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Marquesas Islands

The Marquesas Islands are a group of volcanic islands in French Polynesia, an overseas collectivity of France in the southern Pacific Ocean. The Marquesas are located at 9.7812° S, 139.0817° W. The highest point is the peak of Mount Oave on Ua Pou island at 1,230 m above sea level. Archaeological research suggests the islands were colonized sometime after the 9th century and before the 11th century AD by indigenous voyagers from West Polynesia. Over the course of subsequent centuries, these settlers developed a "remarkably uniform culture, human biology and language."The Marquesas Islands form one of the five administrative divisions of French Polynesia. The capital of the Marquesas Islands administrative subdivision is the town of Taiohae, on the island of Nuku Hiva; the population of the Marquesas Islands was 9,346 inhabitants at the time of the August 2017 census. The Marquesas Islands group is one of the most remote in the world, lying about 852 mi northeast of Tahiti and about 3,000 mi away from the west coast of Mexico, the nearest continental land mass.

They fall into two geographical divisions: the northern group, consisting of Eiao, Motu One, the islands centered on the large island of Nuku Hiva: Motu Iti, Ua Pou, Motu Oa and Ua Huka, the southern group of Fatu Uku, Moho Tani, Fatu Hiva and Motu Nao, clustered around the main island of Hiva ʻOa. With a combined land area of 1,049 square kilometres, the Marquesas are among the largest island groups of French Polynesia the Spanish galleons fleets arrived at en route to Manila, Nuku Hiva being the second largest island in the entire territory, after Tahiti. With the exception of Motu One, all the islands of the Marquesas are of volcanic origin. In contrast to the tendency to associate Polynesia with lush tropical vegetation, the Marquesas are remarkably dry islands. Though the islands lie within the tropics, they are the first major break in the prevailing easterly winds that spawn from the extraordinarily dry Humboldt Current; because of this, the islands are subject to frequent drought conditions, only those that reach highest into the clouds have reliable precipitation.

This has led to historical fluctuations in water supply, which have played a crucial role in the sustainability of human populations in certain sections of the various islands throughout the archipelago. This is evident in the low historical population of Ua Huka and the intermittent inhabitability of Eiao; the Marquesas Islands are thought to have formed by a center of upwelling magma called the Marquesas hotspot. Eiao Hatutu Motu Iti Motu Oa Motu One Nuku Hiva Ua Huka Ua Pou Fatu Hiva Fatu Huku Hiva ʻOa Moho Tani Motu Nao Tahuata Terihi There are a number of seamounts or shoals, located in the area of the northern Marquesas. Among these are: Clark Bank Hinakura Bank Lawson Bank Bank Jean Goguel The bulk of the Marquesas Islands are of volcanic origin, created by the Marquesas hotspot that underlies the Pacific Plate; the Marquesas Islands lie above a submarine volcanic plateau of the same name. The plateau, like the islands, is believed to be less than 5 million years old, though one hypothesis has the plateau as older and having a mirror image, the Inca Plateau, subducting under northern Peru.

Except for Motu One, all the Marquesas are high islands. Motu One is a low island. Unlike the majority of French Polynesian islands, the Marquesas are not surrounded by protective fringing reefs. Except for Motu One, in bays and other protected areas, the only other coral in the Marquesas is found in a rather strange place: on the top of the island of Fatu Huku; the South Equatorial Current lashes the islands mercilessly, which has led to sea-caves dotting the islands' shores. Except for where the valleys empty into the small bays, the islands are remarkable for their mountain ridges, which end abruptly as cliffs where they meet the sea; the islands are estimated to range in age from Fatu Hiva to the oldest, Eiao. Temperatures in the Marquesas are stable year around, but precipitation is variable. Precipitation is much greater on the east parts of the islands than on the western parts. Average annual precipitation can vary from more than 100 inches on windward shores and mountains to a low as 20 inches in the "desert" region of Nuku Hiva.

