal chief, an occasion of great mourning and ceremony; the original caption reads: Maturin Le Petit, a Jesuit priest, met the Natchez people as did Le Page du Pratz, a French explorer.
Both observed them in the area that became Mississippi. The Natchez were devout worshippers of the sun. Having a population of some 4,000, they occupied at least nine villages and were presided over by a paramount chief, known as the Great Sun, who wielded absolute power. Both observers noted the high temple mounds which the Natchez had built so that the Great Sun could commune with God, the sun, his large residence was built atop the highest mound, from "which, every morning, he greeted the rising sun, invoking thanks and blowing tobacco smoke to the four cardinal directions". Explorers to the same regions, only a few decades after mound-building settlements had been reported, found the regions depopulated, the residents vanished, the mounds untended. Since little violent conflict with Europeans had occurred in that area during that period, the most plausible explanation is that infectious diseases from the Old World, such as smallpox
The Marietta Earthworks is an archaeological site located at the confluence of the Muskingum and Ohio Rivers in Washington County, United States. Most of this Hopewellian complex of earthworks is now covered by the modern city of Marietta. Archaeologists have dated the ceremonial site's construction to 100 BCE to 500 CE. Early European American settlers gave the structures Latin names; the complex includes the Sacra Via, three walled enclosures, the Quadranaou, Capitolium and at least two other additional platform mounds, the Conus burial mound and its accompanying ditch and embankment. The Capitolium is a truncated pyramidal mound with three ramps leading to its summit, it is smaller than the Quadranaou mound. Although not in pristine condition, it has been preserved due to the construction of the Washington County Library on its summit in 1916. According to measurements and research done by archaeoastronomer William F. Romain in the 1990s, when the mound was constructed it was aligned to within about one degree with the winter solstice sunset.
The Conus is a large burial mound, encompassed by an embankment and a ditch, much like a round barrow. A gap in the embankment and an earthen ramp across the ditch gives access to the base of the mound; when an earthen wall was constructed outside the ditch, as in this location, it means that the mound was for ceremonial use, not as a type of fortification. The mound today is the sole intact feature of the earthworks; the ditch surrounding the mound is 15 feet in width and 4 feet deep, with its surrounding embankment measuring 20 feet across its base and 585 feet in circumference. The site has three large enclosures, surrounded by earthen embankments; the largest, enclosing 50 acres, is on the northwestern end of the complex and is a rectangular enclosure with the Sacra Via ceremonial walled pathway leading down to the Muskingum River. Located within the enclosure were four large platform mounds, including the two largest at the site, the Quadranaou located in the western corner of the enclosure and the Capitolium located along the southeastern side.
The two smallest mounds are located in the northern corners. The Sacra Via was a 680 feet long by 150 feet wide graded way that begins at the center of the southwestern side of the enclosure and ended at or near the Muskingum River, it was flanked on its side by embankments that are 10 feet high at the enclosure and 20 feet high at their termini. Sections of the Sacra Via are preserved as a parkway leading from Third Street to Sacra Via Park; as with the Quadranaou and the Capitolium mounds, research has shown that when the site was constructed the Sacra Via and the walls of the enclosure were aligned with the winter solstice sunset. The second largest enclosure is located to the east of largest and encloses 27 acres, it was made up of a series of 5 feet high walls with ten gates, several being single openings, but two were double openings. Eight mounds were positioned with the double gates each having a single mound; the third and smallest enclosure was a series of straight line embankments located in between the second enclosure and the berm surrounding the Conus mound.
The Quadranaou was the largest of the platform mounds at the site and was 180 feet in length by 32 feet in width and stood 10 feet in height. The mound had four graded ramps leading to the summit located at the midpoint of each side, each being 25 feet in width and 60 feet in length; the mound is preserved as "Quadranaou Park". According to research done in the 1990s, when the mound was constructed it was aligned to within two-tenths of one degree with the winter solstice sunset; the site was first investigated in 1786 by the commander of Fort Harmar. Hart drew a plan of the site that appeared in the May 1787 issue of Columbian Magazine and conducted investigations into one of the mounds. In 1788 Benjamin Franklin conjectured that the earthworks may have been built by members of the 1540 Hernando de Soto expedition through southeastern North America; the next investigations were by Rufus Putnam in 1788 and Reverend Manasseh Cutler in 1789 as they began surveying and founding the modern city of Marietta.
