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Marmoset

The marmosets known as zaris, are twenty-two New World monkey species of the genera Callithrix, Cebuella and Mico. All four genera are part of the biological family Callitrichidae; the term marmoset is used in reference to the Goeldi's marmoset, Callimico goeldii, related. Most marmosets are about 20 centimetres long. Relative to other monkeys, they show some primitive features: they have claws rather than nails, tactile hairs on their wrists, they lack wisdom teeth, their brain layout seems to be primitive. Their body temperature is unusually variable, changing by up to 4 °C in a day. Marmosets are native to South America and have been found in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru, they have been spotted in Central America and Mexico. They are raised in captivity as pets. According to recent research, marmosets exhibit germline chimerism, not known to occur in nature in any primates other than callitrichids. 95% of marmoset fraternal twins trade blood through chorionic fusions, making them hematopoietic chimeras.

Callithrix comes from Ancient Greek and means "beautiful fur". Marmoset, from the French marmouset, is of uncertain etymology, although these monkeys are called ouistiti in French. Genus Callithrix—Atlantic marmosets Common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus Black-tufted marmoset, Callithrix penicillata Wied's marmoset, Callithrix kuhlii White-headed marmoset, Callithrix geoffroyi Buffy-headed marmoset, Callithrix flaviceps Buffy-tufted marmoset, Callithrix aurita Genus Mico—Amazonian marmosets Rio Acari marmoset, Mico acariensis Silvery marmoset, Mico argentatus White marmoset, Mico leucippe Emilia's marmoset, Mico emiliae Black-headed marmoset, Mico nigriceps Marca's marmoset, Mico marcai Black-tailed marmoset, Mico melanura Santarem marmoset, Mico humeralifer Maués marmoset, Mico mauesi Munduruku marmoset, Mico munduruku Gold-and-white marmoset, Mico chrysoleucos Hershkovitz's marmoset, Mico intermedius Satéré marmoset, Mico saterei Rondon's marmoset, Mico rondoni Genus Callibella—Roosmalens' dwarf marmoset Roosmalens' dwarf marmoset, Callibella humilis Genus Cebuella—Pygmy Marmoset Pygmy marmoset, Cebuella pygmaea Marmosets are active, living in the upper canopy of forest trees, feeding on insects, leaves, tack and gum.

They have long lower incisors, which allow them to chew holes in tree trunks and branches to harvest the gum inside. Marmosets live in family groups of three to 15, consisting of one to two breeding females, an unrelated male, their offspring, extended family members and unrelated individuals, their mating systems are variable and can include monogamy and polyandry. In most species, fraternal twins are born, but triplets are not unknown. Like other callitrichines, marmosets are characterized by a high degree of cooperative care of the young and some food sharing and tolerated theft. Adult males, females other than the mother, older offspring, participate in carrying infants. Father marmosets are an exceptionally attentive example of fathers within the animal kingdom, going as far as assisting their mates in giving birth, cleaning up afterbirth and biting the umbilical cords attaching their newborn offspring to their mothers. Most groups scent mark and defend the edges of their ranges, but it is unclear if they are territorial, as group home ranges overlap.

The favorite food of marmosets is carbohydrate-rich tree sap, which they reach by gnawing holes in trunks. Their territories are centered on the trees that they exploit in this way; the smaller marmosets venture into the top of forest canopies to hunt insects that are abundant there. Primate Info Net Callithrix Factsheets Common Marmoset Care

Scott Pethybridge

Scott Pethybridge is an Australian former professional rugby league footballer who played for four clubs over his career. Pethybridge played on the wing, his father, played rugby league in the 1970s. Pethybridge was 17 years old when he made his debut in the NSWRL Premiership, for the Penrith Panthers. Pethybridge went on to play thirty-four games for the Panthers before leaving during the Super League war. In 1996, he was part of the Junior Kangaroos tour of Fiji. After deciding to align himself with the Australian Rugby League, Scott joined the North Sydney Bears, he was a regular in the side. However, when the Bears merged with the Manly Sea Eagles at the end of 1999, Pethybridge was not selected to be part of the new combined squad. Pethybridge was a member of The North Sydney side which played its final first grade game against The North Queensland Cowboys in Townsville; this left him searching for a new club, he ended up joining the Auckland Warriors for the 2000 season. He returned to Australia in 2001, where he played five games over the next two years for the Northern Eagles before retiring.

