click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Maronites

The Maronites are an ethnoreligious Christian group whose members adhere to the Syriac Maronite Church with the largest population around Mount Lebanon in Lebanon. The Maronite Church is an Eastern Catholic sui iuris particular church, in full communion with the Pope and the Catholic Church, with the right of self-governance under the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, one of more than a dozen individual churches which are in full communion with the Holy See; the Maronites derive their name from the Syriac Christian saint Maron, some of whose followers migrated to the area of Mount Lebanon from their previous place of residence, located around the area of Antioch, established the nucleus of the Syriac Maronite Church. Saint Maron sent Saint Abraham referred to as the Apostle of Lebanon, to convert the non-Christian native population to Maronite Christianity; the name of the Adonis River was changed to Abraham’s river by the inhabitants after Saint Abraham preached there. Maronites were able to maintain an independent status in Mount Lebanon and its coastline after the Muslim conquest of the Levant, keeping their Christian religion, the distinctive Aramaic language as late as the 19th century.

Some Maronites argue. Mass emigration to the Americas at the outset of the 20th century, famine during World War I that killed an estimated one third to one half of the population, the 1860 Mount Lebanon civil war and the Lebanese Civil War between 1975-90 decreased their numbers in the Levant. Though concentrated in Lebanon, Maronites show presence in the neighboring Levant, as well as a significant part in the Lebanese diaspora in the Americas, Europe and Africa; the Syriac Maronite Church, under the Patriarch of Antioch, has branches in nearly all countries where Maronite Christian communities live, in both the Levant and the Lebanese diaspora. All Lebanese presidents have been Maronites as part of a tradition that persists as part of the National Pact, by which the Prime Minister has been a Sunni Muslim and the Speaker of the National Assembly has been a Shi'i Muslim. Maronites get their name from a 3rd-century Syriac Christian Saint. Mistaken with John Maron, the first Maronite Patriarch.

The cultural and linguistic heritage of the Lebanese people is a blend of both indigenous Phoenician elements and the foreign cultures that have come to rule the land and its people over the course of thousands of years. In a 2013 interview, Pierre Zalloua, a Lebanese biologist who took part in the National Geographic Society's Genographic Project, pointed out that genetic variation preceded religious variation and divisions: "Lebanon had well-differentiated communities with their own genetic peculiarities, but not significant differences, religions came as layers of paint on top. There is no distinct pattern that shows that one community carries more Phoenician than another."The Mardaites were mountaineers from the Taurus that Constantinople recruited to infiltrate Lebanon and join the Maronites in repelling Arab invaders. The resistance movement became meaning rebels. In 936, the monastery of Beth Moroon and other Maronite monasteries were destroyed in Syria and the Aramaic/Syriac Maronites took refugee and joined the Phoenician Maronites and the Mardaites in the mountains of Lebanon.

In the 6th century many Maronites were killed by Jacobite Christian Syriacs. Following the Muslim conquest of the Levant, the patriarch of the Maronites fled to the Byzantine Empire, with his replacement being chosen by the remaining Maronite faithful. Fleeing Islamic persecution, Maronites migrated from the Orontes River valley, in northern Syria, to Mount Lebanon in the late 9th century, led by John Maron, where they became "civilly semiautonomous" and were known to speak Syriac Aramaic in daily life and for their liturgy; the Maronites are believed to have found refuge from the Islamic conquests, other colonial empires in the Mountains of Lebanon Qadisha Valley. Following the Byzantine conquests of the Orontes valley, by the late 11th century the Maronites were driven out of the valley region and confined to the Lebanon Mountains; the Maronites welcomed the conquering Christians of the First Crusade. Around the late 12th century, according to William of Tyre, the Maronites numbered 40,000 people.

During the papacy of Pope Gregory XIII, steps were taken to bring the Maronites still closer to Rome. By the 17th century, the Maronites had developed a strong natural liking to Europe - France; the Maronites have had a presence in Cyprus since the early 9th century and many Maronites went there following Saladin's successful Siege of Jerusalem. In the 19th century, thousands of Maronites were massacred by the Lebanese Druze during the 1860 Mount Lebanon civil war. According to some estimates some 11.000 Maronites and other Christians were killed and 4.000 died from hunger and diseases as a result of the war. After the 1860 massacres, many Maronites fled to Egypt. Antonios Bachaalany, a Maronite from Salima was the first emigrant to the New World, where he reached the United States in 1854 and died there two years later. According to the Maronite church, there are 1,062,000 Maronites in Lebanon, where they constitute up to 24% of the population. Under the terms of an informal agreement, known as the National Pact, between the various political and religious leaders of Lebanon, the president of the country must be a Maronite Christian.