Cutler had several trees growing out of the earthworks chopped down so he could count the growth rings. This tree ring data, coupled with the fact that the trees had been preceded by another such round of growth of at least equal age, argued against the de Soto theory and pushed the date for the construction of the earthworks back at 1000 yrs before the 1780s. Given this greater age, others theorized that the mounds had been built by groups as various as the Toltecs from Central America and Scythians from Europe. Between 1788 and 1796 members of the Ohio Company of Associates made provisions for the mounds to be surveyed and protected, gave them their Latin names, placed the mounds under the domain of the future mayor of Marietta; this kept the mounds secure for a century before the residents of Marietta began dismantling them for various construction projects. In 1801 Mound Cemetery was founded at the Conus mound; the cemetery is thought to house the graves of more American Revolutionary War officers than any other.
The complex was again surveyed and drawn in 1838 by Samuel R. Curti
The Yazoo River is a river in the U. S. state of Mississippi. It is considered by some to mark the southern boundary of what is called the Mississippi Delta, a broad floodplain, cultivated for cotton plantations before the American Civil War, it has continued to be devoted to large-scale agriculture. The Yazoo River was named by French explorer La Salle in 1682 as "Rivière des Yazous" in reference to the Yazoo tribe living near the river's mouth at its confluence with the Mississippi; the exact meaning of the term is unclear. One long held belief is that it means "river of death"; the river is 188 miles long and is formed by the confluence of the Tallahatchie and the Yalobusha rivers, where present-day Greenwood developed. The river parallels the Mississippi River in the latter's floodplain for some distance before joining it north of Vicksburg, Mississippi. Natural levees. A "yazoo stream" is a hydrologic term, coined to describe any river or major stream with similar characteristics. Potamologists believe.
The French called the surrounding area of Mississippi and Alabama the Yazoo lands, after the river. This became the basis for naming the Yazoo Land Scandal of early 19th century; the river was of major importance during the American Civil War. The Confederates used the first electrically detonated underwater mine in the river in 1862 near Vicksburg to sink the Union ironclad USS Cairo; the last section of the Cairo was raised on December 12, 1964. It has been restored and is now on permanent display to the public at the Vicksburg National Military Park. There are 29 sunken ships from the Civil War beneath the waters of the river; the steamer Dew Drop was sunk near Roebuck Lake as an obstruction to the United States Navy, but Union sources claim the vessel was captured and burned. Variant names of the Yazoo River include Zasu River, Yazous River, Yahshoo River, Rivière des Yasoux, Fiume del Yasous. In 1876, the Mississippi River changed its course, shifting west several miles and leaving Vicksburg without a river front.
In 1902, the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers diverted the Yazoo River into the old river bed, forming the Yazoo Diversion Canal; the modern-day port of Vicksburg is still located on this canal. Commercial navigation of the Yazoo River has declined since the 1990s and is concentrated on the section from Vicksburg to Yazoo City. List of rivers of Mississippi Mississippi Delta Flood Control Act of 1937 Yazoo stream U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Yazoo River GeologyYazoo Basin - Engineering Geology Mapping Program PDF files of publications about and maps of the geology of the Yazoo River region. EcoregionsEcoregions of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain Ecoregions of Mississippi
Hopewell Culture National Historical Park
Hopewell Culture National Historical Park is a United States national historical park with earthworks and burial mounds from the Hopewell culture, indigenous peoples who flourished from about 200 BC to AD 500. The park is composed of six separate sites in Ross County, including the former Mound City Group National Monument; the park includes archaeological resources of the Hopewell culture. It is administered by the United States Department of the Interior's National Park Service. In 2008, the Department of the Interior included Hopewell Culture National Historical Park as part of the Hopewell Ceremonial Earthworks, one of 14 sites on its tentative list from which the United States makes nominations for the UNESCO World Heritage Sites. From about 200 BC to AD 500, the Ohio River Valley was a central area of the prehistoric Hopewell culture; the term Hopewell culture is applied to a broad network of beliefs and practices among different Native American peoples who inhabited a large portion of eastern North America.
The culture is characterized by its construction of enclosures made of earthen walls built in geometric patterns, mounds of various shapes. Visible remnants of Hopewell culture are concentrated in the Scioto River valley near present-day Chillicothe, Ohio; the most striking Hopewell sites contain earthworks in the form of squares and other geometric shapes. Many of these sites were built to a monumental scale, with earthen walls up to 12 feet high outlining geometric figures more than 1,000 feet across. Conical and loaf-shaped earthen mounds up to 30 feet high are found in association with the geometric earthworks; the people who built them had a detailed knowledge of the local soils, they combined different types to provide the most stability to the works. It required the organized labor of thousands of man hours, as people carried the earth in handwoven baskets. Mound City, located on Ohio Highway 104 4 miles north of Chillicothe along the Scioto River, is a group of 23 earthen mounds constructed by the Hopewell culture.
