Klondike Gold Rush
The Klondike Gold Rush was a migration by an estimated 100,000 prospectors to the Klondike region of the Yukon in north-western Canada between 1896 and 1899. Gold was discovered there by miners on August 16,1896 and. Some became wealthy, but the majority went in vain and it has been immortalized in photographs, books and artifacts. To reach the fields most took the route through the ports of Dyea. Here, the Klondikers could follow either the Chilkoot or the White Pass trails to the Yukon River, each of them was required to bring a years supply of food by the Canadian authorities in order to prevent starvation. In all, their equipment weighed close to a ton, which for most had to be carried in stages by themselves, together with mountainous terrain and cold climate this meant that those who persisted did not arrive until summer 1898. Once there, they found few opportunities and many left disappointed, mining was challenging as the ore was distributed in an uneven manner and digging was made slow by permafrost.
As a result, some chose to buy and sell claims, building up huge investments. To accommodate the prospectors, boom towns sprang up along the routes and at their end Dawson City was founded at the confluence of the Klondike, from a population of 500 in 1896, the town grew to house around 30,000 people by summer 1898. Built of wood and unsanitary, Dawson suffered from fires, high prices, despite this, the wealthiest prospectors spent extravagantly gambling and drinking in the saloons. The Native Hän people, on the hand, suffered from the rush, being moved into a reserve to make way for the stampeders. From 1898, the newspapers that had encouraged so many to travel to the Klondike lost interest in it. In the summer of 1899, gold was discovered around Nome in west Alaska, the boom towns declined and the population of Dawson City fell. Gold mining activity lasted until 1903 when production peaked after heavier equipment was brought in, since the Klondike has been mined on and off, and today the legacy draws tourists to the region and contributes to its prosperity.
The indigenous peoples in north-west America had traded in copper prior to European expansion. Most of the tribes were aware that gold existed in region, in the second half of the 19th century, American prospectors began to spread into the area. Making deals with the Native Tlingit and Tagish tribes, the early prospectors opened the important routes of Chilkoot and White Pass, they encountered the Hän people, semi-nomadic hunters and fishermen who lived along the Yukon and Klondike Rivers. The Hän did not appear to know about the extent of the deposits in the region
The.38 Smith & Wesson Special is a rimmed, centerfire cartridge designed by Smith & Wesson. It is most commonly used in revolvers, although some semi-automatic pistols, in other parts of the world, it is known by its metric designation of 9×29. 5mmR or 9. 1×29mmR. Noted for its accuracy and manageable recoil, the.38 Special remains the most popular cartridge in the world more than a century after its introduction. It is used for shooting, formal target competition, personal defense. Despite its name, the caliber of the.38 Special cartridge is actually. 357–.358 inches, except for case length, the.38 Special is identical to the.38 Short Colt.38 Long Colt, and.357 Magnum. This allows the.38 Special round to be fired in revolvers chambered for the.357 Magnum. Upon its introduction, the.38 Special was originally loaded with black powder and this.38 Special variant incorporated a 200 grains round-nosed lead Lubaloy bullet, the.38 Super Police. Remington-Peters introduced a similar loading, testing revealed that the longer, heavier 200 grains. 357-calibre bullet fired at low velocity tended to keyhole or tumble upon impact, providing more shock effect against unprotected personnel.
This cartridge was called the.38 S&W Super Police or the. 38/200, britain would adopt the. 38/200 as its standard military handgun cartridge. In 1930, Smith & Wesson introduced a large frame.38 Special revolver with a 5-inch barrel and fixed sights intended for police use, the following year, a new high-power loading called the. That same year, Colt Firearms announced that their Colt Official Police would handle high-speed.38 Special loadings, the. 38/44 high-speed cartridge came in three bullet weights,158 grains,150 and 110 grains, with either coated lead or steel jacket, metal-piercing bullets. The media attention gathered by the. 38/44 and its ammunition eventually led Smith & Wesson to develop a new cartridge with a longer case length in 1934—this was the.357 Magnum. During World War II, some U. S. aircrew were issued.38 Special S&W Victory revolvers as sidearms in the event of a forced landing, the new military.38 Special loading propelled its 158 grains bullet at a standard 850 ft/s from a 4-inch revolver barrel.
