Chert is a fine-grained sedimentary rock composed of microcrystalline or cryptocrystalline silica. Depending on its origin, it can contain either microfossils, small macrofossils, Chert occurs as oval to irregular nodules in greensand, limestone and dolostone formations as a replacement mineral, where it is formed as a result of some type of diagenesis. Where it occurs in chalk or marl, it is usually called flint and it occurs in thin beds, when it is a primary deposit. Thick beds of chert occur in marine deposits. These thickly bedded cherts include the novaculite of the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas, the banded iron formations of Precambrian age are composed of alternating layers of chert and iron oxides. Chert occurs in deposits and is known as diatomaceous chert. Diatomaceous chert consists of beds and lenses of diatomite which were converted during diagenesis into dense, in petrology the term chert is used to refer generally to all rocks composed primarily of microcrystalline, cryptocrystalline and microfibrous quartz.
The term does not include quartzite, chalcedony is a microfibrous variety of quartz. Strictly speaking, the flint is reserved for varieties of chert which occur in chalk. Among non-geologists, the distinction between flint and chert is often one of quality - chert being lower quality than flint, among petrologists, chalcedony is sometimes considered separately from chert due to its fibrous structure. Since many cherts contain both microcrystalline and microfibrous quartz, it is difficult to classify a rock as completely chalcedony. The cryptocrystalline nature of chert, combined with its above average ability to resist weathering, recrystallization, for example, The 3.2 Ga chert of the Fig Tree Formation in the Barbeton Mountains between Swaziland and South Africa preserved non-colonial unicellular bacteria-like fossils. The Gunflint Chert of western Ontario preserves not only bacteria and cyanobacteria but believed to be ammonia-consuming and some that resemble green algae. The Apex Chert of the Pilbara craton, Australia preserved eleven taxa of prokaryotes, the Bitter Springs Formation of the Amadeus Basin, Central Australia, preserves 850 Ma cyanobacteria and algae.
The Rhynie chert of Scotland has remains of a Devonian land flora, in prehistoric times, chert was often used as a raw material for the construction of stone tools. Like obsidian, as well as some rhyolites, felsites and this results in conchoidal fractures, a characteristic of all minerals with no cleavage planes. When a chert stone is struck against an iron-bearing surface sparks result and this makes chert an excellent tool for starting fires, and both flint and common chert were used in various types of fire-starting tools, such as tinderboxes, throughout history. Cherts are subject to problems when used as concrete aggregates, deeply weathered chert develops surface pop-outs when used in concrete that undergoes freezing and thawing because of the high porosity of weathered chert
President of the United States
The President of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president directs the executive branch of the government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. The president is considered to be one of the worlds most powerful political figures, the role includes being the commander-in-chief of the worlds most expensive military with the second largest nuclear arsenal and leading the nation with the largest economy by nominal GDP. The office of President holds significant hard and soft power both in the United States and abroad, Constitution vests the executive power of the United States in the president. The president is empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves. The president is responsible for dictating the legislative agenda of the party to which the president is a member. The president directs the foreign and domestic policy of the United States, since the office of President was established in 1789, its power has grown substantially, as has the power of the federal government as a whole.
However, nine vice presidents have assumed the presidency without having elected to the office. The Twenty-second Amendment prohibits anyone from being elected president for a third term, in all,44 individuals have served 45 presidencies spanning 57 full four-year terms. On January 20,2017, Donald Trump was sworn in as the 45th, in 1776, the Thirteen Colonies, acting through the Second Continental Congress, declared political independence from Great Britain during the American Revolution. The new states, though independent of each other as nation states, desiring to avoid anything that remotely resembled a monarchy, Congress negotiated the Articles of Confederation to establish a weak alliance between the states. Out from under any monarchy, the states assigned some formerly royal prerogatives to Congress, only after all the states agreed to a resolution settling competing western land claims did the Articles take effect on March 1,1781, when Maryland became the final state to ratify them.
