Canal entre Champagne et Bourgogne
The Canal entre Champagne et Bourgogne named Canal de la Marne à la Saône, is a canal in north-eastern France connecting the towns of Vitry-le-François and Maxilly-sur-Saône. It is a summit level canal of Freycinet dimensions connecting the Saône, it is 224.191 kilometres long, has 114 locks and two tunnels, Condes, 275 metres long and the tunnel on the summit level between Balesmes-sur-Marne and Noidant-Chatenoy, 4820 metres long. Which runs exactly underneath the source of the Marne; the canal is fed by four reservoirs designed for that purpose: lac de Charmes, Lac de la Liez, lac de la Mouche, Lac de la Vingeanne. Altitude at Vitry-le-François: 104 m Altitude at Maxilly-sur-Saône: 187 m Altitude of summit level: 345 mThe canal was renamed "Canal entre Champagne et Bourgogne" for the purpose of promoting tourism, but barge skippers call it the "canal d'Heuilley"; this is in reference to Heuilley-sur-Saône, the name of the lock and lock-cut on the Petite-Saône which the canal joins, although the actual junction lies within the neighbouring commune Maxilly-sur-Saône.
It is a standard process among bargemen to name the canal after the location. For example, the Canal Vire-et-Taute in Cotentin was called "canal des Ourmes" the name of its first lock, "les Ormes". Work began on the extension of the old canal of the Haute-Marne in 1880, the canal opened in 1907, the last to be built of the Freycinet canal network in central France. PK 0 Vitry-le-François PK 25 Saint-Dizier PK 57 Autigny-le-Grand PK 72 Donjeux PK 109.4 Chaumont PK 152.5 beginning of summit level PK 155-160 Balesmes tunnel PK 163 end of summit level PK 222.5 Maxilly-sur-Saône PK 224 Ends at the right-angle junction with the Heuilley lock-cut on the Petite Saône List of canals in France Canal entre Champagne et Bourgogne guide with maps and details of places and moorings on the canal, by the author of Inland Waterways of France, Imray Navigation details for 80 French rivers and canals
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Meurthe-et-Moselle is a department in the Grand Est region of France, named after the Meurthe and Moselle rivers. Meurthe-et-Moselle was created in 1871 at the end of the Franco-Prussian War from the parts of the former departments of Moselle and Meurthe which remained French territory; the current boundary between Meurthe-et-Moselle and Moselle was the border between France and Germany from 1871 to 1919 and again between 1940 and 1944. The only subsequent change took place in 1997 and involved the incorporation, for administrative reasons, of the little commune of Han-devant-Pierrepont which had fallen within the Meuse department. Meurthe-et-Moselle is part of the administrative region of Grand Est and the traditional region of Lorraine and is surrounded by the departments of Meuse, Bas-Rhin, Moselle. Parts of Meurthe-et-Moselle belong to the Lorraine Regional Natural Park; the department is between 7 and 103 km wide. Its chief rivers are: the Moselle the Meurthe the Chiers the Vezouze The economy was dependent on mining until the 1960s.
There are iron and lime extraction sites. The urban area around Nancy has a dynamic economy based on services and higher education; the inhabitants of the department are known as Meurthe-et-Mosellans. The area around Nancy has become urbanized, whereas the Saintois in the south is quite rural. Arrondissements of the Meurthe-et-Moselle department Cantons of the Meurthe-et-Moselle department Communes of the Meurthe-et-Moselle department Prefecture website General council website Tourism website
Canal de la Sarre
The Canal de la Sarre called Canal des Houillères de la Sarre, connects the Canal de la Marne au Rhin in Gondrexange to the canalised river Sarre in Sarreguemines in northeastern France. For convenience this entry covers the entire waterway including the canalised river; the canal is 63km long, the French portion of the canalised river Sarre is 12km long, making a total of 75km, with 28 and 2 locks. The canal was built to carry coal from the mines around Saarbrücken, hence its original name. After a private company failed in 1844, the State took over the project and started works in 1861, to be completed in 1867. Although predating the Freycinet programme by nearly 20 years, it was built directly to these dimensions, justified by the volume of coal to be exported from the Saar collieries in Germany; the river Saar downstream from Saarbrücken was unnavigable until the canalisation works were completed in 1986. The canal is rural in character and charming throughout. Through navigation down to the Moselle near Trier, 90km beyond Saarbrücken, is possible, thanks to canalisation of the Saar in Germany.