During the war, many U. S. naval and marine aircrew were issued red-tipped.38 Special tracer rounds using either a 120 or 158 gr bullet for emergency signaling purposes. In 1956, the U. S. Air Force adopted the Cartridge, Caliber.38, Ball M41, a military variant of the.38 Special cartridge designed to conform to the rules of land warfare. By 1961, a slightly revised M41.38 cartridge specification known as the Cartridge, Caliber.38 Ball, Special, a variant of the standard M41 cartridge with a semi-pointed, unjacketed lead bullet was adopted for CONUS police and security personnel. At the same time.38 tracer cartridges were reintroduced by the US Navy, tracer cartridges in.38 Special caliber of different colors were issued, generally as part of a standard aircrew survival vest kit. A request for more powerful.38 Special ammunition for use by Air Police and security personnel resulted in the Caliber.38 Special, Ball, in 1972, the Federal Bureau of Investigation introduced a new.38 +P loading that became known as the FBI Load
A gun barrel is a part of firearms and artillery pieces. The hollow interior of the barrel is called the bore, a gun barrel must be able to hold in the expanding gas produced by the propellants to ensure that optimum muzzle velocity is attained by the projectile as it is being pushed out by the expanding gas. Modern small arms barrels are made of known and tested to withstand the pressures involved. Artillery pieces are made by various techniques providing reliably sufficient strength, early firearms were muzzle-loading, with powder, and shot loaded from the muzzle, capable of only a low rate of fire. During the 19th century effective mechanical locks were invented that sealed a breech-loading weapon against the escape of propellant gases, the early Chinese, the inventors of gunpowder, used bamboo, a naturally tubular stalk, as the first barrels in gunpowder projectile weapons. Early European guns were made of iron, usually with several strengthening bands of the metal wrapped around circular wrought iron rings.
The Chinese were the first to master cast-iron cannon barrels, early cannon barrels were very thick for their caliber. Bore evacuator Bore snake Cannon Muzzle Polygonal rifling Rifling Slug barrel Smoothbore
A magazine is an ammunition storage and feeding device within or attached to a repeating firearm. Magazines can be removable or integral to the firearm, the magazine functions by moving the cartridges stored in the magazine into a position where they may be loaded into the chamber by the action of the firearm. The detachable magazine is often referred to as a clip, although this is technically inaccurate, magazines come in many shapes and sizes, from those of bolt-action express rifles that hold only a few rounds to drum magazines for self-loading rifles that can hold one hundred rounds or more. Various jurisdictions ban what they define as high-capacity magazines, with the increased use of semi-automatic and automatic firearms, the detachable box magazine became increasingly common. Soon after the adoption of the M1911 pistol, the magazine was settled on by the military and firearms experts. The defining difference between clips and magazines is the presence of a mechanism in a magazine, typically a spring-loaded follower.
Use of the clip to refer to detachable magazines is a point of strong disagreement. The first mass-produced repeater was the Volcanic Rifle which used a bullet with the base filled with powder and primer fed into the chamber from a spring-loaded tube called a magazine. It was named after a building or room used to store ammunition, the anemic power of the Rocket Ball ammunition used in the Volcanic doomed it to limited popularity. The Henry repeating rifle is a lever-action, breech-loading, tubular magazine fed rifle, designed by Benjamin Tyler Henry in 1860, it was one of the first firearms to use self-contained metallic cartridges. The Henry was introduced in the early 1860s and produced through 1866 in the United States by the New Haven Arms Company and it was adopted in small quantities by the Union in the Civil War and favored for its greater firepower than the standard issue carbine. Many found their way West and was famed both for its use at the Battle of the Little Bighorn, and being the basis for the iconic Winchester rifle which are made to this day.
