SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Marozia

Marozia, born Maria and known as Mariuccia or Mariozza, was a Roman noblewoman, the alleged mistress of Pope Sergius III and was given the unprecedented titles senatrix and patricia of Rome by Pope John X. Edward Gibbon wrote of her that the "influence of two sister prostitutes and Theodora was founded on their wealth and beauty, their political and amorous intrigues: the most strenuous of their lovers were rewarded with the Roman tiara, their reign may have suggested to darker ages the fable of a female pope; the bastard son, two grandsons, two great grandsons, one great great grandson of Marozia—a rare genealogy—were seated in the Chair of St. Peter." Pope John XIII was the offspring of her younger sister Theodora. From this description, the term "pornocracy" has become associated with the effective rule in Rome of Theodora and her daughter Marozia through male surrogates. Marozia was born about 890, she was the daughter of the Roman consul Theophylact, Count of Tusculum, of Theodora, the real power in Rome, whom Liutprand of Cremona characterized as a "shameless whore... exercised power on the Roman citizenry like a man."

At the age of fifteen, Marozia became the mistress of Theophylact's cousin Pope Sergius III, whom she knew when he was bishop of Portus. The two had John. That, at least, is the story found in two contemporary sources, the Liber Pontificalis and the Antapodosis sive Res per Europam gestae, by Liutprand of Cremona, but a third contemporary source, the annalist Flodoard, says John XI was brother of Alberic II, the latter being the offspring of Marozia and her husband Alberic I. Hence John too may have been the son of Marozia and Alberic I. Marozia married Alberic I, duke of Spoleto, in 909, their son Alberic II was born in 911 or 912. By the time Alberic I was killed at Orte in 924, the Roman landowners had won complete victory over the traditional bureaucracy represented by the papal curia. Rome was under secular control, the historic nadir of the papacy. In order to counter the influence of Pope John X, Marozia subsequently married his opponent Guy of Tuscany, who loved his beautiful wife as much as he loved power.

Together they attacked Rome, arrested Pope John X in the Lateran, jailed him in the Castel Sant'Angelo. Either Guy had him smothered with a pillow in 928 or he died from neglect or ill treatment. Marozia seized power in Rome in a coup d'état; the following popes, Leo VI and Stephen VII, were both her puppets. In 931 she managed to impose her son as pontiff, under the name of John XI. John was only twenty-one at the time; when her husband died in 929, Marozia negotiated a marriage with his half-brother Hugh of Arles, elected King of Italy. Hugh was married, but had that marriage annulled so that Hugh and Marozia could be wed. Alberic II, Marozia's son, led the opposition to the rule of Hugh. After deposing them in 932, at the wedding ceremonies, Alberic II imprisoned his mother until her death. Hugh escaped the city. Marozia would remain in prison for some 5 years. Marozia may well have had the misfortune of having eloquent detractors: the Liber Pontificalis and the chronicle of Liutprand of Cremona are the main sources for the details of her life.

Although given the level of widespread violence and corruption of the period, there was more than little to be exaggerated. Alberic II was in his turn father of Octavian, who became Pope John XII in 955. Popes Benedict VIII, John XIX, Benedict IX, antipope Benedict X of the House of Tusculani were Marozia's descendants. By Guy of Tuscany she had a daughter named Berta Theodora. Chamberlin, E. R.. The Bad Popes. Williams, George. Papal genealogy, the families and descendants of the popes. Di Carpegna Falconieri, Marozia, in Dizionario biografico degli italiani, 70, pp. 681–685

Carrier Air Wing One

Carrier Air Wing One is a United States Navy aircraft carrier air wing based at Naval Air Station Oceana, with most of its various squadrons home based at NAS Oceana. Additional squadrons are based at Virginia. Carrier Air Wing One is assigned to USS Harry S. Truman. To conduct carrier air warfare operations and assist in the planning, control and integration of seven air wing squadrons in support of carrier air warfare including. All-weather offensive air-to-surface attacks, Detection and destruction of enemy ships and submarines to establish and maintain local sea control. Aerial photographic and electronic intelligence for naval and joint operations. Airborne early warning service to fleet shore warning nets. Airborne electronic countermeasures. In-flight refueling operations to extend the range and the endurance of air wing aircraft and Search and rescue operations. CVW-1 consists of 9 Squadrons Carrier Air Wing ONE has been in existence longer than any other Navy carrier air wing except for Carrier Air Wing THREE, both were established on 1 July 1938.