In 1783, the Treaty of Paris secured independence for each of the former colonies, with peace at hand, the states each turned toward their own internal affairs. Prospects for the convention appeared bleak until James Madison and Edmund Randolph succeeded in securing George Washingtons attendance to Philadelphia as a delegate for Virginia. It was through the negotiations at Philadelphia that the presidency framed in the U. S. The first power the Constitution confers upon the president is the veto, the Presentment Clause requires any bill passed by Congress to be presented to the president before it can become law. Once the legislation has been presented, the president has three options, Sign the legislation, the bill becomes law. Veto the legislation and return it to Congress, expressing any objections, in this instance, the president neither signs nor vetoes the legislation
Mortar and pestle
A pestle and mortar is a kitchen device used since ancient times to prepare ingredients or substances by crushing and grinding them into a fine paste or powder. The mortar is a bowl, typically made of hard wood, the pestle is a heavy and blunt club-shaped object, the end of which is used for crushing and grinding. The substance to be ground is placed in the mortar and ground and pestles have been used in cooking up to the present day, they are frequently associated with the profession of pharmacy due to their historical use in preparing medicines. They can be used in masonry and in types of construction. Scientists have found ancient mortars and pestles that date back to approximately 35,000 B. C, the English word mortar derives from classical Latin mortarium, among several other usages, receptacle for pounding and product of grinding or pounding. The classical Latin pistillum, meaning pounder, led to English pestle, the Roman poet Juvenal applied both mortarium and pistillum to articles used in the preparation of drugs, reflecting the early use of the mortar and pestle as a symbol of a pharmacist or apothecary.
The antiquity of these tools is well documented in writing, such as the Egyptian Ebers Papyrus of ~1550 BCE. Mortars and pestles were used in pharmacies to crush various ingredients prior to preparing an extemporaneous prescription. The mortar and pestle, with the Rod of Asclepius, the Orange Cross, for pharmaceutical use, the mortar and the head of the pestle are usually made of porcelain, while the handle of the pestle is made of wood. This is known as a Wedgwood mortar and pestle and originated in 1759, today the act of mixing ingredients or reducing the particle size is known as trituration. Mortars and pestles are used as drug paraphernalia to grind up pills to speed up absorption when they are ingested. Mortars are used in cooking to prepare ingredients such as guacamole and pesto, the molcajete, a version used by pre-Hispanic Mesoamerican cultures including the Aztec and Maya, stretching back several thousand years, is made of basalt and is used widely in Mexican cooking. Other Native American nations use mortars carved into the bedrock to grind acorns, many such depressions can be found in their territories.
In Japan, very large mortars are used with wooden mallets to prepare mochi, a regular sized Japanese mortar and pestle are called a suribachi and surikogi, respectively. Granite mortars and pestles are used in Southeast Asia, as well as Pakistan, in India, it is used extensively to make spice mixtures for various delicacies as well as day to day dishes. With the advent of motorized grinders, use of the mortar and it is traditional in various Hindu ceremonies to crush turmeric in these mortars. In Malay, it is known as batu lesung, large stone mortars, with long wood pestles were used in West Asia to grind meat for a type of meatloaf, or kibbeh, as well as the hummus variety known as masabcha. In Indonesia and the Netherlands mortar is known as Cobek or Tjobek and it is often used to make fresh sambal, a spicy chili condiment, hence the sambal ulek/oelek denote its process using pestle
Nez Perce people
The Nez Perce /ˌnɛzˈpɜːrs/ are an Indigenous people of the Plateau, who live in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States, which is on the Columbia River Plateau. They are federally recognized as the Nez Perce Tribe and govern their reservation in Idaho and they are one of five federally recognized tribes in the state. Anthropologists have written that the Nez Percé descend from the Old Cordilleran Culture and this name was given to this tribe and the nearby Chinook people by French explorers and trappers, meaning pierced nose, but only the Chinook used that form of decoration. Their name for themselves is Nimíipuu, The People, in their language, Nez Percé is an exonym given by French Canadian fur traders who visited the area regularly in the late 18th century, meaning literally pierced nose. English-speaking traders and settlers adopted the name in turn, since the late 20th century, the Nez Perce identify most often as Niimíipu in Sahaptin. The tribe uses the term Nez Perce, as does the United States Government in its dealings with them.
Older historical ethnological works and documents use the French spelling of Nez Percé, the original French pronunciation is, with three syllables. In his journals, William Clark referred to the people as the Chopunnish /ˈtʃoʊpənɪʃ/, Walker in 1998, writing for the Smithsonian, this term is an adaptation of the term cú·pŉitpeľu. The term is formed from cú·pŉit and peľu, by contrast, the Nez Perce Language Dictionary has a different analysis than did Walker for the term cúpnitpelu. The prefix cú- means in single file and this prefix, combined with the verb -piní, to come out. Finally, with the suffix of -pelú, meaning people or inhabitants of, these three elements, cú- + -piní + pelú = cúpnitpelu, or the People Walking Single File Out of the Forest. Nez Perce oral tradition indicates the name Cuupnitpeluu meant we walked out of the woods or walked out of the mountains, the interpreter of the Lewis and Clark Expedition mistakenly identified this people as the Nez Perce when the team encountered the tribe in 1805.
