Épernay is a commune in the Marne department in northern France. Épernay is located some 130 km north-east of Paris on the main line of the Eastern railway to Strasbourg. The town sits on the left bank of the Marne at the extremity of the Cubry valley. Épernay is a sub-prefecture of the seat of an arrondissement. Épernay belonged to the archbishops of Reims from the 5th until the 10th century, when it came into the possession of the counts of Champagne. It was badly damaged during the Hundred Years' War, was burned by Francis I in 1544, it resisted Henry of Navarre in 1592, Marshal Biron fell in the attack which preceded its eventual capture. In 1642 it was, along with Château-Thierry, assigned to the duc de Bouillon. In the central and oldest quarter of the town, the streets are irregular; the town has spread to the right bank of the Marne. One of its churches retains a portal and stained-glass windows from the sixteenth century, but the other public buildings are of modern construction; the most famous street in Épernay is the Avenue de Champagne which features the leading Champagne manufacturers.
Other sights outside the town include: Château de Pierry Château de Montmort Château de Condé Épernay is best known as the principal "entrepôt" for champagne wines, which are bottled and kept in large cellars built into the chalk rock on which the town is built. The production of the equipment and raw materials used in the champagne industry is a major source of local employment. Brewing and sugar refinery and the production of hats and caps, are major industries. Épernay was the birthplace of: Flodoard, chronicler Maakan Tounkara, handball player Henri-Gustave Joly de Lotbinière, Québécois politician Gabrielle Dorziat, comedian Yohann Diniz, athlet John Gadret, cyclist Léon Homo, historian Jean-Baptiste-Maximien Parchappe de Vinay, psychiatristÉpernay was the final resting place of: Léon Azéma, French architect, died in Épernay and is buried in the cemetery there Épernay is twinned with: Ettlingen, Germany Clevedon, United Kingdom Fada N'gourma, Burkina Faso Middelkerke, Belgium French wine Champagne Riots INSEE commune file This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Épernay". Encyclopædia Britannica. 9. Cambridge University Press. P. 669. Official website
Ardennes is a department in the Grand Est region of northeastern France named after the Ardennes area. Its prefecture is the town Charleville-Mézières; the inhabitants of the department are known as Ardennaises. The department is surrounded by the French departments of Aisne to the west, Marne to the south, Meuse to the east and by the Belgian province of Namur to the north, it is traversed in its northern part by the winding valley of the Meuse and it is in this part of the department that the majority of people and activities are focused. Charleville-Mézières and Sedan are the main urban centres; the department is part of the Academy of Reims and under the jurisdiction of the Court of Appeal of Reims. The INSEE and Post Code is 08. With an area of 5,229 square kilometres, the Ardennes was the smallest of the four departments that made up the region Champagne-Ardenne, it presents a degree of geographical diversity. Ardennes owes its name to a vast natural area, the Ardennes, a plateau cut by the Meuse and its many tributaries which extend above the Walloon part of southern Belgium as well as Luxembourg and the north of the neighbouring department of Meuse.
The highest point of the department is 504 m and is situated on the southern slopes of the Croix Scaille. It is in this part of the Ardennes mountains that the Meuse winds through, known locally as "the valley". Flowing into the northern part of the Ardennes department it waters both upstream and downstream the main cities of Sedan, Charleville-Mézières, Nouzonville, it has numerous tributaries – the main ones in the department being the Semois and the Chiers. In the south of the department where the Aisne flows lies the vast treeless plain of Champagne chalk extended to the south-west by the small grain-growing region of Porcien, while Thiérache in the west and Argonne in the east are fringe grasslands with highly individualized soils; the Ardennes department does not have a uniform climate throughout its territory not during the winter period. From the north near Aisne and the border with Belgium, through the centre near the Canton of Omont, to the south of the valley of the Meuse, the climate is considered "degraded continental".
The rest of the department has "temperate continental" climate. All this stems from the location of the department, midway between the English Channel, the North Sea and the interior of Europe; this difference can be observed. Winter is more rigorous and there is a higher risk of snow at Rocroi and Sedan – all cities in the north of the department where the common characteristics of the degraded continental climate prevail; this nuance of climate is evident by the temperature difference with the adjoining regions. The Nord-Pas-de-Calais and the Parisian Basin benefit from the maritime influences of the English Channel, the Pas de Calais, the North Sea as well as the geophysical conditions in the presence of flat terrain; this climatic difference is pronounced in the presence of frost in the valleys of the Meuse, the plateau of Rocroi, around the Croix-Scaille where it can be marked and has the disadvantage of persisting longer in the year with a significant influence on the vegetation. Despite a high birth rate, the department continues to lose population: 300,000 in 2000 due to high unemployment.