The Henry and Winchester rifles would go on to see service with a number of militaries including Turkey and Italy adopted similar designs. The first magazine-fed firearm to achieve success was the Spencer repeating rifle. The Spencer used a magazine located in the butt of the gun instead of under the barrel. The Spencer was successful, but the rimfire ammunition did occasionally ignite in the magazine tube and it could injure the user. The new bolt-action rifles began to favor with militaries in the 1880s and were often equipped with tubular magazines. The Mauser Model 1871 was originally a single-shot action that added a magazine in its 1884 update
North Haven, Connecticut
North Haven is a town in New Haven County, Connecticut on the outskirts of New Haven, Connecticut. As of the 2010 census, it had a population of 24,093, North Haven is less than 10 miles from downtown New Haven and Yale University. In July 2007, Money magazine ranked North Haven as the eighty-sixth best place to live in the United States. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has an area of 21.1 square miles, of which 20.8 square miles is land and 0.3 square miles. North Haven is located less than 10 miles from Long Island Sound, North Haven is 27 miles south of Hartford,76 miles northeast of New York City,80 miles west of Providence and 115 miles southwest of Boston. The center of town is an area stretching along U. S. Route 5, the first meeting house, completed in 1722, stood on the Green, west of what is now known as the Old Center Cemetery. About half of the original Pierpont gift remains today as the North Haven Green, ezra Stiles enumerated about forty families living in North Haven in the early part of the eighteenth century.
All of these people were farmers, producing what they needed for themselves. In 1786, the General Assembly permitted North Haven to incorporate as a town, New roads were built to facilitate communication, namely the Hartford Turnpike in 1798 and the Middletown Turnpike in 1813. The first United States census counted 1,236 people in the community of North Haven in 1790. However, the 1789 Grand List had found 1,620 sheep in North Haven, by the middle of the nineteenth century, signs of the Industrial Revolution were apparent. In 1838, the New Haven and Hartford Railroad had laid its tracks along the sand plains by the Quinnipiac River. In addition, small industries such as the manufacture of implements in Clintonville began in 1830. On the 1850 census, 62% of the population were listed as farmers, one third of the residents worked in various nonagricultural occupations such as mechanics and shoemakers. After the Civil War, the production of bricks, especially by the I. L. Stiles Co. brought immigrants to North Haven from Ireland, Italy.
By 1880,11 out of 100 people had been born outside of the United States, in the 1880s, Solomon Linsley, a North Haven architect, built the Memorial Town Hall and the new District 4 School. Linsley designed and built 32 Victorian style houses and public buildings in North Haven, by 1900, public transportation was important to North Haven residents. Eighteen passenger trains stopped at the Broadway station every day, the Airline Railroad ran through Montowese and Clintonville to Middletown
A revolver is a repeating handgun that has a revolving cylinder containing multiple chambers and at least one barrel for firing. Revolvers might be regarded as a subset of pistols, or as a subset of handguns. Though the term revolver usually only refers to handguns, other firearms may have a revolving chamber and these include some models of grenade launchers and rifles. Most revolvers contain five or six rounds in the cylinder, though the original name was revolving gun, the short-hand revolver is universally used. The revolver allows the user to fire multiple rounds without reloading, each time the user cocks the hammer, the cylinder revolves to align the next chamber and round with the hammer and barrel, which gives this type of firearm its name. In a single-action revolver, the user pulls the back with his free hand or thumb. In a double-action revolver, pulling the trigger moves the back, releases it. Loading and unloading a double-action revolver requires the operator to swing out the cylinder and insert the proper ammunition, the first guns with multichambered cylinders that revolved to feed one barrel were made in the late 16th century in Europe.