Each mound within the group covered the remains of a charnel house. After the Hopewell people cremated the dead, they burned the charnel house, they constructed a mound over the remains. They placed artifacts, such as copper figures, projectile points and pipes in the mounds. European Americans first mapped the site in the 1840s; the archaeologists Ephraim George Squier and Edwin Hamilton Davis were the first excavators of the site and amassed a large collection of Mound artifacts, now preserved at the British Museum. Much of it was destroyed during World War I when the United States Army constructed a military training base, Camp Sherman, on the site. After the war, they razed the camp; the Ohio Historical Society conducted an archaeological excavation of the site from 1920–1922, followed by reconstruction of the mounds. In 1923, the Department of Interior declared the Mound City Group a National Monument, to be administered by the Federal government. In 1992, Mound City Group was expanded as Hopewell Culture National Historic Park.
Its definition included remnants of four other nearby mound systems. Two Ross County sites open to the public. Seip Earthworks is located 17 miles west of Chillicothe on U. S. Route 50. Hopewell Mound Group is the site of the 1891 excavation on the land of Mordecai Hopewell. Hopeton Earthworks located across the Scioto River from Mound City and High Bank Works, closed to the public; the Ohio Historical Society maintains a number of mound systems and elaborate earthworks in the southern Ohio area, including the National Historic Landmarks of Fort Ancient, Newark Earthworks, Serpent Mound. Fifteen mound complexes earlier identified in the county have been lost to agriculture or urban development; the national park contains nationally significant archaeological resources, including large earthwork and mound complexes. These provide insight into the sophisticated and complex social, ceremonial and economic life of the Hopewell people; the park visitor's center features museum exhibits with artifacts excavated from the Mound City Group, an orientation film, book sales area, self-guided and guided tours.
List of Hopewell sites Squier, Ephraim G. and Davis, Edwin H. Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley, Washington D. C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1998. Woodward, Susan L. and McDonald, Jerry N. Indian Mounds of the Middle Ohio Valley, Blacksburg, VA: McDonald & Woodward Publishing, 1986. Hopewell Culture National Historical Park Mound City, Ancient Ohio Trail Hopewell Ceremonial Earthworks UNESCO World Heritage Nomination Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley which features Hopewell Culture National Historical Park, as Mound City
Louisiana is a state in the Deep South region of the South Central United States. It is the 25th most populous of the 50 United States. Louisiana is bordered by the state of Texas to the west, Arkansas to the north, Mississippi to the east, the Gulf of Mexico to the south. A large part of its eastern boundary is demarcated by the Mississippi River. Louisiana is the only U. S. state with political subdivisions termed parishes. The state's capital is Baton Rouge, its largest city is New Orleans. Much of the state's lands were formed from sediment washed down the Mississippi River, leaving enormous deltas and vast areas of coastal marsh and swamp; these contain a rich southern biota. There are many species of tree frogs, fish such as sturgeon and paddlefish. In more elevated areas, fire is a natural process in the landscape, has produced extensive areas of longleaf pine forest and wet savannas; these support an exceptionally large number of plant species, including many species of terrestrial orchids and carnivorous plants.
Louisiana has more Native American tribes than any other southern state, including four that are federally recognized, ten that are state recognized, four that have not received recognition. Some Louisiana urban environments have a multicultural, multilingual heritage, being so influenced by a mixture of 18th-century French, Spanish, Native American, African cultures that they are considered to be exceptional in the US. Before the American purchase of the territory in 1803, present-day Louisiana State had been both a French colony and for a brief period a Spanish one. In addition, colonists imported numerous African people as slaves in the 18th century. Many came from peoples of the same region of West Africa. In the post-Civil War environment, Anglo-Americans increased the pressure for Anglicization, in 1921, English was for a time made the sole language of instruction in Louisiana schools before a policy of multilingualism was revived in 1974. There has never been an official language in Louisiana, the state constitution enumerates "the right of the people to preserve and promote their respective historic and cultural origins."