The two world wars have each time resulted in a loss of population. There were 330,000 people at the end of the 19th century; that the major urban areas of the department are the most affected is characterized by a stagnation of the population – a population decline of up to 2% compared to 1999 in the city centres and suburbs. The communes, are gaining inhabitants; this is explained by the search for better living in the countryside which matches the desire of many people to build a small land-holding a house with land to the detriment of their proximity to their workplace. This contemporary concept favours commuting between Home and Work; this is the phenomenon of suburbanization which has become common in the whole of France from which Ardennes does not escape. On 1 January 2006, the Ardennes population stood at 295,653 inhabitants; the population is declining in urban areas but five times less than in rural areas. The limited decline in the urban space where two thirds of the Ardennes people live is the result of two opposite dynamics.
Semi-urban communes have gained 0.5% of inhabitants per year over the period 1999–2006 at the expense of urban centres which lost 0.6% per year. For thirty years the population has lagged in the main cities of Ardennes. Between 1999 and 2006, the annual decline was 0.2% for Sedan and Rethel, 1.8% for Revin, 1% for Charleville-Mézières. The most unfavourable rural population change came from degradation of rural employment centres, such as Fumay or Vouziers and to a lesser extent that of their periphery; this was mitigated by a small increase in population in other rural communes. Population of main towns in 2014 The department is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790 under the Act of 22 December 1789, it includes part of
The Aube is a river in France, a right tributary of the Seine. It is 248 kilometres long; the river gives its name to the Aube department. Its source is in the Haute-Marne department, on the plateau of Langres, near the town of Auberive, it flows through the departments of Haute-Marne, Côte-d'Or, Marne. It flows into the river Seine near Marcilly-sur-Seine. Cities along the river include Arcis-sur-Aube. Aubette Aujon Landon Voire Ravet Meldançon Puits Huitrelle Herbissonne Barbuise Salon Superbe Haute-Marne: Auberive Côte-d'Or: Montigny-sur-Aube Aube: Bar-sur-Aube, Brienne-le-Château, Arcis-sur-Aube Marne: Anglure The Albian Age in the Cretaceous Period of geological time is named for the River Aube Rivers of France http://www.geoportail.fr The Aube at the Sandre database Media related to Aube River at Wikimedia Commons
Chalk is a soft, porous, sedimentary carbonate rock, a form of limestone composed of the mineral calcite. Calcite is an ionic salt called calcium carbonate or CaCO3, it forms under reasonably deep marine conditions from the gradual accumulation of minute calcite shells shed from micro-organisms called coccolithophores. Flint is common as bands parallel to the bedding or as nodules embedded in chalk, it is derived from sponge spicules or other siliceous organisms as water is expelled upwards during compaction. Flint is deposited around larger fossils such as Echinoidea which may be silicified. Chalk as seen in Cretaceous deposits of Western Europe is unusual among sedimentary limestones in the thickness of the beds. Most cliffs of chalk have few obvious bedding planes unlike most thick sequences of limestone such as the Carboniferous Limestone or the Jurassic oolitic limestones; this indicates stable conditions over tens of millions of years. Chalk has greater resistance to weathering and slumping than the clays with which it is associated, thus forming tall, steep cliffs where chalk ridges meet the sea.
Chalk hills, known as chalk downland form where bands of chalk reach the surface at an angle, so forming a scarp slope. Because chalk is well jointed it can hold a large volume of ground water, providing a natural reservoir that releases water through dry seasons. Chalk is mined from chalk deposits both above underground. Chalk mining boomed during the Industrial Revolution, due to the need for chalk products such as quicklime and bricks; some abandoned chalk mines remain tourist destinations due to their massive expanse and natural beauty. The Chalk Group is a European stratigraphic unit, it forms the famous White Cliffs of Dover in Kent, England, as well as their counterparts of the Cap Blanc Nez on the other side of the Dover Strait. The Champagne region of France is underlain by chalk deposits, which contain artificial caves used for wine storage; some of the highest chalk cliffs in the world occur at Jasmund National Park in Germany and at Møns Klint in Denmark – both once formed a single island.