There is a small Maronite Christian co

Compagnie des phosphates de Gafsa

The Compagnie des phosphates de Gafsa or CPG is a Tunisian phosphate mining company based in Gafsa, formed in the late 19th century during the French colonial era, once the largest employer in the country. It was merged in 1994 with the Groupe chimique tunisien to form the CPG-CGT group. Before the revolution of 2011 the company was the fifth largest phosphate producer in the world, but since strikes and social unrest have caused production to drop by half. In April 1885 the French amateur geologist Philippe Thomas discovered rich layers of calcium phosphates on the north slope of Jebel Thelja in the Métlaoui region of western Tunisia. Further geological surveys and explorations found significant phosphate deposits to the south and north of the Île de Kasserine; the government at first offered a concession to exploit the phosphates only on condition of building a port to export the ore and a railway to carry it from the mines. There was a lack of interest at first. After work began on expanding and modernizing the port of Sfax the government dropped the port construction requirement and allowed a concession to mine the ore and transport it by rail to Sfax.

The Compagnie de Phosphate de Gafsa et de Chemin de Fer de Gafsa was formed in 1897 by a group that included the Saint Gobain Chemical Company, Mukhtar Hadid Mining Company, Duparchy Company, several major French industrialists and many small investors. At the same time construction began of a railway line to link Metlaoui to Sfax; the first underground mine was opened in the Metlaoui region in 1899. By 1900 annual production of commercial phosphate had reached 200,000 tons; the second mine at Redéyef was opened in 1903 and the third at Moulares in 1904. STEPHOS was created in 1905. In 1906 the company had a capital of 18 million francs. Charles Dollfus-Galline was président and baron Robert de Nervo was vice-président; the M’dhilla mine was opened in 1920 by the Compagnie des Phosphates Tunisien. In the early 20th century the plentiful phosphate reserves in Tunisia were second only to those of the United States, the colonial officials were hopeful that they would revive the economy. Although annual production reached 2 million tons in the early 1930s, the world price of phosphates dropped soon after exports from Tunisia started, the forecast earnings were never realized.

However, the Compagnie des Phosphates et Chemins de Fer de Gafsa became the largest employer and taxpayer in the French protectorate of Tunisia. The Société Filiale Industriel d’Acide Phosphorique et d’Engrais began operation on 1948. After independence, in 1956 the different subsidiaries of the CPGCFG were progressively nationalized. In 1962 the Compagnie des Phosphates Tunisien de M’dhilla became Tunisian-owned. In 1969 the Compagnie des Phosphates Tunisien de M’dhilla merged with the CPGCFG. In 1976 the STEPHOS and CPGCFG merged under the name of CPG owned by theTunisian government; the first open pit mine began operation in Kef Schfaier in 1978. That year the research center was created. In the early 1990s with World Bank support the company mechanized its operations and concentrated on open pit operations. In 1994 the CTG merged with the Groupe Chimique Tunisien, based in Tunis, a public company that converts phosphate into products such as phosphoric acid and fertilizers; the Tunisian Chemical Group is the result of the merger of five phosphate processing companies, namely the Société Industrielle d'Acide Phosphorique et d'Engrais à Sfax, the Industries Chimiques Maghrébines à Gabès, the Société Arabe des Engrais Phosphatés et Azotés à Gabès, the Engrais de Gabès and the Industrie Chimique de Gafsa.

A single general director was named for the CPG and its sister company the GCT. In 1996 CPG and GCT merged their management structure. Mohamed Fadhel Khalil, former Minister of Social Affairs, was chief executive officer of the company; the last underground mine, closed in 2006. The CPG is the only large employer in Gafsa. In January 2008 the company announced that it was cutting local employees from 11,000 to 5,000; the local branch of the workers' union was occupied by a group of well-educated young people, tents were pitched on the train tracks leading from the phosphate mines. The protesters were joined by unemployed people, their relatives, trade unionists and some CPG staff; the police opened fire on the demonstrators. The government imposed a strict censorship on reporting about the events in the Tunisian media, although some news appeared in the international press; these events were a precursor to the revolution of 2010–11. In 2006 a partnership was agreed to form Tunisian Indian Fertilizers as a joint venture owned 70% by CPG-GCT and 30% by two Indian companies, with the purpose of manufacturing phosphate fertilizers for export.

