April Fools' Day
April Fools' Day or April Fool's Day is an annual celebration commemorated on April 1st by playing practical jokes and spreading hoaxes. The jokes and their victims are called April fools. People playing April Fool jokes expose their prank by shouting "April fool" at the unfortunate victim; some newspapers and other published media report fake stories, which are explained the next day or below the news section in smaller letters. Although popular since the 19th century, the day is not a public holiday in any country. Aside from April Fools' Day, the custom of setting aside a day for the playing of harmless pranks upon one's neighbour has been common in the world. A disputed association between April 1 and foolishness is in Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales. In the "Nun's Priest's Tale", a vain cock Chauntecleer is tricked by a fox on Syn March bigan thritty dayes and two. Readers understood this line to mean "32 March", i.e. April 1. However, it is not clear that Chaucer was referencing April 1.
Modern scholars believe that there is a copying error in the extant manuscripts and that Chaucer wrote, Syn March was gon. If so, the passage would have meant 32 days after March, i.e. 2 May, the anniversary of the engagement of King Richard II of England to Anne of Bohemia, which took place in 1381. In 1508, French poet Eloy d'Amerval referred to a poisson d’avril the first reference to the celebration in France; some writers suggest that April Fools' originated because in the Middle Ages, New Year's Day was celebrated on March 25 in most European towns, through a holiday that in some areas of France ended on April 1, those who celebrated New Year's Eve on January 1 made fun of those who celebrated on other dates by the invention of April Fools' Day. The use of January 1 as New Year's Day became common in France only by the mid-16th century, the date was not adopted until 1564, thanks to the Edict of Roussillon. In 1539, Flemish poet Eduard de Dene wrote of a nobleman who sent his servants on foolish errands on April 1.
In the Netherlands, the origin of April Fools' Day is attributed to the Dutch victory at Brielle in 1572, where the Spanish Duke Álvarez de Toledo was defeated. "Op 1 april verloor Alva zijn bril" is a Dutch proverb, which can be translated to: "On the first of April, Alva lost his glasses." In this case, the glasses serve as a metaphor for Brielle. This theory, provides no explanation for the international celebration of April Fools' Day. In 1686, John Aubrey referred to the first British reference. On April 1, 1698, several people were tricked into going to the Tower of London to "see the Lions washed". Although no Biblical scholar or historian are known to have mentioned a relationship, some have expressed the belief that the origins of April Fool's Day may go back to the Genesis flood narrative. In a 1908 edition of the Harper's Weekly cartoonist Bertha R. McDonald wrote: Authorities gravely back with it to the time of Noah and the ark; the London Public Advertiser of March 13, 1769, printed: "The mistake of Noah sending the dove out of the ark before the water had abated, on the first day of April, to perpetuate the memory of this deliverance it was thought proper, whoever forgot so remarkable a circumstance, to punish them by sending them upon some sleeveless errand similar to that ineffectual message upon which the bird was sent by the patriarch".
In the UK, an April Fool joke is revealed by shouting "April fool!" at the recipient, who becomes the "April fool". A study in the 1950s, by folklorists Iona and Peter Opie, found that in the UK, in countries whose traditions derived from the UK, the joking ceased at midday; this continues to be the current practice with the holiday ceasing at noon, after which time it is no longer acceptable to play jokes. Ergo, a person playing a joke after midday is considered the "April fool" themselves. In Scotland, April Fools' Day was traditionally called'Huntigowk Day', although this name has fallen into disuse; the name is a corruption of ` Hunt the Gowk', "gowk" being Scots for a foolish person. The traditional prank is to ask someone to deliver a sealed message that requests help of some sort. In fact, the message reads "dinna smile. Hunt the gowk another mile." The recipient, upon reading it, will explain he can only help if he first contacts another person, sends the victim to this next person with an identical message, with the same result.