Ninety million years ago what is now the chalk downland of Northern Europe was ooze accumulating at the bottom of a great sea. Chalk was one of the earliest rocks made up of microscopic particles to be studied under the microscope, when it was found to be composed entirely of coccoliths, their shells were made of calcite extracted from the rich seawater. As they died, a substantial layer built up over millions of years and, through the weight of overlying sediments became consolidated into rock. Earth movements related to the formation of the Alps raised these former sea-floor deposits above sea level; the chemical composition of chalk is calcium carbonate, with minor amounts of clay. It is formed in the sea by sub-microscopic plankton, which fall to the sea floor and are consolidated and compressed during diagenesis into chalk rock. Most people first encounter the word "chalk" in school where it refers to blackboard chalk, made of mineral chalk, since it crumbles and leaves particles that stick loosely to rough surfaces, allowing it to make writing that can be erased.
Blackboard chalk manufacture now may use mineral chalk, other mineral sources of calcium carbonate, or the mineral gypsum. While gypsum-based blackboard chalk is the lowest cost to produce, thus used in the developing world, calcium-based chalk can be made where the crumbling particles are larger and thus produce less dust, is marketed as "dustless chalk". Colored chalks, pastel chalks, sidewalk chalk, used to draw on sidewalks and driveways, are made of gypsum. Chalk is a source of quicklime by thermal decomposition, or slaked lime following quenching of quicklime with water. In southeast England, deneholes are a notable example of ancient chalk pits; such bell pits may mark the sites of ancient flint mines, where the prime object was to remove flint nodules for stone tool manufacture. The surface remains at Cissbury are one such example, but the most famous is the extensive complex at Grimes Graves in Norfolk. Woodworking joints may be fitted by chalking one of the mating surfaces. A trial fit will leave a chalk mark on the high spots of the corresponding surface.
Chalk transferring to cover the complete surface indicates a good fit. Builder's putty mainly contains chalk as a filler in linseed oil. Chalk may be used for its properties as a base. In agriculture, chalk is used for raising pH in soils with high acidity; the most common forms are CaCO3 and CaO. Small doses of chalk can be used as an antacid. Additionally, the small particles of chalk make it a substance ideal for polishing. For example, toothpaste contains small amounts of chalk, which serves as a mild abrasive. Polishing chalk is chalk prepared with a controlled grain size, for fine polishing of metals. Chalk can be used as fingerprint powder. Several traditional uses of chalk have been replaced by other substances, although the word "chalk" is still applied to the usual replacements. Tailor's chalk is traditionally a hard chalk used to make temporary markings on cloth by tailors, it is now made of talc. Chalk was traditionally used in recreation. In field sports, such as tennis played on grass, powdered chalk was used to mark the boundary lines of the playing field or court.
If a ball hits the line, a cloud of chalk or p
Seine-et-Marne is a French department, named after the Seine and Marne rivers, located in the Île-de-France region. Seine-et-Marne is one of the original 83 departments created on 4 March 1790 during the French Revolution in application of the law of 22 December 1789, it had belonged to the former province of Île-de-France. With 60% of the region used as farmland, Seine-et-Marne is where most agricultural activity occurs within the Île-de-France. Cereals and sugar beet are the principal exports from Seine-et-Marne; the other key industrial structures are the refinery at the Snecma research plant. The two new towns are the centre of tourism for the department due to theme parks such as Disneyland Park and Walt Disney Studios Park at Disneyland Paris. Seine-et-Marne has a temperate Atlantic climate; the average rainfall is based upon that of Fontainebleau, giving an average rainfall of 650 mm, higher than the average of Île-de-France. Average temperature in Melun during the 1953–2002 period was 3.2 °C for January and 18.6 °C for July.
The storm of 26 December 1999 caused several trees to fall. Seine-et-Marne forms a part of the Île-de-France region, it is bordered by Seine-Saint-Denis, Val-de-Marne, Essonne to the West. The department has many natural reserves, notably Gâtinais; the highest point of the département is Saint-George's Hill. People from Seine-et-Marne are known as the Seine-et-Marnais. Seine-et-Marne was rural and populated. Over the past 50 years, its population has tripled, due to the development of the Paris conurbation and the building of new towns in the northwest of the region; the population was estimated to be 1,267,496 inhabitants in 2006. The region has changed from consisting only of small villages to forming a large part of the Paris conurbation. Seine-et-Marne as a whole shares a sister city relationship with Orlando, United States, as both host Disney theme parks. Collège de Juilly Forest of Fontainebleau Cantons of the Seine-et-Marne department Communes of the Seine-et-Marne department Arrondissements of the Seine-et-Marne department Lion, Christian, La Mutuelle de Seine-et-Marne contre l'incendie de 1819 à 1969.