The cross-border connection was blocked for two years following closure of the first lock in Germany, at Güdingen, but was expected to be reopened in 2017. List of canals in France List of locks Project Babel Canal de la Sarre with maps and detailed information on places and moorings on the canal, by the author of Inland Waterways of France, 8th ed. 2010, Imray
Saint-Louis-Arzviller inclined plane
The Saint-Louis-Arzviller inclined plane is part of the Marne-Rhine Canal, located in the commune of Saint-Louis, between the towns of Saint-Louis and Arzviller in the département of the Moselle. It enables the canal to cross the Vosges Mountains; the Marne-Rhine Canal was built from 1838 to 1853. The main problem it solved was going through the Vosges Mountains and climbing up its eastern side to its lower point, the Col de Saverne; this was first solved by means of a ladder of seventeen locks, allowing an overall level change of 44.55 metres over a distance of 4 kilometres. In 1969, these locks were replaced by the Saint-Louis-Arzviller inclined plane. Before the advent of self-propelled barges, the barges were hauled by two to four horses or mules, until the beginning of the 20th century. Came the tractors, first on railways on tyres since 1933, with electrical motors first and diesel engines; the greatest energy is needed to start the move. Thus, the traveling via the locks ladder was laborious, tiring and long.
With 314 kilometres and 17 locks, the travel from Vitry-le-François to Strasbourg took six to nine days. Just using the locks ladder of Arzviller needed one whole day. Additionally, due to the narrow width of this section, the crossing of two barges was possible. One person was needed to man each lock; these seventeen lock-keepers had to take care of the locks seven days a week and about twelve hours a day. They lived near the canal in houses owned by the state, their duty was: to allow the boats to pass through the locks. In winter, the canal was emptied; the seventeen locks wasted a lot of water. In summer, the water need was greater than could be compensated for by the surrounding available small river and ponds. Several projects resulting from an international contest had been successively studied and rejected, because some of the systems that were presented, in particular those of longitudinal type - such as the Ronquières in Belgium – were badly suited to the Vosgean site; the transverse system was the one best adapted to the topography of the site and enabled the section of the old canal to be kept in service, limiting considerable cuts in navigation time.
The only work of this type existing at the time was the Foxton inclined plane of Foxton, Leicestershire. The new structure opened in 1969; the system works by lifting or lowering a caisson containing a boat on a carriage along a slope using a balancing counterweight. According to Archimedes' principle, the barge which enters the caisson drives back towards the canal a quantity of water equivalent to the mass of the barge. Thus, the caisson always weighs the same. In principle, the system could function without an engine. Indeed, the caisson is more full at the upper level, because it stops 20 cm below the level of the canal, less full at the lower level, since it stops 20 cm above the canal; the engines control only the speed, require low power compared to the transported weight. Key numbers: Reinforced concrete slope, with steel rails, allowing a horizontal move of 108.6 metres and a level change of 44.5 metres. It travels at the speed of 0.6 m/s. Each counterweight is fastened to the caisson by means of 14 steel cables of 27 millimetres diameter.
At the beginning, two caissons were planned but, with the decline of water transport, only one was built. The inclined plane of Saint-Louis-Arzviller is able to carry 39 barges per day; each journey is made in four minutes, making a total transportation time of twenty minutes between going in and going out. While the inclined plane is manned by two people, water losses are limited to 40 cubic metres and electrical consumption to 40 megajoules per journey; the decline in merchant water transport is offset by tourist traffic and the carrying of thousands of pleasure boats per year. Evolution of traffic: merchant boats: 1969 = 5788, 1979 = 2914, 1989 = 1015, 1999 = 272, 2004 = 284 pleasure boats: 1975 = 145, 1979 = 521, 1989 = 5330, 1999 = 7486, 2004 = 6624Since the early 21st century, a slight increase in merchant traffic and a slight decrease in tourist traffic have been observed; the tourist association of Saint-Louis-Arzviller inclined plane, which has managed the guided visits since the site opened, welcomes about 150,000 visitors per year.