They did not practice nose piercing or wearing ornaments, the tribe known as pierced nose lived on and around the lower Columbia River in the Pacific Northwest. They are commonly called the Chinook tribe by historians and anthropologists, the Chinook relied heavily upon salmon as a food staple, as did the Nez Perce. The peoples shared fishing and trading sites, but the Chinook had a different culture and more hierarchical social arrangements. The Nez Perce language, or Niimiipuutímt, is a Sahaptian language related to the dialects of Sahaptin. The Sahaptian sub-family is one of the branches of the Plateau Penutian family, the tribal area extended from the Bitterroots in the east to the Blue Mountains in the west between latitudes 45°N and 47°N. In 1800, the Nez Perce had more than 100 permanent villages, ranging from 50 to 600 individuals, depending on the season, archeologists have identified a total of about 300 related sites including camps and villages, mostly in the Salmon River Canyon
National Historic Landmark
A National Historic Landmark is a building, object, site, or structure that is officially recognized by the United States government for its outstanding historical significance. Of over 85,000 places listed on the countrys National Register of Historic Places, a National Historic Landmark District may include contributing properties that are buildings, sites or objects, and it may include non-contributing properties. Contributing properties may or may not be separately listed, prior to 1935, efforts to preserve cultural heritage of national importance were made by piecemeal efforts of the United States Congress. The first National Historic Site designation was made for the Salem Maritime National Historic Site on March 17,1938. In 1960, the National Park Service took on the administration of the data gathered under this legislation. Because listings often triggered local preservation laws, legislation in 1980 amended the procedures to require owner agreement to the designations. On October 9,1960,92 properties were announced as designated NHLs by Secretary of the Interior Fred A.
Seaton, more than 2,500 NHLs have been designated. Most, but not all, are in the United States, there are NHLs in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Three states account for nearly 25 percent of the nations NHLs, three cities within these states all separately have more NHLs than 40 of the 50 states. In fact, New York City alone has more NHLs than all but five states, California, Massachusetts, there are 74 NHLs in the District of Columbia. Some NHLs are in U. S. commonwealths and territories, associated states, and foreign states. There are 15 in Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and other U. S. commonwealths and territories,5 in U. S. -associated states such as Micronesia, over 100 ships or shipwrecks have been designated as NHLs. About half of the National Historic Landmarks are privately owned, the National Historic Landmarks Program relies on suggestions for new designations from the National Park Service, which assists in maintaining the landmarks. A friends group of owners and managers, the National Historic Landmark Stewards Association, works to preserve, protect, if not already listed on the National Register of Historic Places, an NHL is automatically added to the Register upon designation.
About three percent of Register listings are NHLs, american Water Landmark List of U. S
Washington State University
Washington State University is a public research university located in Pullman, Washington, in the Palouse region of the northwest United States. It is ranked in the top 140 universities in America with high research activity, with an undergraduate enrollment of 24,470 and a total enrollment of 29,686, it is the second largest institution of higher education in Washington state behind the University of Washington. The university operates campuses across Washington known as WSU Spokane, WSU Tri-Cities, in 2012, WSU launched an Internet-based Global Campus, which includes its online degree program, WSU Online. These campuses award primarily bachelors and masters degrees and sophomores were first admitted to the Vancouver campus in 2006 and to the Tri-Cities campus in 2007. Total enrollment for the four campuses and WSU Online exceeds 29,686 students, WSUs athletic teams are called the Cougars and the school colors are crimson and gray. Six mens and nine womens varsity teams compete in NCAA Division I in the Pac-12 Conference, both mens and womens indoor track teams compete in the Mountain Pacific Sports Federation.
Washington State College was established by the Washington Legislature on March 28,1890, the institution was one of the land-grant colleges created under the 1862 federal Morrill Act signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln. The federal land grants for the new institution included 90,000 acres of land for an agricultural college and 100,000 acres for a school of science. After an extended search for a location, the states new land-grant college opened in Pullman on January 13,1892, the year 1897 saw the first graduating class of seven men and women. The school changed its name from Washington Agricultural College and School of Science to State College of Washington in 1905, the name was changed by the state legislature to Washington State University 58 years ago in 1959. Prior to Bryans arrival, the university suffered through significant organizational instability. Bryan guided WSU toward respectability and is arguably the most influential figure in the history of the university, the landmark clock tower in the center of campus is his namesake.