Pethybridge is now involved in horse racing

Trowbridge Township, Michigan

Trowbridge Township is a civil township of Allegan County in the U. S. state of Michigan. The population was 2,502 at the 2010 census. Merson is an unincorporated community in the township at the junction of 102 Avenue. In merson is the country store owned by the man Larry! Home of donut Fridays. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 35.8 square miles, of which 34.6 square miles is land and 1.2 square miles, or 3.22%, is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,519 people, 941 households, 712 families residing in the township; the population density was 72.6 per square mile. There were 1,060 housing units at an average density of 30.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the township was 96.71% White, 1.07% African American, 0.20% Native American, 0.40% Asian, 0.83% from other races, 0.79% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.02% of the population. There were 941 households out of which 32.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.9% were married couples living together, 8.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.3% were non-families.

17.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.02. In the township the population was spread out with 25.6% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 30.6% from 25 to 44, 25.3% from 45 to 64, 11.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 104.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 104.4 males. The median income for a household in the township was $40,476, the median income for a family was $46,157. Males had a median income of $36,170 versus $26,487 for females; the per capita income for the township was $20,137. About 6.2% of families and 8.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.8% of those under age 18 and 6.6% of those age 65 or over. Trowbridge Township at Allegan County official website

Vestibular system

The vestibular system, in vertebrates, is part of the inner ear. In most mammals, the vestibular system is the sensory system that provides the leading contribution to the sense of balance and spatial orientation for the purpose of coordinating movement with balance. Together with the cochlea, a part of the auditory system, it constitutes the labyrinth of the inner ear in most mammals; as movements consist of rotations and translations, the vestibular system comprises two components: the semicircular canals which indicate rotational movements. The vestibular system sends signals to the neural structures that control eye movements, to the muscles that keep an animal upright and in general control posture; the projections to the former provide the anatomical basis of the vestibulo-ocular reflex, required for clear vision. The brain uses information from the vestibular system in the head and from proprioception throughout the body to enable the animal to understand its body's dynamics and kinematics from moment to moment.

How these two perceptive sources are integrated to provide the underlying structure of the sensorium is unknown. The semicircular canal system detects rotational movements; the semicircular canals are its main tools. Since the world is three-dimensional, the vestibular system contains three semicircular canals in each labyrinth, they are orthogonal to each other, are the horizontal, the anterior semicircular canal, the posterior semicircular canal. Anterior and posterior canals may collectively be called vertical semicircular canals. Movement of fluid within the horizontal semicircular canal corresponds to rotation of the head around a vertical axis, as when doing a pirouette; the anterior and posterior semicircular canals detect rotations of the head in the sagittal plane, in the frontal plane, as when cartwheeling. Both anterior and posterior canals are orientated at 45° between frontal and sagittal planes; the movement of fluid pushes on a structure called the cupula which contains hair cells that transduce the mechanical movement to electrical signals.

The canals are arranged in such a way that each canal on the left side has an parallel counterpart on the right side. Each of these three pairs works in a push-pull fashion: when one canal is stimulated, its corresponding partner on the other side is inhibited, vice versa; this push-pull system makes it possible to sense all directions of rotation: while the right horizontal canal gets stimulated during head rotations to the right, the left horizontal canal gets stimulated by head rotations to the left. Vertical canals are coupled in a crossed fashion, i.e. stimulations that are excitatory for an anterior canal are inhibitory for the contralateral posterior, vice versa. The vestibulo-ocular reflex is a reflex eye movement that stabilizes images on the retina during head movement by producing an eye movement in the direction opposite to head movement, thus preserving the image on the center of the visual field. For example, when the head moves to the right, the eyes move to the left, vice versa.

Since slight head movements are present all the time, the VOR is important for stabilizing vision: patients whose VOR is impaired find it difficult to read, because they cannot stabilize the eyes during small head tremors. The VOR reflex does not depend on visual input and works in total darkness or when the eyes are closed; this reflex, combined with the push-pull principle described above, forms the physiological basis of the Rapid head impulse test or Halmagyi-Curthoys-test, in which the head is and forcefully moved to the side while observing whether the eyes keep looking in the same direction. The mechanics of the semicircular canals can be described by a damped oscillator. If we designate the deflection of the cupula with θ, the head velocity with q ˙, the cupula deflection is θ = α s q ˙ α is a proportionality factor, s corresponds to the frequency. For humans, the time constants T1 and T2 are 3 ms and 5 s, respectively; as a result, for typical head movements, which cover the frequency range of 0.1 Hz and 10 Hz, the deflection of the cupula is proportional to the head-velocity.