In England a "fool" is known by different names around the country, including a "noodle", "gob", "gobby" or "noddy". In Ireland, it was traditional to entrust the victim with an "important letter" to be given to a named person; that person would ask the victim to take it to someone else, so on. The letter when opened contained the words "send the fool further". In Poland, prima aprilis as a day of jokes is a centuries-long tradition, it is a day. Serious activities are avoided, every word said on April 1st can be a lie, or a joke; the conviction for this is so strong that the Polish anti-Turkish alliance with Leopold I signed on April 1, 1683, was backdated to March 31. However, for some in Poland prima aprilis ends at noon of April 1st, prima aprilis jokes after that hour are consid
A board game is a tabletop game that involves counters or pieces moved or placed on a pre-marked surface or "board", according to a set of rules. Some games are based on pure strategy. Games have a goal that a player aims to achieve. Early board games represented a battle between two armies, most modern board games are still based on defeating opponents in terms of counters, winning position, or accrual of points. There are many varieties of board games, their representation of real-life situations can range from having no inherent theme, like checkers, to having a specific theme and narrative, like Cluedo. Rules can range from the simple, like Tic-tac-toe, to those describing a game universe in great detail, like Dungeons & Dragons – although most of the latter are role-playing games where the board is secondary to the game, serving to help visualize the game scenario; the time required to learn to play or master a game varies from game to game, but is not correlated with the number or complexity of rules.
Board games have been played in societies throughout history. A number of important historical sites and documents shed light on early board games such as Jiroft civilization gameboards in Iran. Senet, found in Predynastic and First Dynasty burials of Egypt, c. 3500 BC and 3100 BC is the oldest board game known to have existed. Senet was pictured in a fresco found in Merknera's tomb. From predynastic Egypt is Mehen. Hounds and Jackals another ancient Egyptean board game appeared around 2000 BC; the first complete set of this game was discovered from a Theban tomb that dates to the 13th Dynasty. This game was popular in Mesopotamia and the Caucasus. Backgammon originated in ancient Persia over 5,000 years ago. Chess and Chaupar originated in India. Go and Liubo originated in China. Patolli originated in Mesoamerica played by the ancient Aztec and The Royal Game of Ur was found in the Royal Tombs of Ur, dating to Mesopotamia 4,600 years ago; the earliest known games list is the Buddha games list. In 17th and 18th century colonial America, the agrarian life of the country left little time for game playing though draughts and card games were not unknown.
The Pilgrims and Puritans of New England frowned on game playing and viewed dice as instruments of the devil. When the Governor William Bradford discovered a group of non-Puritans playing stool-ball, pitching the bar, pursuing other sports in the streets on Christmas Day, 1622, he confiscated their implements, reprimanded them, told them their devotion for the day should be confined to their homes. In Thoughts on Lotteries Thomas Jefferson wrote: Almost all these pursuits of chance produce something useful to society, but there are some which produce nothing, endanger the well-being of the individuals engaged in them or of others depending on them. Such are games with cards, billiards, etc, and although the pursuit of them is a matter of natural right, yet society, perceiving the irresistible bent of some of its members to pursue them, the ruin produced by them to the families depending on these individuals, consider it as a case of insanity, quoad hoc, step in to protect the family and the party himself, as in other cases of insanity, imbecility, etc. and suppress the pursuit altogether, the natural right of following it.
There are some other games of chance, useful on certain occasions, injurious only when carried beyond their useful bounds. Such are insurances, raffles, etc; these they do not take their regulation under their own discretion. The board game Traveller's Tour Through the United States and its sister game Traveller's Tour Through Europe were published by New York City bookseller F. & R. Lockwood in 1822 and today claims the distinction of being the first board game published in the United States; as the U. S. shifted from agrarian to urban living in the 19th century, greater leisure time and a rise in income became available to the middle class. The American home, once the center of economic production, became the locus of entertainment and education under the supervision of mothers. Children were encouraged to play board games that developed literacy skills and provided moral instruction; the earliest board games published in the United States were based upon Christian morality. The Mansion of Happiness, for example, sent players along a path of virtues and vices that led to the Mansion of Happiness.