WSUs role as an institution became clear in 1894 with the launch of its first Agricultural Experiment Station west of the Cascade Mountains near Puyallup. WSU has subsequently established extension offices and research centers in all regions of the state, with research facilities in Prosser, Mount Vernon. In 1989, WSU officially gained branch campuses in Spokane, the Tri-Cities, the Federal Government and the State of Washington have entrusted 190,000 acres of land to WSU for agricultural and scientific research throughout the Pacific Northwest. The veterinary school was elevated to status in 1916, becoming the College of Veterinary Medicine in 1925. Graduate education began in the years and, in 1902, the first masters degree was conferred. In 1917, the institution was organized into five colleges and four schools, in 1922 a Graduate School was created
The Snake River is a major river of the greater Pacific Northwest in the United States. At 1,078 miles long, it is the largest tributary of the Columbia River and its drainage basin encompasses parts of six U. S. states, and its average discharge is over 54,000 cubic feet per second. Rugged mountains divided by rolling plains characterize the physiographically diverse watershed of the Snake River, the Snake River Plain was created by a volcanic hotspot which now lies underneath Yellowstone National Park, where the headwaters of the Snake River arise. Two of these flooding events significantly affected the river and its surrounds. More than 11,000 years ago, prehistoric Native Americans lived along the Snake, Salmon from the Pacific Ocean spawned by the millions in the river. These fish were central to the lives of the people along the Snake below Shoshone Falls, by the time Lewis and Clark crossed the Rockies and sighted the valley of a Snake tributary, the Nez Perce and Shoshone were the most powerful peoples in the region.
Some tribes adopted use of horses after contact with Europeans, which reshaped their hunting and fur trappers further changed and used the resources of the Snake River basin. At one point, a sign made by the Shoshones representing fish was misinterpreted to represent a snake. By the middle 19th century, the Oregon Trail, a trail of which a major portion followed the Snake River, had been established by aspiring settlers and traders. Steamboats and railroads moved agricultural products and minerals along the river throughout the 19th, several of these have been proposed for removal in order to restore some of the rivers once-tremendous salmon runs. Its first 50-mile run through the valley of Jackson Hole, which cuts between the Teton Range and the Continental Divide, there it is met by the Salt River at the mouth of Star Valley. Southwest of the city of Rexburg, the Snake receives from the right the Henrys Fork, the confluence with the Henrys Fork takes the river southwards through downtown Idaho Falls, rounding the Fort Hall Indian Reservation and into American Falls Reservoir, receiving the Portneuf River.
Close to Twin Falls, the Snake approaches the southernmost point in its entire course, after which it starts to flow generally northwest. Shortly after it passes within 30 miles of the Idaho state capital of Boise, there were hundreds of rapids in Hells Canyon, some of which have been stilled by the three dams of the Hells Canyon Hydroelectric Project, Hells Canyon and Brownlee. The Salmon River, the largest tributary of the Snake River, meets it in one of the most remote areas of its entire course, the confluence of the Snake and Columbia rivers has been submerged in Lake Wallula, the reservoir of McNary Dam. The Columbia River flows about 325 miles further west to the Pacific Ocean, as recently as 165 million years ago, most of western North America was still part of the Pacific Ocean. Even larger lava flows of Columbia River basalts issued over eastern Washington, forming the Columbia Plateau southeast of the Columbia River, separate volcanic activity formed the northwestern portion of the plain, an area far from the path of the hotspot which now lies beneath Yellowstone National Park.
At this point, the Snake River watershed was beginning to take shape, the Snake River Plain and the gap between the Sierra Nevada and Cascade Range formed a moisture channel, running as far inland as the headwaters of the Snake River
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal governments official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation. The passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register, of the more than one million properties on the National Register,80,000 are listed individually. The remainder are contributing resources within historic districts, each year approximately 30,000 properties are added to the National Register as part of districts or by individual listings. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service and its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States. While National Register listings are mostly symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties, protection of the property is not guaranteed.
During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places, the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Occasionally, historic sites outside the proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties, site, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties, some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service. These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks/Battlefields, National Memorials, on October 15,1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices.