This is useful since the velocity of the eyes must be opposite to the velocity of the head in order to maintain clear vision. Signals from the vestibular system project to the cerebellum and to different areas in the cortex; the projections to the cortex are spread out over different areas, their implications are not understood. The vestibular nuclei on either side of the brain stem exchange signals regarding movement and body position; these signals are sent down the following projection pathways. To the cerebellum. Signals

Definitive postage stamps of Ireland

Definitive postage stamps of Ireland are the regular series of definitive postage stamps issued by the Irish Free State between 1922 and 1937 and by Republic of Ireland since 1937. Nine distinctly different series of designs have been released; the first twelve stamps, the low-values up to 1 shilling, were issued during 1922–23 whilst the three high-values, 2/6, 5/- and 10/- did not appear until 8 September 1937. They were printed by typography by the Government Dublin on SE watermarked paper; the designs were: Sword of Light, Map of Ireland, Celtic Cross, Arms of the Provinces and St. Patrick. A small number of coils with either the horizontal or vertical edges imperf were issued between 1933 and 1935 including the rare coil in 1935. Starting in 1940 these stamps were replaced by similar ones but printed on "gaelic e" watermarked paper. Two new values 8d and 11d were introduced in 1949. In 1967/8 the 3d and 5d changed to being printed in photogravure using a smaller image. Two coil stamps, with imperf vertical edges were issued.

In 1944 the 1/2d and 1s issues were replaced by the corresponding values of the set printed to commemorate the tercentenary of the death of Michael O' Cleirigh. Watermarked paper Known after its German designer, Heinrich Gerl who won the 1966 international design competition, this was the first new design of Irish definitives in 31 years for the high-values and 46 years for the low-values. Sixteen stamps debuted between 1968–1969 on four release dates; the graphics were all based on early Irish art motifs: a dog was used in one colour for the low-values, the elk was used for the middle-value, the winged ox and eagle designs were on the high-values. These stamps used the letter'p' to denote pence rather than the'd' used in the UK, so the three pence stamp bore'3p'; these stamps can be distinguished from the next issue by the presence of the letter'p' after the numeral. Decimal currency With the introduction of decimal currency on 15 February 1971 the Gerl designs were reused in different colours and values and released between 1971 and 1974.

A total of 18 single value stamps appeared plus three different multi-value coils. Since the previous series had used the letter p to denote pre-decimal pence, the stamps in this series just used a numeral to denote the denomination, so, a three-pence stamp bore the digit 3 with no'p' after it. Unwatermarked paper The last of the Gerl definitives consisted of 14 dog designs, 9 elk designs and 6 winged ox and eagle designs issued on 17 different dates between 1974 and 1980. For the first time a £1 value was put on sale; some of the values produced were to replace different values as needed because of changing postal rates due to inflation. Unwatermarked paper, introduced with the 1972 Christmas stamp, was used for the first time on definitives. Between 1981 and 1982, six more values, printed by lithography, were issued on four different dates. A multiple coil stamp based on a se-tenant strip valued 10p appeared. Line drawings by Michael Craig with graphics by P. Wildbur were used for a new series based on Irish architecture through the ages.

Over six dates between 1982 and 1988 twenty-eight values were released starting with a low-value of 1p and a high-value of £5. The images depicted: Central Pavilion, Dr Steevens' Hospital, St. Mac Dara Church, Aughnanure Castle, Cormac's Chapel, St Mary's Cathedral Killarney, Casino at Marino, Cahir Castle and Busáras; the Irish Heritage and Treasures definitives were released between 1990 and 1995. The Michael Craig designs were printed in 22 denominations with 13 different designs comprising. In 1997 Irish bird illustrations were used for the new issues that spanned the changes of currency from the Irish pound, through dual currency, to the introduction of the euro. Lithographically printed on unwatermarked paper by a number of different printers, the stamps were designed by Killian Mullarney; these were the first definitives. The initial birds illustrated are: magpie, corncrake, wood pigeon, lapwing, blue tit, robin, ringed plover, song thrush, barn owl, white-fronted goose, grey head pintail and shelduck.

These stamps were released in several booklet and coil formats and different printings. Irish currency Eighteen values from 1p to £5 made up the initial set. All values, except the £1 and £5 that were printed in sheets of 50, were all sheets of 100 by ISSP, Irish Stamp Security Stamp Printing Ltd. On 2 February 1999, a miniature sheet of fifteen different 30p birds stamps debuted using many of the original birds except that new designs were used for the peregrine falcon and pied wagtail. Dual currency On 11 June 2001, six values in dual currency appeared using birds from the previous Irish currency issue. Both Irish pound and euro values were printed on each stamp and