The Game of Pope and Pagan, or The Siege of the Stronghold of Satan by the Christian Army pitted an image on its board of a Hindu woman committing suttee against missionaries landing on a foreign shore. The missionaries are cast in white as "the symbol of innocence and hope" while the pope and pagan are cast in black, the color of "gloom of error, and... grief at the daily loss of empire". Commercially produced board games in the mid-19th century were monochrome prints laboriously hand-colored by teams of low-paid young factory women. Advances in paper making and printmaking during the period enabled the commercial production of inexpensive board games; the most significant advance was the development of chromolithography, a technological achievement that made bold, richly colored images available at affordable prices. Games cost as little as US$.25 for a small boxed card game to $3.00 for more elaborate games. American Protestants believed a virtuous life led to success, but the belief was challenged mid-century when the country embraced materialism and c
Minecraft is a sandbox video game created by Swedish game developer Markus Persson and released by Mojang in 2011. The game allows players to build with a variety of different blocks in a 3D procedurally generated world, requiring creativity from players. Other activities in the game include exploration, resource gathering and combat. Multiple gameplay modes are available; these include survival mode in which the player must acquire resources to build the world and maintain health, creative mode where players have unlimited resources to build with and the ability to fly, adventure mode where players can play custom maps created by other players with certain restrictions, spectator mode where players can move throughout a world without being affected by gravity and collisions, or without being allowed to destroy or build anything. There is hardcore mode, similar to survival mode but the player is given only one life, the game difficulty is locked on hard. If the player dies on hardcore, the player does not respawn, the world is locked to spectator mode.
The Java Edition of the game allows players to create mods with new gameplay mechanics, items and assets. Minecraft has won numerous awards and accolades. Social media, adaptations and the MineCon convention played large roles in popularizing the game, it has been used in educational environments in the realm of computing systems, as virtual computers and hardware devices have been built in it. By late 2018, over 154 million copies had been sold across all platforms, making it the second best-selling video game of all time, behind Tetris. In September 2014, Microsoft announced a deal to buy Mojang and the Minecraft intellectual property for US$2.5 billion, with the acquisition completed two months later. A spin-off game titled Minecraft: Story Mode has been released. By mid-2018, the game had around 91 million active players monthly. Minecraft is a 3D sandbox game that has no specific goals to accomplish, allowing players a large amount of freedom in choosing how to play the game. However, there is an achievement system.
Gameplay is in the first-person perspective by default, but players have the option for third-person perspective. The game world is composed of rough 3D objects—mainly cubes and fluids, called "blocks"—representing various materials, such as dirt, ores, tree trunks and lava; the core gameplay revolves around placing these objects. These blocks are arranged in a 3D grid, while players can move around the world. Players can "mine" blocks and place them elsewhere, enabling them to build things; the game world is infinite and procedurally generated as players explore it, using a map seed, obtained from the system clock at the time of world creation. There are limits on vertical movement, but Minecraft allows an infinitely large game world to be generated on the horizontal plane. Due to technical problems when distant locations are reached, there is a barrier preventing players from traversing to locations beyond 30,000,000 blocks; the game achieves this by splitting the world data into smaller sections called "chunks" that are only created or loaded when players are nearby.
The world is divided into biomes ranging from deserts to jungles to snowfields. The in-game time system follows a day and night cycle, one full cycle lasts 20 real-time minutes. Players encounter various non-player characters known as mobs, such as animals and hostile creatures. Passive mobs can be hunted for food and crafting materials, such as cows and chickens, they spawn in the daytime, while hostile mobs spawn during nighttime or in dark places such as caves—including large spiders and zombies. Some hostile mobs such as zombies and drowned, burn under the sun if they have no headgear. Other creatures unique to Minecraft include the enderman. There are variants of mobs that spawn in different conditions, for example zombies have husk variants that spawn in deserts. Many commentators have described the game's physics system as unrealistic. Liquids continuously flow for a limited horizontal distance from source blocks, which can be removed by placing a solid block in its place or by scooping it into a bucket.