Initially, the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Registers creation, approval of the act, which was amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, hartzog, Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law, ernest Connally was the Offices first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register, the first official Keeper of the Register was William J. Murtagh, an architectural historian. During the Registers earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U. S.
National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two Assistant Directorates. Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation, from 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs, jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate
Sites may range from those with few or no remains visible above ground, to buildings and other structures still in use. Beyond this, the definition and geographical extent of a site can vary widely, depending on the period studied and it is almost invariably difficult to delimit a site. It is sometimes taken to indicate a settlement of some sort although the archaeologist must define the limits of human activity around the settlement, any episode of deposition such as a hoard or burial can form a site as well. Development-led archaeology undertaken as cultural resources management has the disadvantage of having its sites defined by the limits of the intended development, even in this case however, in describing and interpreting the site, the archaeologist will have to look outside the boundaries of the building site. According to Jess Beck in “How Do Archaeologists find sites. ”The areas with a number of artifacts are good targets for future excavation. The most common person to have found artifacts are farmers who are plowing their fields or just cleaning them up often find archaeological artifacts, many people who are out hiking and even pilots find artifacts they usually end up reporting them to archaeologist to do further investigation.
When they find sites, they have to first record the area and if they have the money, there are many ways to find sites, one example can be through surveys. Surveys involve walking around analyzing the land looking for artifacts. ”This helps archaeologists in the future. In case there was no time, or money during the finding of the site, archaeologists can come back, archaeologist can sample randomly within a given area of land as another form of conducting surveys. Surveys are very useful, according to Jess Beck, “it can tell you where people were living at different points in the past. ”Geophysics is a branch of survey becoming more and more popular in archaeology, because it uses different types of instruments to investigate features below the ground surface. It is not as reliable, because although they can see what is under the surface of the ground it does not produce the best picture, Archaeologists have to still dig up the area in order to uncover the truth. There are two most common types of survey, which is, magnetometer and ground penetrating radar.
Magnetometry is the technique of measuring and mapping patterns of magnetism in the soil and it uses an instrument called a magnetometer which is required to measure and map traces of soil magnetism. The ground penetrating radar is a method that uses radar pulses to image the subsurface and it uses electro magnetic radiation in the microwave band of the radio spectrum, and detects the reflected signals from subsurface structures. There are many tools that can be used to find artifacts. This tool is helpful to archaeologists who want to explore in a different area. They can use this tool to see what has already been discovered, with this information available, archaeologists can expand their research and add more to what has already been found. Traditionally, sites are distinguished by the presence of artifacts and features
Lower Monumental Dam
Lower Monumental Lock and Dam is a hydroelectric, run-of-the-river dam on the Snake River, and bridges Franklin County and Walla Walla County, in the state of Washington. The dam is located six miles south of the town of Kahlotus, the main structure and three generators were completed in 1969, with an additional three generators finished in 1981. Generating capacity is 810 megawatts, with an capacity of 932 MW. The spillway has eight gates and is 572 feet long, lower Monumental Dam is part of the Columbia River Basin system of dams. Lake Herbert G. West, which extends 28 miles east to the base of Little Goose Dam, is formed behind the dam, lake Sacajawea, formed from Ice Harbor Dam, runs 35 miles southwest, downstream from the base of the dam
Olive snails, known as olive shells and olives, scientific name Olividae, are a taxonomic family of medium to large predatory sea snails with smooth, elongated oval-shaped shells. The shells often show various muted but attractive colors, and may be patterned and they are marine gastropod molluscs in the family Olividae within the main clade Neogastropoda. Also see the Olivellidae, the olives, which were previously grouped within this family. These snails are found on sandy substrates intertidally and subtidally, the olive snails are all carnivorous sand-burrowers. They feed mostly on bivalves and carrion and are known as some of the fastest burrowers among snails and they secrete a mucus similar to that of the Muricidae, from which a purple dye can be made. Physically the shells are oval and cylindrical in shape and they have a well-developed stepped spire. Olive shells have a notch at the posterior end of the long narrow aperture. The siphon of the living animal protrudes from the siphon notch, the shell surface is extremely glossy because in life the mantle almost always covers the shell.
Olive shells first appeared during the Campanian, olive shells are popular with shell collectors, and are often made into jewelry and other decorative items. The shell of the olive, Oliva sayana, is the state shell of South Carolina in the United States