They were expensive and rare curiosities, not until the 19th century would revolvers become common weapons of industrial production. One of the first was a flintlock revolver patented by Elisha Collier in 1814, the first percussion revolver was made by Lenormand of Paris in 1820 and the first percussion cap revolver was invented by the Italian Francesco Antonio Broccu in 1833. He received a prize of 300 francs for his invention, although he did not patent it, however, in 1835 a similar handgun was patented by Samuel Colt, who would go on to make the first mass-produced revolver. The first cartridge revolvers were produced around 1854 by Eugene Lefaucheux, revolvers soon became standard for nearly all uses. In the early 20th century, semi-automatic pistols were developed, which can hold more rounds, Automatic pistols have a flat profile, more suitable for concealed carry. Automatic pistols have almost completely replaced revolvers in military and law enforcement use, revolvers still remain popular as back-up and off-duty handguns among American law enforcement officers and security guards.
Also, revolvers are still common in the American private sector as defensive, in the development of firearms, an important limiting factor was the time it took to reload the weapon after it was fired. While the user was reloading, the weapon was useless, several approaches to the problem of increasing the rate of fire were developed, the earliest being multi-barrelled weapons which allowed two or more shots without reloading. Later weapons featured multiple barrels revolving along a single axis, the earliest examples of what today is called a revolver were made in Germany in the late 16th century. These weapons featured a barrel with a revolving cylinder holding the powder
In firearms terminology, an action is the mechanism that handles the ammunition or the method by which that mechanism works. Breech-loading weapons have actions, actions are not present on muzzleloaders. The mechanism that fires a muzzle-loader is called the lock, actions can be categorized in several ways, including single action versus double action, break action versus bolt action, and others. The term action can short and magnum if it is in reference to the length of the rifle’s receiver. The short action rifle usually can accommodate a cartridge length of 2.8 in or smaller, the long action rifle can accommodate a cartridge of 3.34 in, and the magnum action rifle can accommodate cartridges of 3.6 in, or longer in length. Manual operation is a term describing any type of firearm action that is loaded one shot at a time by the user rather than automatically. For example, break action is a form of operation using a simple hinge mechanism that is manually unlatched by the operator. These are actions wherein the breechblock lowers or drops into the receiver to open the breech, there are two principal types of dropping block, the tilting block and the falling block.
In a tilting or pivoting block action, the breechblock is hinged on a pin mounted at the rear, when the lever is operated, the block tilts down and forward, exposing the chamber. The best-known pivoting block designs are the Peabody, the Peabody–Martini, the original Peabody rifles, manufactured by the Providence Tool Company, used a manually cocked side-hammer. The 1871 Martini–Henry which replaced the trapdoor Snider–Enfield was the standard British Army rifle of the Victorian era, charles H. Ballards self-cocking tilting-block action was produced by the Marlin Firearms Company from 1875, and earned a superlative reputation among long-range Creedmoor target shooters. Surviving Marlin Ballards are today highly prized by collectors, especially those mounted in the elaborate Swiss-style Schützen stocks of the day. A falling-block action is a firearm action in which a solid metal breechblock slides vertically in grooves cut into the breech of the weapon. Examples of firearms using the falling block action are the Sharps rifle, in a rolling block action the breechblock takes the form of a part-cylinder, with a pivot pin through its axis.
The operator rotates or rolls the block to open and close the breech, it is a simple, rugged, a break action is a type of firearm where the barrel are hinged and can be broken open to expose the breech. The earliest metallic-cartridge breechloaders designed for military issue began as conversions of muzzle-loading rifle-muskets. The upper rear portion of the barrel was filed or milled away, an internal angled firing pin allowed the re-use of the rifles existing side-hammer. The Allin action made by Springfield Arsenal in the US hinged forward, france countered in 1866 with its superior Chassepot rifle, a paper-cartridge bolt action
A repeating rifle is a single barreled rifle containing multiple rounds of ammunition. These rounds are loaded from a magazine by means of a manual or automatic mechanism, Repeating rifles were a significant advance over the preceding breech loaded single-shot rifles when used for military combat, as they allowed a much greater rate of fire. Repeating rifles saw use in the American Civil War during the early 1860s, while some early long guns were made using the revolver mechanism popular in hand guns, these did not have longevity in the marketplace. The bolt closes the end of the barrel and contains the firing pin. The bolt is held in place with a lever that fits into a notch, moving this lever out of the notch will release the restraint on the bolt, allowing it to be drawn back. An extractor removes the spent cartridge, which is ejected through the lever slot. A spring at the bottom of the magazine pushes up the reserve rounds, pushing the bolt lever forward chambers this round and pushing the lever into the notch locks the bolt and enables the trigger mechanism.