The two Indian companies, each with 15%, were Coromandel International and Gujarat State Fertilizers and Chemicals. The partnership entered into force in 2011. In 2008 Tunisia produced over 1 million tons of phosphoric acid, 863 tons of triple super phosphate and 1 million tons of diammonium phosphate. By 2010 the company was the fifth largest phosphate producer in the world; that year the company produced 8 million tons of phosphate and accounted for 10% of Tunisian exports and 4% of the Tunisian GDP. After the fall of the Ben Ali regime in January 2011 the company ran into difficulties meeting social demands. Starting in January 2011 strikes and protest movements organized by the Tunisian General Labour Union caused a 40% decline in production and loss of international markets in India; the company fac

D. Michael Fisher

Dennis Michael Fisher, known as Mike Fisher, is a Senior United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit. He serves as the Distinguished Jurist in Residence at the University of Pittsburgh School of Law. Fisher began his legal career in his hometown of Pittsburgh following his graduation from Georgetown University with an Artium Baccalaureus degree in 1966 and Georgetown University Law Center with a Juris Doctor in 1969; as an Assistant District Attorney for Allegheny County, he handled nearly 1,000 cases, including 25 homicides. He continued to practice law during his career in the General Assembly and was a shareholder or partner in various firms, including Houston Harbaugh, where he practiced from 1984 to 1997. Fisher's law practice included commercial law, estate planning and real estate. Before his election as Attorney General, Fisher served for 22 years in the Pennsylvania General Assembly, serving 6 years in the State House and 16 years as a member of the State Senate.

He was a member of the House and Senate Judiciary Committees, the Chair of the Senate Environmental Resources and Energy Committee and the Majority Whip of the Senate. During his legislative career, he was a leader in criminal and civil justice reform and an architect of many major environmental laws, he ran unsuccessfully for lieutenant governor in 1986. Prior to becoming a judge, he was elected Attorney General of Pennsylvania in 1996 and re-elected in 2000. Fisher argued major cases in state and federal appellate courts. In March 1998, he argued before the United States Supreme Court a precedent-setting case ensuring that paroled criminals meet the conditions of their release. In a 2009 documentary film about the politics behind attempts to move the Barnes Foundation art collection to the Philadelphia Museum of Art called “The Art of the Steal,” Fisher admitted using pressure on Lincoln University officials to get them to approve the move. Fisher ran for governor of Pennsylvania in the 2002 election.

Early in the campaign, the Republican State Committee gravitated to him as the nominee, much to the chagrin of State Treasurer Barbara Hafer, who had explored a run. After Fisher won the nomination unopposed, Hafer endorsed the Democrat, Ed Rendell and switched her party affiliation to the Democratic Party. Fisher's campaign website was praised as being among the best during the 2002 election cycle. Fisher's candidacy was unable to gain traction, he was down in the polls by double digits throughout the fall. In the end, Fisher could not catch Rendell and lost 53.4%–44.4%. Fisher was appointed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit to serve with Marjorie Rendell, Governor Rendell's wife. Fisher was nominated by President George W. Bush on May 1, 2003, to a seat vacated by Carol Los Mansmann, he was confirmed by the United States Senate on December 9, 2003, received commission on December 11, 2003. Fisher resigned as Attorney General and assumed his judicial office four days later.

He assumed senior status on February 1, 2017. Fisher and his wife, an education consultant, have two children. Michelle is an attorney, Brett works in the Merchant Services Business. Media related to Mike Fisher at Wikimedia Commons D. Michael Fisher at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center

Manitoba Highway 24

Provincial Trunk Highway 24 is an east-west highway that runs from PTH 83 near Miniota, east through Oak River and Rapid City to the junction of PTH 10 and PR 262 between Brandon and Minnedosa. The original PTH 24 went from PTH 22 near Melita to the Saskatchewan boundary near Gainsborough. In 1949, this became part of PTH 3. PTH 24 was designated to its current location in 1956. Prior to 1956, the route, known as PTH 27, started at PTH 10 at Tremaine and travelled west to Rapid City. From Rapid City, the highway turned north and terminated at PTH 16 known as PTH 4, east of Basswood; the north-south section of the old PTH 27 was decommissioned and redesignated as part of PR 270 in 1966. When PTH 24 was first added in 1956, the highway's western terminus was PTH 21 south of Hamiota, making the original length of the highway 51 kilometres, it was extended to its current length in 1957. Manitoba Official Map - Southwest

Cupressus pigmaea

Cupressus pigmaea, the Mendocino cypress or pygmy cypress, is a taxon of disputed status in the genus Cupressus endemic to certain coastal terraces and coastal mountain ranges of Mendocino and Sonoma Counties in northwestern California. It is a variable tree, related to Cupressus goveniana, enough to sometimes be considered a subspecies of it; the foliage is a dull dark to light green color, with scale-like leaves 1–1.5 mm long, with the leaf tips not spreading. The cones are small, 11–24 mm long, spherical, with six or eight scales arranged in opposite decussate pairs, with the bract visible as no more than a small lump or short spine on the scale; the seeds are 3–5 mm long, with a pair of small wings along the sides. The cones remain closed on the trees for many years; the Mendocino cypress differs little from C. goveniana in morphology, with the most conspicuous difference in herbarium material being the glossy black seeds, unlike the dull brown seeds of C. goveniana, but this character is not constant, with dull brown seeds found in the southernmost populations of C. pigmaea near Point Arena.