This makes this site. Shortly before 12pm local time, while the tourist barge "Paris", which belongs to the Association and provides visits to tourists, was entering the caisson, the latter moved, jamming the barge with its 21 passengers and releasing a vast quantity of water into the valley below. An extensive operation by the emergency services was put into operation with occupants of a nearby camping and a restaurant in Lutzelbourg being evacuated. Through traffic on the canal was suspended while thorough inspection of the installation was undertaken, with closure estimated to last several months; the boat lift re-opened brief
Arzviller is a commune in the Moselle department in Grand Est in northeastern France. Saint-Louis-Arzviller inclined plane Communes of the Moselle department INSEE statistics
Strasbourg is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament. Located at the border with Germany in the historic region of Alsace, it is the capital of the Bas-Rhin department. In 2016, the city proper had 279,284 inhabitants and both the Eurométropole de Strasbourg and the Arrondissement of Strasbourg had 491,409 inhabitants. Strasbourg's metropolitan area had a population of 785,839 in 2015, making it the ninth largest metro area in France and home to 13% of the Grand Est region's inhabitants; the transnational Eurodistrict Strasbourg-Ortenau had a population of 915,000 inhabitants in 2014. Strasbourg is one of the de facto capitals of the European Union, as it is the seat of several European institutions, such as the Council of Europe and the Eurocorps, as well as the European Parliament and the European Ombudsman of the European Union; the city is the seat of the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine and the International Institute of Human Rights.
Strasbourg's historic city centre, the Grande Île, was classified a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1988, the first time such an honour was placed on an entire city centre. Strasbourg is immersed in Franco-German culture and although violently disputed throughout history, has been a cultural bridge between France and Germany for centuries through the University of Strasbourg the second largest in France, the coexistence of Catholic and Protestant culture, it is home to the largest Islamic place of worship in France, the Strasbourg Grand Mosque. Economically, Strasbourg is an important centre of manufacturing and engineering, as well as a hub of road and river transportation; the port of Strasbourg is the second largest on the Rhine after Germany. Before the 5th century, the city was known as Argantorati, a Celtic Gaulish name Latinized first as Argentorate, as Argentoratum; that Gaulish name is a compound of -rati, the Gaulish word for fortified enclosures, cognate to the Old Irish ráth, arganto-, the Gaulish word for silver, but any precious metal gold, suggesting either a fortified enclosure located by a river gold mining site, or hoarding gold mined in the nearby rivers.
After the 5th century, the city became known by a different name Gallicized as Strasbourg. That name is of Germanic origin and means "Town of roads"; the modern Stras- is cognate to the German Straße and English street, all of which are derived from Latin strata, while -bourg is cognate to the German Burg and English borough, all of which are derived from Proto-Germanic *burgz. Gregory of Tours was the first to mention the name change: in the tenth book of his History of the Franks written shortly after 590 he said that Egidius, Bishop of Reims, accused of plotting against King Childebert II of Austrasia in favor of his uncle King Chilperic I of Neustria, was tried by a synod of Austrasian bishops in Metz in November 590, found guilty and removed from the priesthood taken "ad Argentoratensem urbem, quam nunc Strateburgum vocant", where he was exiled. Strasbourg is situated at the eastern border of France with Germany; this border is formed by the Rhine, which forms the eastern border of the modern city, facing across the river to the German town Kehl.
The historic core of Strasbourg however lies on the Grande Île in the river Ill, which here flows parallel to, 4 kilometres from, the Rhine. The natural courses of the two rivers join some distance downstream of Strasbourg, although several artificial waterways now connect them within the city; the city lies in the Upper Rhine Plain, at between 132 metres and 151 metres above sea level, with the upland areas of the Vosges Mountains some 20 km to the west and the Black Forest 25 km to the east. This section of the Rhine valley is a major axis of north–south travel, with river traffic on the Rhine itself, major roads and railways paralleling it on both banks; the city is some 397 kilometres east of Paris. The mouth of the Rhine lies 450 kilometres to the north, or 650 kilometres as the river flows, whilst the head of navigation in Basel is some 100 kilometres to the south, or 150 kilometres by river. In spite of its position far inland, Strasbourg's climate is classified as oceanic, but a "semicontinental" climate with some degree of maritime influence in relation to the mild patterns of Western and Southern France.
The city has warm sunny summers and cool, overcast winters. Precipitation is elevated from mid-spring to the end of summer, but remains constant throughout the year, totaling 631.4 mm annually. On average, snow falls 30 days per year; the highest temperature recorded was 38.5 °C in August 2003, during the 2003 European heat wave. The lowest temperature eve