Mutualité, assurance et cycles de l'incendie. Prefecture website General Council website
Aisne is a French department in the Hauts-de-France region of northern France. It is named after the river Aisne; the department of Aisne is surrounded by the French departments of Nord, Oise and Seine-et-Marne and borders Belgium to the northeast. The Aisne River crosses the area from east to west; the Marne forms part of the southern boundary of the department with the department of Seine-et-Marne. The southern part of the department is the geographical region known as la Brie poilleuse, a drier plateau known for its dairy products and Brie cheese. According to the 2003 census, the forested area of the department was 123,392 hectares, or 16.6% for an average metropolitan area of 27.4%. The landscape is dominated by masses of rock which have steep flanks; these rocks appear all over the region, but the most impressive examples are at Laon and the Chemin des Dames ridge. The principal cities in Aisne are: pop. 26,000 Saint-Quentin, pop. 60,000 Soissons, pop. 30,000 Château-Thierry, pop. 15,000 Tergnier, pop.
15,000 Chauny Hirson Villers-Cotterêts La Fère Vervins GuiseSee also: List of the communes of the Aisne department and Brie. The Scheldt, the Aisne, the Marne, the Ourcq, the Vesle, the Somme, the Oise, the Serre. In the south of the department, there is the Surmelin, the Verdonnelle, the Dhuys; the department is crossed by numerous canals. The county is crossed by three railway lines from Paris: the first two from the Gare du Nord and the third from the Gare de l'Est: the line from Paris to Maubeuge, serving cities including Chauny and Saint-Quentin the line from Paris to Laon, serving cities including Soissons, Anizy-le-Château, Laon the line from Paris to Strasbourg, serving the city of Château-Thierry. In 1873, the department of Aisne had 10 railway companies with a total length of 382 km. There is an average of 500 to 750 mm precipitation annually. Weather Data for Saint Quentin - Roupy Aisne developed from the ancient settlement of Acinum, from which its name derives; the Battle of the Axona was fought nearby in 57 BC.
Aisne is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790. It was created from parts of the former provinces of Île-de-France and Champagne. Most of the old growth forests in the area were destroyed during battles in World War I; the French offensive against the Chemin des Dames in spring 1917 is sometimes referred to as the Second Battle of the Aisne. Agriculture dominates the economy cereal crops. Beet sugar is one of the most important industrial crops of the area. Silk and wool weaving flourish in Saint-Quentin and other towns. Saint-Gobain is known for its production of mirrors. Guise is the agricultural centre of the northern area of Aisne; the department is a mixture of working-class towns. As a place of residence for some families working in Paris or Île-de-France, Aisne was for many years a department rather oriented to the left, with a majority on the General Council on the left since 1998, the same for the majority of parliamentary seats representing the department in the National Assembly.
The smaller cities of the northern department such as Guise, Hirson and the railway city of Tergnier are sources of support for left-wing parties. Four political groups are represented in the General Council, all of them are composed of multiple political parties; the President of the General Council is the Liberal Nicolas Fricoteaux. In the second round of the French presidential elections of 2017 Aisne was one of only two departments in which the candidate of the Front National, Marine Le Pen, received a majority of the votes cast: 52.91%. Aisne is divided into 21 cantons; the department has five parliamentary constituencies. The department of Aisne includes one medium-sized city and three small cities to which may be added the conglomeration formed by Chauny and Tergnier. There are many other agglomerations of an urban character because Aisne has been densely populated since before the 19th century; the villages are numerous and rather small. Aisne lost some of its population in the second half of the 19th century, due to the rural exodus but this was limited by the industrial development in the north of the department.