Preliminary genetic studies have shown some differences, with notably some plastid sequences suggesting a possible closer relationship to C. macrocarpa, though other sequences confirm its close relationship to C. goveniana. In cultivation together with C. goveniana, it retains a different crown shape, with a tall slender crown, contrasting with the broad, shrubby crown of C. goveniana. The largest recorded specimen is located in Mendocino County, with recorded dimensions of 43 m height, 2.13 m diameter, 12 m crown spread, in 2000. Its taxonomic status is disputed by different authors; some treat Cupressus pigmaea as a distinct species, following Sargent, including Wolf, Griffin & Critchfield and Little et al. while others treat it within Cupressus goveniana as either a variety or a subspecies, including Camus, the Jepson Manual, yet others do not distinguish it at all within C. goveniana, including the Flora of North America and Farjon. The scientific name is sometimes spelled pygmaea; the Mendocino cypress is variable in growth form, depending on soil conditions.

In the pygmy forest plant community on poor, nutrient-starved podsol soils with drainage impeded by an iron hardpan, it is a stunted tree from 0.2–5 meters in height at maturity. When occurring in its pygmy form, it is sometimes called pygmy cypress; when growing on deep, well-drained soils it can be a large tree up to 30–50 meters in height and 1–2.4 m in trunk diameter. The bark is dark gray-brown, with stringy texture, fissured on old trees. Mendocino cypress occurs in limited ranges within only Mendocino County, on some of the historical lands of the Yuki Native American people. In Mendocino County the occurrence is in a discontinuous coastal terrace strip as a pygmy forest associated with bishop pine and Mendocino shore pine. Occurrences are below 500 m in elevation; the Mendocino County official soils survey states that "While not formally recognized as a major forest cover type, the coastal portion of the survey area includes bishop pine and Mendocino cypress forest types". Along the Mendocino coastal terraces, whose geological age is one million years, studies have been conducted of the biomass density and primary productivity of the Cupressus pygmaea-dominated pygmy forest.

The terraces in this area extend a full five to ten kilometers inland from the Pacific Ocean. In the Mendocino cypress pygmy forests, biomass was measured to range between 1.6 and 4.4 kilograms per square meter aboveground. Mean below-ground values are 3.5 kilograms biomass per square meter, productivity being 402 grams per meter per annum. The leaf-area ratio of the pygmy forest was estimated as 2.1 grams per square meter implying a high production efficiency per unit leaf area for an evergreen community. According to Westman, productivity of the C. pygmaea forest lies within the range expected for open, dry woodlands. A similar community for which data is available is a pygmy conifer-oak scrubland in southern Arizona

Reinier Boitet

Reinier Boitet, was a Dutch publisher and writer who updated Dirk van Bleiswijk's History of Delft in 1729. Boitet was the son of Simon Boitet and Aeltje van der Wel. In April 1717 he married Maria van Hulst and in 1718 he requested permission to start printing a newspaper; this permission was granted in 1721. His newspaper, in 1732 named Hollantsche Historische Courant, remained in press until 1775. According to the RKD he collaborated with Gerard onder de Linden on several prints, he was a bookseller in Delft who made poems, but his greatest work was his update to Bleiswijk's "Description of the city of Delft" published in 1667. His assistants were H. Heussen and H. van Rijn also the poet Hubert Kornelisz Poot and R. Ouwens. 1724 Poems by Joachim Oudaan, published by Joachim Fransz Oudaan, Hubert Korneliszoon Poot, Reinier Boitet 1729 History of Delft Reinier Boitet merged Bleiswijk's biographical information with Karel van Mander and Arnold Houbraken's commentary on Delft painters. Van Mander wrote entries for Pieter Kornelisz.

Van Ryk, Michiel Jansz Mierevelt and his pupils, J. Jordaens, Jaques de Moschero. Houbraken included all of these and wrote additional entries for Kristiaen van Kouwenberch, Leonard Bramer, Pieter van Asch, Adriaan van Linschoten, Hans Jordaans, Kornelis de Man, Johannes Vermeer, Pieter de Hooge. Boitet seems to have ignored the entries he could not confirm, most notably omitting Vermeer and De Hooch; the biographies Boitet included were: Bleiswijk's original first volume of his Beschryvinge, 1667, on Google books Media related to Beschryvinge der stad Delft at Wikimedia Commons