Louisiana was named after Louis XIV, King of France from 1643 to 1715. When René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle claimed the territory drained by the Mississippi River for France, he named it La Louisiane; the suffix -ana is a Latin suffix that can refer to "information relating to a particular individual, subject, or place." Thus Louis + ana carries the idea of "related to Louis." Once part of the French Colonial Empire, the Louisiana Territory stretched from present-day Mobile Bay to just north of the present-day Canada–United States border, including a small part of what is now the Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. The Gulf of Mexico did not exist 250 million years ago when there was but one supercontinent, Pangea; as Pangea split apart, the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico opened. Louisiana developed, over millions of years, from water into land, from north to south; the oldest rocks are exposed in areas such as the Kisatchie National Forest. The oldest rocks date back to the early Cenozoic Era, some 60 million years ago.
The history of the formation of these rocks can be found in D. Spearing's Roadside Geology of Louisiana; the youngest parts of the state were formed during the last 12,000 years as successive deltas of the Mississippi River: the Maringouin, Teche, St. Bernard, the modern Mississippi, now the Atchafalaya; the sediments were carried from north to south by the Mississippi River. In between the Tertiary rocks of the north, the new sediments along the coast, is a vast belt known as the Pleistocene Terraces, their age and distribution can be related to the rise and fall of sea levels during past ice ages. In general, the northern terraces have had sufficient time for rivers to cut deep channels, while the newer terraces tend to be much flatter. Salt domes are found in Louisiana, their origin can be traced back to the early Gulf of Mexico, when the shallow ocean had high rates of evaporation. There are several hundred salt domes in the state. Salt domes are important not only as a source of salt. Louisiana is bordered to the west by Texas.
The state may properly be divided into two parts, the uplands of the north, the alluvial along the coast. The alluvial region includes low swamp lands, coastal marshlands and beaches, barrier islands that cover about 20,000 square miles; this area lies principally along the Gulf of Mexico and the Mississippi River, which traverses the state from north to south for a distance of about 600 mi ) and empties into the Gulf of Mexico. The breadth of the alluvial region along the Mississippi is from 10 to 60 miles, along the other rivers, the alluvial region averages about 10 miles across; the Mississippi River flows along a ridge formed by its own natural deposits, from which the lands decline toward a river beyond at an average fall of six feet per mile. The alluvial lands along other streams present similar features; the higher and contiguous hill lands of the north and northwestern part of the state have an area of more than 25,000 square miles. They consist of prairie and woodl
Avoyelles Parish, Louisiana
Avoyelles is a parish located in central eastern Louisiana near the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers. As of the 2010 census, the population was 42,073; the parish seat is Marksville. The parish was created in 1807, with the name deriving from the French name for the historic Avoyel people, one of the local Indian tribes at the time of European encounter. Today the parish is the base of the federally recognized Tunica-Biloxi Indian Tribe, who have a reservation there; the tribe has a land-based gambling casino on their reservation. It is located in Marksville, the parish seat, within reservation land. Native Americans occupied this area beginning around 300 BC. Varying indigenous cultures flourished there in the following centuries. Today on the banks of the old Mississippi River channel in Marksville, three large burial mounds have been preserved from the Mississippian culture, which flourished along the upper Mississippi, the Ohio River and other tributaries, from about 900 AD to 1500 AD. Mounds of its major city, are preserved in western Illinois across the Mississippi from St. Louis, Missouri.
The trading network reached from the Gulf Coast to the Great Lakes. A museum and a National Park commemorate this early culture; the Tunica people had bands. They absorbed the smaller remnant of Avoyel people nearly two centuries ago. Through the years, they intermarried with the more numerous Biloxi people; the peoples organized politically in the 20th century and were federally recognized in 1981 as the Tunica-Biloxi Indian Tribe. They are the largest Native American tribe in Avoyelles Parish and have a reservation that extends into Marksville. Descendants of other smaller tribes are enrolled in this tribe. Avoyelles Parish is known for its French colonial tradition of French language use; the contemporary Creole traditions, in both music and food, reflect European and Native American influences. While Avoyelles has a distinctive history of European immigrants, dominated by the French in its early history, it is considered the most northern of the 22 "Acadiana" parishes; these have a tradition of settlement by French-speaking refugees from Acadia in the late 18th century.