Gold Coast Knights SC

Gold Coast Knights Soccer Club is an Australian soccer club from the city of Gold Coast, Queensland. It is a Croatian Australian backed club, founded in 1978 and plays in the NPL Queensland; the club's home ground is the Croatian Sports Centre in the suburb of Carrara. Gold Coast Knights soccer club has hosted the Australian-Croatian Soccer Tournament in 1995, 2012 and 2018. Gold Coast Knights Soccer Club was formed by a group of Croatian migrants in the Gold Coast region in 1978, under the name St. Anthony’s Soccer Club; the club has just one side, an u14 side, coached by Mladen Marinac. The side played its home games at Musgrave Hill. In 1979, a senior team entered the local Men's 2nd Division competition; the growth of the Croatian migrant population in Gold Coast coincided with the growth of the club. In 1981, under the leadership of Željko Bambić, a Men's 1st Division side was entered. In 1982, the club bought land in Carrara, where two fields were put down and a small clubhouse built; the first game was played at Carrara in 1984, a year in which, under the leadership of coach Charlie Runje, the club won the Premiership and the Presidents Cup.

In the late 80s, St. Anthony's became Gold Coast Croatia Soccer Club. In 1991, the club decided to redevelop the clubrooms to cater for the expanding needs of the club. In the 90s, the football federation requested "Croatia" to be removed form the club's name and so, after spending a year as Gold Coast C. S. C; the club settled on the name Carrara Cro’s Soccer Club in 1993. They would keep this name until 1999; the name change followed a meeting with National Soccer League side Melbourne Knights FC, with whom a sister-club relationship was formed. In 2014, Gold Coast Knights experienced the first relegation in the club's history, falling from the Gold Coast Premier League to Division 1. In 2015, the Knights just avoided successive relegations, finishing just two points above the relegated Nerang, collecting 15 points in 21 games that season. At the club's Annual General Meeting in 2015, businessman Adrian Puljich became the new chairman. Knights underwent a rebrand, which saw a new logo introduced.

Work commenced on new change room facilities and tower lights for the pitches at the Croatian Sports Centre were installed. The 2016 season started well. Success continued and the Knights earned the right of promotion back to the Premier League for the 2017 season after winning the Division 1 title. Having only lost one game all season, the Knights continued their form into the finals series and took out the double by winning the championship; the 2017 season saw further success for Gold Coast Knights, winning the Premier League title for the first time in nine years in the first season back in the top flight of Gold Coast football. In the finals series, Knights lost to Broadbeach on penalties in the preliminary final, but beat Burleigh Heads to qualify for the grand final. There, Knights lost again to Broadbeach, this time 2-1. In November 2017, it was announced that Knights would join the National Premier Leagues Queensland from 2019, becoming part of the top-flight of football in the state.

Knights will take the place of Gold Coast City FC, who dissolved and hence gave up their place in the NPLQ in 2018. Knights qualified for the 2018 FFA Cup national stage when it defeated Sunshine Coast, scoring two late goals to take the game out 3-2 after extra-time, it was the third straight NPL Queensland side that Knights had defeated on their way to the Round of 32. In the Round of 32, Knights drew A-League side Newcastle Jets FC, going down 1-0 at Robina Stadium in front of 2,220 people. GCK won the Gold Coast Premier League Premiership with two rounds to spare, following a 2-0 win over Palm Beach Sharks, with a record of 14 wins, 2 draws and 0 losses. In the finals series, Knights lost 2-1 to Broadbeach United in the qualifying final, its first loss all season, before beating Surfers Paradise Apollo 5-4 in the elimination final and Broadbeach 5-1 in the grand final, handing GCK its first GC Premier League championship. In March 2019, Gold Coast signed Mitch Nichols in one of the highest profile coups in the club's history.

That season, the club signed Matt Smith, a former Socceroo and Brisbane Roar championship-winning captain. In its first season in the NPL Queensland, the Knights finished in 2nd position, 4 points off premiers Queensland Lions, with a 22-4-2 record. In the finals series, the Knights beat Peninsula Power 2-1 at home, setting up a Grand Final against Olympic FC who had defeated the premiers Lions FC. A 10-man Knights claim its first NPL Queensland championship. Gold Coast Knights are based at the Croatian Sports Centre, located on 181 Nerang Broadbeach Rd, Carrara QLD 4211; the site is the central hub of the Croatian community in the Gold Coast region. The centre was established in 1983 on six acres of land and features a modern-club house and two full size soccer fields. In 2012, the club started a project to increase the amount of change rooms from two to six. Over the summer of 2015-16, Knights added four new light posts, increasing the lighting on the pitches to 220 lux; the current squad As of 1 February 2020Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules.

Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. National Premier Leagues Queensland Champions - 2019 Gold Coast Premier League Champions - 2018 Gold Coast Premier League Premiers - 2017, 2018 Football Gold Coast Division 1 Champions - 2016 Football Gold Coast Division 1 Premiers - 2016 List of Croatian football clubs in Australia Australian-Croatian Soccer Tournament