Complex systems can be built using primitive mechanical devices, electrical circuits, logic gates built with an in-game material known as redstone. Minecraft has two alternative dimensions besides the overworld: the End; the Nether is a hell-like dimension accessed via player-built portals. The player can build an optional boss mob called the Wither out of materials found in the Nether; the End is a barren land consisting of many islands. A boss dragon called the Ender Dragon dwells on the main island. Killing the dragon cues the game's ending a poem written by Irish novelist Julian Gough. Players are allowed to teleport back to their original spawn point in the overworld and continue the game indefinitely; the game consists of five game modes: survival, adventure and spectator. It has a changeable difficulty system of four levels. For example, the peaceful difficulty prevents hostile creatures from spawning, when playing on the hard difficulty players can starve to death if their h
Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity. The use of the term "racism" does not fall under a single definition; the ideology underlying racism includes the idea that humans can be subdivided into distinct groups that are different due to their social behavior and their innate capacities, as well as the idea that they can be ranked as inferior or superior. Historical examples of institutional racism include the Holocaust, the apartheid regime in South Africa and segregation in the United States, slavery in Latin America. Racism was an aspect of the social organization of many colonial states and empires. While the concepts of race and ethnicity are considered to be separate in contemporary social science, the two terms have a long history of equivalence in both popular usage and older social science literature. "Ethnicity" is used in a sense close to one traditionally attributed to "race": the division of human groups based on qualities assumed to be essential or innate to the group.
Therefore and racial discrimination are used to describe discrimination on an ethnic or cultural basis, independent of whether these differences are described as racial. According to a United Nations convention on racial discrimination, there is no distinction between the terms "racial" and "ethnic" discrimination; the UN convention further concludes that superiority based on racial differentiation is scientifically false, morally condemnable unjust and dangerous. It declared that there is no justification for racial discrimination, anywhere, in theory or in practice. Racist ideology can manifest in many aspects of social life. Racism can be present in social actions, practices, or political systems that support the expression of prejudice or aversion in discriminatory practices or laws. Associated social actions may include nativism, otherness, hierarchical ranking and related social phenomena. In the 19th century, many scientists subscribed to the belief that the human population can be divided into races.
The term racism is a noun describing the state of being racist, i.e. subscribing to the belief that the human population can or should be classified into races with differential abilities and dispositions, which in turn may motivate a political ideology in which rights and privileges are differentially distributed based on racial categories. The origin of the root word "race" is not clear. Linguists agree that it came to the English language from Middle French, but there is no such agreement on how it came into Latin-based languages. A recent proposal is that it derives from the Arabic ra's, which means "head, origin" or the Hebrew rosh, which has a similar meaning. Early race theorists held the view that some races were inferior to others and they believed that the differential treatment of races was justified; these early theories guided pseudo-scientific research assumptions. Today, most biologists and sociologists reject a taxonomy of races in favor of more specific and/or empirically verifiable criteria, such as geography, ethnicity, or a history of endogamy.
To date, there is little evidence in human genome research which indicates that race can be defined in such a way as to be useful in determining a genetic classification of humans. An entry in the Oxford English Dictionary defines racialism as "n earlier term than racism, but now superseded by it", cites it in a 1902 quote; the revised Oxford English Dictionary cites the shortened term "racism" in a quote from the following year, 1903. It was first defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as "he theory that distinctive human characteristics and abilities are determined by race". By the end of World War II, racism had acquired the same supremacist connotations associated with racialism: racism now implied racial discrimination, racial supremacism, a harmful intent; as its history indicates, the popular use of the word racism is recent. The word came into widespread usage in the Western world in the 1930s, when it was used to describe the social and political ideology of Nazism, which saw "race" as a given political unit.
It is agreed that racism existed before the coinage of the word, but there is not a wide agreement on a single definition of what racism is and what it is not. Today, some scholars of racism prefer to use the concept in the plural racisms, in order to emphasize its many different forms that do not fall under a single definition, they argue that different forms of racism have characterized different historical periods and geographical areas. Garner summarizes different existing definitions of racism and identifies three common elements contained in those definitions of racism. First, a historical, hierarchical power relationship between groups. Though many countries around the globe have passed laws related to race and discrimination, the first significant international human rights instrument developed by the United Nations
Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington. It develops, licenses and sells computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, related services, its best known software products are the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, the Microsoft Office suite, the Internet Explorer and Edge web browsers. Its flagship hardware products are the Xbox video game consoles and the Microsoft Surface lineup of touchscreen personal computers; as of 2016, it is the world's largest software maker by revenue, one of the world's most valuable companies. The word "Microsoft" is a portmanteau of "microcomputer" and "software". Microsoft is ranked No. 30 in the 2018 Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. Microsoft was founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen on April 4, 1975, to develop and sell BASIC interpreters for the Altair 8800, it rose to dominate the personal computer operating system market with MS-DOS in the mid-1980s, followed by Microsoft Windows.