The complete cycle action resets the firing pin, the Russian Mosin–Nagant rifle, the British Lee–Enfield, and the Norwegian Krag–Jørgensen are examples of alternate bolt-action designs. In a classic lever-action firearm of the Henry-Winchester type, rounds are loaded into a tubular magazine parallel to. A short bolt is held in place with an over center toggle action, once closed, the over center action prevents opening solely by the force on the bolt when the weapon is fired. This toggle action is operated by a grip that forms part of the trigger guard. When operated, a spring in the magazine pushes a fresh round into position. Returning the operating lever to the home position chambers the round, an interlock prevents firing unless the toggle is fully closed. The famous Model 1873 Winchester is exemplary of this type, lever-action designs, such as Marlin leverguns and those designed for Winchester by John Browning, use one or two vertical locking blocks instead of a toggle-link. There exist lever-action rifles that feed from a box magazine, a one-off example of Lever action reloading on automatic firearms is the M1895 Colt–Browning machine gun.
This weapon had a lever beneath its barrel that was actuated by a gas bleed in the barrel. This unique operation gave the nickname potato digger as the lever swung each time the weapon fired, with a pump-action firearm, the action is operated by a movable fore-end that goes backwards and forwards to eject and chamber a round of ammunition. Pump-actions are usually associated with shotguns, but one example of a rifle is the Remington Model 7600 series
The.218 Bee is a.22 caliber centerfire rifle cartridge designed for varmint hunting by Winchester in 1937. The cartridge was chambered in the Winchester Model 65 lever-action rifles. The.218 Bee cartridge was designed by Winchester for use in their Model 65 lever-action rifles, Winchester designed the cartridge by necking down the. 25-20 Winchester cartridge to accept a.224 diameter bullet. The. 32-20 can be considered to be the parent cartridge of the 25-20, the cartridge was introduced as a commercial cartridge by Winchester in 1937 in their Model 65 lever action rifle, which was chambered for the. 25-20 and. 32-20 Winchester cartridges. However, while the. 25-20 and the. 32-20 Model 65 rifles had 22 inch barrels, although not in common use, its still a very effective cartridge in its class, for example small to medium varmints out to about 200 yards. Production ammunition and rifles are available from a few manufacturers. In terms of performance, the.218 Bee falls between the smaller.22 Hornet, and the larger.222 Remington and the more popular.223 Remington.
In terms of short range velocity the.218 works quite well
Military and commercial producers continue to pursue the goal of caseless ammunition. A cartridge without a bullet is called a blank, One that is completely inert is called a dummy. Some artillery ammunition uses the same concept as found in small arms. In other cases, the shell is separate from the propellant charge. In popular use, the bullet is often misused to refer to a complete cartridge. The cartridge case seals a firing chamber in all directions excepting the bore, a firing pin strikes the primer and ignites it. The primer compound deflagrates, it does not detonate, a jet of burning gas from the primer ignites the propellant. Gases from the burning powder pressurize and expand the case to seal it against the chamber wall and these propellant gases push on the bullet base. In response to pressure, the bullet will move in the path of least resistance which is down the bore of the barrel. After the bullet leaves the barrel, the pressure drops to atmospheric pressure. The case, which had been expanded by chamber pressure.