They contributed to the development of culture in this area, as did Africans and the indigenous Native Americans. The parish is noted for its brand of Cajun/Creole style music and its gumbo, a popular soup with roots in the three major ethnicities noted above; the central part of Avoyelles Parish is sited on a large plateau above the floodplain of the waterways. Travel by water was long the primary way to move around this area; the Indians used canoes, the early French settlers developed their own boats, known as pirogues. Records from the Catholic churches in Mansura and Marksville document the founding of a trading post and a Catholic school by French colonists; the merchants wanted to conduct fur trading with the Tunica Tribe and the missionaries hoped to convert the natives to Christianity. The trading post was built near the Avoyel/Tunica settlement. Historic roadside markers on LA 1 identify the site of the historic Catholic mission school. Franco-European settlers first called this area Hydropolis, meaning water city, referring to the marshes and bayous.
The major mode of transportation was by Indian pirogue. Church records identify settlers with all their family members listed, as well as some property. Church records and documentation were recorded in French during the years of initial settlement in Spanish during their brief rule in the late 18th century, with a return to French after France reacquired the area under Napoleon Bonaparte in the early 19th century. After his troops failed to regain control over Saint-Domingue, Napoleon withdrew from North America, he sold the large Louisiana Purchase territory in 1803 to the United States under President Thomas Jefferson. As the US expanded its rule, local documents began to be recorded in the English of the new government; the United States arranged for the Lewis and Clark Expedition and others to survey the Louisiana Territory. It hired local French soldiers and doctors, many of whom settled in the area. Many of the French people who settled Avoyelles Parish immigrated from France in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
Many of the French words used today in the parish date to terms used during the Napoleon period in France, indicating that this was the period of immigration. They have not been used in France for many generations; the Spanish influence in Louisiana was more dominant in New Iberia — this was named after colonists from the Iberian Peninsula known as Spain and Portugal. There are no Spanish surnames in Avoyelles. A few families from French Canada settled in Avoyelles, they were from a different geographic area of Canada than the Acadians of present-day Nova Scotia, who were expelled by the British from their homeland beginning in 1755 during the Seven Years' War with France. Many deported Acadians made it to Louisiana from 1764 - 1788, after several years of living in exile along the eastern Atlantic seaboard, Canada, St. Pierre and France. In the 19th century, immigrants from Scotland, Belgium and Germany settled here, following the French Creoles. Together they established today's villages, their direct ties to Europe set them apart from the Acadians of southern Louisiana, who came from a culture established for generations in Canada.
At the turn of the 19th century, free people of color of African-Fren
Plum Bayou culture
Plum Bayou culture is a Pre-Columbian Native American culture that lived in what is now east-central Arkansas from 650—1050 CE, a time known as the Late Woodland Period. Archaeologists defined the culture based on the Toltec Mounds site and named it for a local waterway; the Baytown culture preceded the Plum Bayou culture, was followed by early Mississippian cultures, which flourished from 900—1600 CE, until diseases brought by Europeans decimated their populations. The Plum Bayou culture had contact with the Coles Creek culture, located along the Mississippi River, early Caddoan cultures, located in river valleys of the Red and Arkansas Rivers in Arkansas and into Oklahoma. Exotic materials found at Plum Bayou sites reveal trade with the Ozark Plateau, West Gulf Coastal Plain, the Ouachita Mountains. Major Plum Bayou sites with single or multiple mounds include: Plum Bayou culture was one of the earliest groups to build ceremonial community centers with platform mounds and rectangular plazas.
They lived in small villages in the uplands and floodplains of the White and Arkansas Rivers. Archaeologists divide Plum Bayou settlements into "single household, multiple household, multiple household with mound, multiple mound sites." Farmers grew crops such as amaranth, bottle gourd, little barley, squash and sumpweed. In some Plum Bayou sites, maize was cultivated in small amounts. Supplementing their farming, Plum Bayou peoples hunted game and gathered wild plants, such as cherries, plums and nuts; this culture is defined in part by its ceramics. Much of Plum Bayou ceramics was plainware. Named types of ceramics found at Plum Bayou sites include Coles Creek incised var. Keyo, Larto Red, Officer Punctated, French Fork incised. Red slip, or clay paint, was used to decorate some ceramic vessels. While neighboring cultures adopted maize cultivation and complex religions and political organization, the Plum Bayou people did not. People continued to occupy the region; the exact descendants of the Plum Bayou culture are not known.
Culture and chronological table for the Mississippi Valley Odell, George H. Stone Tools: Theoretical Insights into Human Prehistory. New York: Springer, 1996. ISBN 978-0-306-45198-0