The company's 1986 initial public offering, subsequent rise in its share price, created three billionaires and an estimated 12,000 millionaires among Microsoft employees. Since the 1990s, it has diversified from the operating system market and has made a number of corporate acquisitions, their largest being the acquisition of LinkedIn for $26.2 billion in December 2016, followed by their acquisition of Skype Technologies for $8.5 billion in May 2011. As of 2015, Microsoft is market-dominant in the IBM PC-compatible operating system market and the office software suite market, although it has lost the majority of the overall operating system market to Android; the company produces a wide range of other consumer and enterprise software for desktops and servers, including Internet search, the digital services market, mixed reality, cloud computing and software development. Steve Ballmer replaced Gates as CEO in 2000, envisioned a "devices and services" strategy; this began with the acquisition of Danger Inc. in 2008, entering the personal computer production market for the first time in June 2012 with the launch of the Microsoft Surface line of tablet computers.
Since Satya Nadella took over as CEO in 2014, the company has scaled back on hardware and has instead focused on cloud computing, a move that helped the company's shares reach its highest value since December 1999. In 2018, Microsoft surpassed Apple as the most valuable publicly traded company in the world after being dethroned by the tech giant in 2010. Childhood friends Bill Gates and Paul Allen sought to make a business utilizing their shared skills in computer programming. In 1972 they founded their first company, named Traf-O-Data, which sold a rudimentary computer to track and analyze automobile traffic data. While Gates enrolled at Harvard, Allen pursued a degree in computer science at Washington State University, though he dropped out of school to work at Honeywell; the January 1975 issue of Popular Electronics featured Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems's Altair 8800 microcomputer, which inspired Allen to suggest that they could program a BASIC interpreter for the device. After a call from Gates claiming to have a working interpreter, MITS requested a demonstration.
Since they didn't yet have one, Allen worked on a simulator for the Altair while Gates developed the interpreter. Although they developed the interpreter on a simulator and not the actual device, it worked flawlessly when they demonstrated the interpreter to MITS in Albuquerque, New Mexico. MITS agreed to distribute it, marketing it as Altair BASIC. Gates and Allen established Microsoft on April 4, 1975, with Gates as the CEO; the original name of "Micro-Soft" was suggested by Allen. In August 1977 the company formed an agreement with ASCII Magazine in Japan, resulting in its first international office, "ASCII Microsoft". Microsoft moved to a new home in Bellevue, Washington in January 1979. Microsoft entered the operating system business in 1980 with its own version of Unix, called Xenix. However, it was MS-DOS. After negotiations with Digital Research failed, IBM awarded a contract to Microsoft in November 1980 to provide a version of the CP/M OS, set to be used in the upcoming IBM Personal Computer.
For this deal, Microsoft purchased a CP/M clone called 86-DOS from Seattle Computer Products, which it branded as MS-DOS, though IBM rebranded it to PC DOS. Following the release of the IBM PC in August 1981, Microsoft retained ownership of MS-DOS. Since IBM had copyrighted the IBM PC BIOS, other companies had to reverse engineer it in order for non-IBM hardware to run as IBM PC compatibles, but no such restriction applied to the operating systems. Due to various factors, such as MS-DOS's available software selection, Microsoft became the leading PC operating systems vendor; the company expanded into new markets with the release of the Microsoft Mouse in 1983, as well as with a publishing division named Microsoft Press. Paul Allen resigned from Microsoft in 1983 after developing Hodgkin's disease. Allen claimed that Gates wanted to dilute his share in the company when he was diagnosed with Hodgkin's disease because he didn't think he was working hard enough. After leaving Microsoft, Allen lost billions of dollars on ill-conceived or mistimed technology investments.