Since its establishment on 1 July 1938, CVW-1 has served aboard twenty different aircraft carriers, made 42 major deployments, had a majority of the East Coast squadrons as members of the Navy's "First and Foremost." CVW-1 was the "Ranger Air Group", serving aboard USS Ranger during the early years of carrier aviation. The air group operated aboard the other three carriers in commission at that time and beyond - USS Langley, USS Lexington, USS Saratoga After the commencement of World War II, until 1943, The air wing participated in the North African Campaign and operated in all parts of the Atlantic and Pacific. On 3 August 1943 the Ranger Air Group was redesignated Carrier Air Group FOUR, it saw action against Japan from the Philippines to Tokyo, earning two Presidential Unit Citations in addition to having nurtured many Naval Aviation heroes. From 1946 to 1957, The Air Group was redesignated twice more. On 15 November in accordance with the Navy's new Air Group designation scheme it was redesignated CVAG-1 on 1 September 1948 with another change in the Air Group designation scheme it became Carrier Air Group ONE.

The Air Group served aboard nine different carriers, including the first "Super Carrier", USS Forrestal, during the 1956-57 Suez Crisis. On 20 December 1963 all Carrier Air Groups were redesignated Carrier Air Wings and CVG-1 became Carrier Air Wing ONE. Between June 1966 and February 1967, CVW-1 conducted combat operations off the coast of Vietnam aboard USS Franklin D. Roosevelt. In 1975 on board USS John F. Kennedy, CVW-1 introduced the Navy's newest tactical aircraft, the F-14A Tomcat and the S-3A Viking, to the Mediterranean. CVW-1 was assigned to USS America in mid-1982, forming a partnership which ended with the ship's decommissioning in August 1996. During that time, the USS America/CVW-1 team conducted combat operations during the attack on Libya in 1986; the USS America/CVW-1 team was the only carrier battle group to launch strikes in support of Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm from both the Red Sea and Persian Gulf. With America's decommissioning in August 1996, the air wing joined the USS George Washington battle group.

CVW-1 and USS George Washington returned on 3 April 1998 from their first deployment in their 2-year association. Following their deployment with USS George Washington, CVW-1 returned to USS John F. Kennedy after a 24-year absence, deployed to the Mediterranean Sea and Persian Gulf. 2006 deployment During its 2006 deployment, Carrier Air Wing One delivered 65,000 pounds of ordnance, including 137 precision weapons, to provide air support of Operation Enduring Freedom - Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom. Its aircraft completed more than 8,300 sorties, of which 2,186 were combat missions, while flying more than 22,500 hours and making 6,916-day and night arrested landings. Carrier Air Wing One provided the first combat air support to Operation Enduring Freedom from an aircraft carrier in more than three years which included Operation Medusa and Operation Mountain Fury. Carrier Strike Group Twelve conducted a two-month deployment with the U. S. Seventh Fleet in the Western Pacific which included training exercises with Carrier Strike Group Five.

This was the first time that an East Coast-based carrier air wing had operated in the western Pacific in 18 years. During its 2006 deployment, Carrier Air Wing One was the first U. S. Navy carrier air wing to use the Joint Mission Planning System, a new computer system replacing the legacy mission planning computer system, Tactical Automated Mission Planning System. 2007 deploymentDuring its 2007 deployment to the U. S. Fifth Fleet, aircraft from Carrier Air Wing One flew more than 7,500 missions, which included 1,676 combat missions, made more than 6,500 arrested landings for a total of 20,300 hours. Aircraft dropped 73 air-to-ground weapons and fired 4,149 rounds of 20-mm ammunition in support of ground forces in Iraq and Afghanistan. During this deployment, Carrier Air Wing One was the second U. S. Navy carrier air wing to deploy with the new ASQ-228 Advanced Targeting Forward Looking Infrared targeting system for its embarked F/A-18 strike fighters; this new system allows its pilots

Francis Coldwells

Francis Moses Coldwells was a British businessman and Liberal Party politician. Born in Stoke Newington, he was educated in the British School there. At one time he occupied the office of harbourmaster at Brading, Isle of Wight before moving to Croydon in the southern suburbs of London where he established a tailoring business. Elected to Croydon Local Board, he was one of the main proponents of the incorporation of Croydon as a borough, was one of the first members of the town council, elected an alderman, following the granting of a charter in 1883, he was subsequently a justice of the peace for the borough. He was a member of Croydon School Board, he was a temperance activist as a leading member of the Band of Hope. At the 1892 general election he was elected to the House of Commons as Member of Parliament for Lambeth North, with a majority over his Liberal Unionist opponent, Henry Morton Stanley, of 130 votes. Coldwells was a director of the Liberator Building Society, established by Jabez Balfour, the first Mayor of Croydon.

After the collapse of the company Coldwells was pursued through the courts for large sums of money by some of the society's shareholders. He described himself as being "slowly killed with worry", did not defend his parliamentary seat at the next election in 1895. Shortly before his death it became clear, he was found dead in a summer house in Bournemouth shortly after leaving parliament. At the inquest into his death it was found that he died from heart failure aggravated by stress. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Mr Francis Coldwells