Affected by the First World War, the department has seen its population grow to the same level as in 1900. For thirty years, the industrial decline has caused stagnation of the population. Only the south-west of the department, close to the Paris conurbation, has seen much population growth; the boat tours relates in part to the Canal de Saint-Quentin with its electric towage and two tunnels. In 2007, a large infrastructure for tourist accommodation, the Center Parcs, was built on the Lake of Ailette, close to many tourist attractions such as the Cathedral of Laon, the Chemin des Dames and the Château de Coucy. Among the many places to explore are: MonumentsCastle of Villers-Cotterets at Château-Thierry Château de Condé Château de Coucy Castle Oigny-en-Valois Dungeon of Septmonts Château of GuiseCathedralsCathédrale Notre-Dame de Laon Soissons Cathedr
An estuary is a enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, with a free connection to the open sea. Estuaries form a transition zone between river environments and maritime environments, they are subject both to marine influences—such as tides and the influx of saline water—and to riverine influences—such as flows of fresh water and sediment. The mixing of sea water and fresh water provide high levels of nutrients both in the water column and in sediment, making estuaries among the most productive natural habitats in the world. Most existing estuaries formed during the Holocene epoch with the flooding of river-eroded or glacially scoured valleys when the sea level began to rise about 10,000–12,000 years ago. Estuaries are classified according to their geomorphological features or to water-circulation patterns, they can have many different names, such as bays, lagoons, inlets, or sounds, although some of these water bodies do not meet the above definition of an estuary and may be saline.
The banks of many estuaries are amongst the most populated areas of the world, with about 60% of the world's population living along estuaries and the coast. As a result, many estuaries suffer degradation from a variety of factors including: sedimentation from soil erosion from deforestation and other poor farming practices; the word "estuary" is derived from the Latin word aestuarium meaning tidal inlet of the sea, which in itself is derived from the term aestus, meaning tide. There have been many definitions proposed to describe an estuary; the most accepted definition is: "a semi-enclosed coastal body of water, which has a free connection with the open sea, within which sea water is measurably diluted with freshwater derived from land drainage". However, this definition excludes a number of coastal water bodies such as coastal lagoons and brackish seas. A more comprehensive definition of an estuary is "a semi-enclosed body of water connected to the sea as far as the tidal limit or the salt intrusion limit and receiving freshwater runoff.
This broad definition includes fjords, river mouths, tidal creeks. An estuary is a dynamic ecosystem having a connection to the open sea through which the sea water enters with the rhythm of the tides; the sea water entering the estuary streams. The pattern of dilution varies between different estuaries and depends on the volume of fresh water, the tidal range, the extent of evaporation of the water in the estuary. Drowned river valleys are known as coastal plain estuaries. In places where the sea level is rising relative to the land, sea water progressively penetrates into river valleys and the topography of the estuary remains similar to that of a river valley; this is the most common type of estuary in temperate climates. Well-studied estuaries include the Severn Estuary in the United Kingdom and the Ems Dollard along the Dutch-German border; the width-to-depth ratio of these estuaries is large, appearing wedge-shaped in the inner part and broadening and deepening seaward. Water depths exceed 30 m.
Examples of this type of estuary in the U. S. are the Hudson River, Chesapeake Bay, Delaware Bay along the Mid-Atlantic coast, Galveston Bay and Tampa Bay along the Gulf Coast. Bar-built estuaries are found in place where the deposition of sediment has kept pace with rising sea level so that the estuaries are shallow and separated from the sea by sand spits or barrier islands, they are common in tropical and subtropical locations. These estuaries are semi-isolated from ocean waters by barrier beaches. Formation of barrier beaches encloses the estuary, with only narrow inlets allowing contact with the ocean waters. Bar-built estuaries develop on sloping plains located along tectonically stable edges of continents and marginal sea coasts, they are extensive along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the U. S. in areas with active coastal deposition of sediments and where tidal ranges are less than 4 m. The barrier beaches that enclose bar-built estuaries have been developed in several ways: building up of offshore bars by wave action, in which sand from the sea floor is deposited in elongated bars parallel to the shoreline, reworking of sediment discharge from rivers by wave and wind action into beaches, overwash flats, dunes, engulfment of mainland beach ridges due to sea level rise and resulting in the breaching of the ridges and flooding of the coastal lowlands, forming shallow lagoons, elongation of barrier spits from the erosion of headlands due to the action of longshore currents, with the spits growing in the direction of the littoral drift.
Barrier beaches form in shallow water and are parallel to the shoreline, resulting in long, narrow estuaries. The average water depth is less than 5 m, exceeds 10 m. Examples of bar-built estuaries are Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Fjords were formed where pleistocene glaciers deepened and widened existing river valleys so that they become U-shaped in cross s