He invested in low-tech sectors, sports teams, commercial real estate. Despite having begun jointly developing a new operating system, OS/2, with IBM in
Mass Effect is a science-fiction action-role-playing third-person-shooter video-game series developed by the Canadian company BioWare and released for the Xbox 360, PlayStation 3, Microsoft Windows, with the third instalment released on the Wii U. The fourth game was released on Windows, PlayStation 4 and Xbox One in March 2017; the original trilogy revolves around a soldier named Commander Shepard, whose mission is to save the galaxy from a race of powerful mechanical beings known as the Reapers and their agents, including the first game's antagonist Saren Arterius. The first game, released in 2007, sees Shepard investigating Saren, whom Shepard comes to understand is operating under the guidance of Sovereign, a Reaper left behind in the Milky Way 50,000 years before, when the Reapers exterminated all sentient organic life determined to have met or exceeded a threshold of technological advancement in the galaxy as part of a recurrent cycle of genocide for an unknown purpose. Sovereign's purpose is to trigger the imminent return of the Reaper fleet hibernating in extra-galactic dark space, restarting the process of extermination.
The second game takes place two years and sees Shepard battling the Collectors, an alien race abducting entire human colonies in a plan to help the Reapers return to the Milky Way. The final game of Shepard's trilogy centres on the war being waged against the Reapers; the fourth installment features a new cast of characters. All of the first three major installments of the Mass Effect series have been met with commercial success as well as universal acclaim; the series is regarded for its narrative, character development, voice acting, the universe, emphasis on player choice affecting the experience. The Mass Effect original trilogy takes place in a fictional version of the Milky Way towards the end of the 22nd century; the Milky Way is inhabited by a variety of unique characters from many different sapient species, most of whom base their technological achievements on that of an ancient civilization called the Protheans. The advanced technology left by the Protheans includes quantities of a substance called "Element Zero", which can be used to alter the mass of anything near it.
By using this "mass effect", the galaxy's many races are able to develop technologies such as faster-than-light travel, force fields and artificial gravity. Three-thousand years before the start of the series, a galactic community was formed from the remnants of the Prothean civilization; this community is headed by the Citadel Council, a bureaucratic association led by three unique species: the Asari, a race of monogendered beings resembling blue-skinned human women. Over the centuries, the Council has encountered many other species that have become close political associates, while others remain independent. In 2148, explorers on Mars discover ruins of a Prothean outpost. Additionally, Charon is discovered to be an artifact called a "mass relay", which enables near-instantaneous travel to Arcturus, their use allows humanity to come in contact with its associate species. As of the year 2183, humankind is the newest species to join the galactic community and is still working to make a name for itself.
The Citadel Council partitioned the Milky Way into five different sectors, known as the Terminus Systems, the Attican Traverse and Outer Council Space, Alliance Space. Earth is a significant setting in the third instalment. A space station known as the "Citadel", discovered by the current inhabitants of the Milky Way, serves as the capitol for the galaxy; the fourth game takes place in the Heleus Cluster of the Andromeda galaxy, 634 years after the events of its predecessor. When the Milky Way races arrive there, Heleus is embroiled in a brutal conflict between two native races: the Kett, a barbaric race obsessed with assimilating the traits of other sentient species through a process known as "exaltation"; the Heleus Cluster is the location of a series of ruins predating an advanced, spacefaring race known as the Jardaan. The Jardaan made use of powerful terraforming technologies to colonize worlds in the Heleus Cluster, which were otherwise hazardous and unsustainable for life, they fled from the Heleus Cluster three centuries before the arrival of the Milky Way races, when a protracted battle against an unknown enemy faction resulted in the usage of a weapon of mass destruction aboard a Jardaan space station.
The weapon's activation unleashed a cataclysmic energy phenomenon known as the Scourge, which spread across the cluster and damaged the Jardaan's terraforming systems. After the Jardaan left, the Angara, genetically engineered creations of the elder race, began to develop their own civilization before falling under attack by the encroaching Kett. A trilogy of games has been released, each continuing the previous game's story in chronological order; the Mass Effect series combines action role-playing game elements, with the main series games being in third-person perspective. The protagonist can use two AI-controlled squad members in battle, which consist of members he or she has recruited from various places and for various reasons, taken onto the SSV Normandy, Shepard's stealth-recon starship; the player could make pr
Humble Bundle, Inc. is a digital storefront for video games, which grew out of its original offering of Humble Bundles, collections of games sold at a price determined by the purchaser and with a portion of the price going towards charity and the rest split between the game developers. Humble Bundle continues to offer these limited-time bundles, but have expanded to include a greater and more persistent storefront; the Humble Bundle concept was run by Wolfire Games in 2010, but by its second bundle, the Humble Bundle company was spun out to manage the promotion and distribution of the bundles. In October 2017, the company was acquired by Ziff Davis through its IGN Entertainment subsidiary, though will continue to operate as a separate subsidiary. Initial bundles were collections of independently developed games featuring multi-platform support provided without digital rights management. Occurring every few months, the two-week Humble Bundles drew media attention, with several bundles surpassing $1 million in sales.