Droughts, sometimes lasting several years, are frequent and seem to be associated with the El Niño phenomena. The statistics from the weather station at Atuona on Hiva ʻOa is representative of the average sea-level climate of the Marquesas. Illustrating the variability of precipitation, the highest annual rainfall recorded in Atuona is 148.2 inches. The first recorded settlers of the Marquesas were Polynesians; the carbon-dating evidence suggested their arrival before AD 100 but the date of initial colonization has since been brought forward in many independent dating studies. For example, a 2010 study using revised, high-precision radiocarbon dating based on more reliable samples, suggests that the period of eastern Polynesian colonization took place much in a shorter ti

The Traitor (Dixon novel)

The Traitor: A Story of the Fall of the Invisible Empire is a 1907 novel by Thomas Dixon Jr. It is the third part in a trilogy about the Ku Klux Klan during Reconstruction; the two previous installments were The Leopard's Spots, published in 1902, The Clansman: An Historical Romance of the Ku Klux Klan, published in 1905. John Graham, a Confederate veteran and dispossessed planter, serves as the Grand Dragon of the Ku Klux Klan in North Carolina; as black power has been curtailed, the Grand Wizard orders Graham to have one last march through town and discontinue their activities. The Klan members bury them in a grave. Two weeks Graham's rival, Steve Hoyle, starts a new Ku Klux Klan. A dramatic version was produced in 1908, it was written in collaboration with Channing Pollock, whose name got first billing over that of Dixon. Judith Jackson Fossett, an African-American Associate Professor of English, American Studies, Ethnicity at the University of Southern California, has called the novel "a meditation on whiteness, a contest between the'good' Klan and the'bad' Klan."

Indeed, this interpretation was echoed by Dixon himself, who viewed the original Ku Klu Klan as indispensable to fight back against black "barbarism" during Reconstruction as opposed to the second Klan, more vengeful and violent. She added that the scene where the original Klan members burn and bury their robes is reminiscent of scenes of burials in Edgar Allan Poe's fiction. Moreover, she suggested. Andrew Warnes, a Reader in American Studies at Leeds University in England, suggested the depictions of the mob mentality of the Ku Klux Klan in Richard Wright's novels were influenced by The Traitor; the Traitor, at Internet Archive

Claude Brochu

Claude Brochu, CM, is a Canadian businessman best known as former president and principal owner of the Montreal Expos. Brochu was born on October 1944 in Quebec City, Quebec, he was employed by Adams Distilleries from 1976 to 1978 by the Seagram distillery from 1978 to 1985, where he served as the executive vice-president from 1982 to 1985. He was named president of the Montreal Expos baseball club by Charles Bronfman in 1986, replacing John McHale. On June 14, 1991, he formed a public-private partnership of 13 investors to buy the team and prevent a threatened move to Arizona, he used C$2 million from his own funds to make this purchase. He was the largest shareholder, with 7% of the shares, became managing general partner. However, the team's other partners considered their investments to be the equivalent of charitable donations, they let it be known to Brochu that they would not commit any more money beyond their initial investment. As a result though Montreal was the fifth-largest market in baseball, Brochu was forced to run the Expos on a shoestring budget.

Despite this, the Expos managed to assemble a core of players that included Moisés Alou, Marquis Grissom, Larry Walker and John Wetteland. In 1994, those players, led by manager Felipe Alou, had the best record in the majors when the strike cut the season short, they were poised to run away with the National League East, with most projections having them winning as many as 105 games. In the 1994-95 offseason, Brochu ordered general manager Kevin Malone to cut ties with several of the stars of that season. In a series of transactions that took place between April 5–8, Wetteland was traded to the New York Yankees, Ken Hill to the St. Louis Cardinals, Grissom to the Atlanta Braves. Walker was a free agent, the Expos allowed him to go to the Colorado Rockies without getting anything in return; the fans and press were savage in their condemnation of the fire sale. Years Brochu told writer Jonah Keri that he didn't want to unload Wettland, Hill and Walker, but had no choice because of a dangerous depletion of capital.

Had the other partners been willing to put the necessary money in, he said, he would have kept the players. His plan to save the team from bankruptcy was to build a new Baseball park in downtown Montreal, which would be named Labatt Park, he asked for subsidies from the Canadian and Quebec governments of the time, but when this attempt failed, he resigned in 1998 and sold his shares to New York art dealer Jeffrey Loria. In 2001, he published the book My Turn at Bat: The Sad Saga of the Expos, which blamed Quebec ex-premier Lucien Bouchard for the sale of the baseball team. Bouchard had told him that he wasn't willing to authorize public funding for a new park when he was being forced to close hospitals. Canada's Baseball Man of the Year, 1990 In 1996, he received the Order of Canada along with Angèle Dubeau, Gordon A. Smith and Trevor Payne