This eases removal of the case from the chamber, brass is a commonly used case material because it is resistant to corrosion. A brass case head can be work-hardened to withstand the pressures of cartridges. The neck and body portion of a case is easily annealed to make the case ductile enough to allow reforming so that it can be reloaded many times. Steel is used in some plinking ammunition, as well as in military ammunition. Steel is less expensive than brass, but it is not feasible to reload, Military forces typically consider small arms cartridge cases to be disposable, one-time-use devices. However, case weight affects how much ammunition a soldier can carry, steel is more susceptible to contamination and damage so all such cases are varnished or otherwise sealed against the elements. One downside caused by the strength of steel in the neck of these cases is that propellant gas can blow back past the neck
The. 25-20 Winchester, or WCF was developed around 1895 for the Winchester Model 1892 lever action rifle. It was based on necking down the. 32-20 Winchester, in the early 20th century, it was a popular small game and varmint round, developing around 1,460 ft/s with 86-grain bullets. While the SAAMI pressure rating is a full 28,000 CUP, the early black powder cartridges were loaded to about 20,000 psi, but the SAAMI rating is close to that of the high velocity smokeless rounds produced later. The high velocity loadings developed 1,732 ft/s and it was easy and economical to reload, and was once a favorite with farmers, pot hunters and trappers. List of rifle cartridges Table of handgun and rifle cartridges 6 mm caliber Cartridge dimensions from ANSI/SAAMI Z299. 4-1992 p.45 Accurate Smokeless Powders Loading Guide, the Reload Bench Chuck Hawks Guns&Ammo Magazine ballistics
Marlin Model Golden 39A
The Marlin 39A represents the oldest and longest continuously produced shoulder firearm in the world. The current variation gold trigger lever-action.22 Caliber Golden 39A is produced by the Marlin Firearms Co. of New Haven, the Golden 39A is constructed in Marlins factory in Ilion, NY. The Golden Model 39A started life as the Marlin Model 1891, the first lever action rifle chambered in. 22LR. The tubular magazine was changed to front-loading with the Model 1892, the 1892 gave way to the takedown Model 1897, which became the Model 39 in 1921 and Model 39-A in 1939. The Golden Mountie Model 39A was introduced in 1954, the 39 was produced until 1983 when the current Golden 39A was introduced. Changes between models were so minimal the rifle is considered to have been produced to the same basic specifications for over 100 years. The Model 39-A did not have a hammer safety, whereas the current Golden Model 39A has had one since introduction in 1983. The Golden 39A is still considered one of the finest examples of a lever.22 rifle and it is the best-selling lever rimfire in U. S. history.
Additionally mountie versions have been produced at various points in the life which featured a shorter 20 barrel. These rifles have been alternately called Model 39M or 1897 Mountie, the Mountie has a magazine capacity of 20 Short,16 Long or 15 Long Rifle.22 cartridges. Since the early 1950s Marlin has used their proprietary Micro-Groove rifling in the Model 39A and this rifling uses many small lands and grooves rather than 2,4, or 6 deeper grooves used by the majority of rifle makers. The rifling is made to a 1 in 16 right hand twist, the combination of these two factors arguably adds to the accuracy of the rifle and indeed the 39As reputation would seem to bear this out. The Model Golden 39A is built of forged steel parts and American grown black walnut and it is one of the very few remaining.22 rifles with easy takedown ability. The screw that allows the easy takedown, however, is criticized as it disrupts the otherwise clean lines of the rifle. Further, in the event of a malfunction which prevents the breech from closing, the Model Golden 39A has a solid-top receiver and side ejection, which makes mounting a scope easy.
The Marlin Model Golden 39A is still available with a 24 round barrel, a pistol grip. The Golden 39A has a full length steel tubular magazine under the barrel with an inner tube. Magazine capacity is as follows,26.22 Short,21.22 Long, many previous variations of the model are still available from used gun dealers