Subsequently, the bundles became more frequent and expanded to include games from established developers, AAA publishers, games for Android-based devices, bundles promoting game jams, bundles featuring digital copies of music and comic books. Bundles are presently offered on a more regular basis, with a persistent storefront for individual game sales; the Humble Bundle offerings support a number of charities, including Action Against Hunger, Child's Play, the Electronic Frontier Foundation, charity: water, the American Red Cross, WaterAid and the Wikimedia Foundation. By the end of October 2014, participating developers had grossed more than $100 million and by September 2017, the total charitable amount raised by the Bundles exceeded $100 million across 50 different charities; the success of the Humble Bundle approach has inspired a number of similar efforts to offer "pay what you want" bundles for smaller titles, including Indie Gala and Indie Royale. As a corporation, Humble Bundle is headquartered in San Francisco, with about 60 employees.
The idea for the Bundle was from Jeff Rosen of Wolfire Games. Rosen describes the inspiration coming to him through similar sales of bundle packages on the Steam platform. Rosen had noted. Influence came from a previous "pay-what-you-want" sale for World of Goo upon the title's first anniversary. Rosen by this point was well connected with other independent developers, for example his brother David is listed as being a game tester for the Penumbra series, Penumbra's composer Mikko Tarmia is now contributing to Wolfire Games' upcoming game project Overgrowth. Wolfire had recently teamed with Unknown Worlds Entertainment to offer a bundle based on their Natural Selection 2 game; the porter of Lugaru to Linux was Ryan C. Gordon, responsible for porting Aquaria to Linux. With his close ties to these independent developers, as well as Ron Carmel of 2D Boy, Rosen was able to assemble the package, taking advantage of merchant sales systems offered by PayPal, Amazon Payments, Google Checkout to minimize the cost of transactions and distribution.
The site added the option to pay via Bitcoin only through Coinbase. Though achieving word of mouth was a key element of the potential success of the bundle, Rosen recognized that the process to purchase the Bundles had to be simple. Rosen sought to include charities in the bundle, allowing the purchaser to choose how to distribute the funds between the developers and charities. Rosen believed Child's Play was a worthwhile cause that brought video games to hospitalized children and helped to fight the stigma of video games, while he selected the Electronic Frontier Foundation to support their anti-DRM stance; the means of "pay-what-you-want" would allow purchasers to give the money to the charities, but Rosen felt this was not an issue and would "consider that a success" of the sale. Rosen and Wolfire employee John Graham provided technical support during the sales, handling thousands of requests through a few all-night email and chat sessions. Rosen and Graham began planning for a second Humble Indie Bundle, which launched in December 2010 and raised $1.8 million.
The two recognized the value proposition of continuing this model, spun out Humble Bundle as its own company shortly after the release of the second bundle. Rosen and Graham served as its founders. Sequoia Capital had invested $4.7 million of venture capital into Humble Bundle by April 2011, allowing Rosen and Graham to hire staff to help curate further bundles and handle customer services. On October 13, 2017, Humble Bundle announced it had been acquired by IGN Entertainment, a subsidiary of Ziff Davis. Humble Bundle will continue to operate as a separate entity within IGN, according to the company, there are no plans to change their current business approach in the short-term. Instead, they see "a lot of opportunities" for the customer bases of both companies, according to Humble Bundle founder John Graham. Graham said that the acquisition by IGN enables them to continue to do the same sales and charity promotions "faster and better" with IGN's resources backing them. IGN's executive vice president Mitch Galbraith said that they felt Humble Bundle was a "great fit" for IGN, would help IGN to "give something back" by supporting its charitable drives.
As IGN publishes news and reviews of video games, Galbraith responded to sever