Aboyne Castle is a 13th-century castle in Aberdeenshire, Scotland 0.75 mi north of the town of Aboyne. The location of Aboyne Castle was selected for its strategic position near the River Dee and controlling the northern end of one of the Mounth crossings. Aboyne Castle was derelict, but was restored by the present Marquess of Huntly in 1979; the castle was constructed by Bysets, Lords of Strathdee and Aboyne before 1233 as a motte-and-bailey. Edward I sent instructions for its fortification in 1307, it was turned into a stone keep. In 1671, the west wing was rebuilt as a tower house by Charles, first Earl of Aboyne, parts of which are still visible. A mansion house was added in 1701. An east wing was added in 1801. In 1869, kitchen improvements stepped gables; the Mansion House was updated in the 1880s by Sir Cunliffe Brooks by adding baronial-style ornamentation. George Truefitt did some restoration work in the part of the 19th century, it was remodelled in 1986 by Ian Begg. The structure is three-storey with attic.
The east elevation is symmetrical, while the north and west are asymmetrical. A heraldic panel is located between the second and third windows of the north elevation, as is a decorative ironwork finial and a weather-cock finial. There is a baronial tower house, an angled tower to the northwest, a four-storey basement, an attic tower to the north; the oldest section of the castle is the northwest which incorporates a balustrade atop a five-storey circular tower, corbelled to square. This tower was replicated at the northeast; the castle is lime washed. Eaves are course, there are several turrets, a possible secret passageway, a monk's room. There are a number of small-pane windows, as well as a grey slate roof with tiled ridge. A doorway to the principal floor is reached by stone steps, a small-pane glazed timber door is located to the right of the basement. To the north of the castle, there is a harled wall with an enclosed courtyard. In 1242, after the expulsion from Scotland of John and Walter Byset of Clan Bissett, alleged of the murder of Patrick, Earl of Atholl, at Haddington, East Lothian, Aboyne Castle passed to the Knights Templar in that year.
It passed next to the Frasers of Cowie, before passing yet again, this time by marriage, to Sir William de Keith, Great Marischal of Scotland around 1355. In 1449, De Keith's great granddaughter, brought the castle by marriage to Alexander Gordon, 1st Earl of Huntly, its present owner is the Marquis of Huntly. There is a large extent of planted policies on both sides of the River Dee, including ornamental plantations and the Loch of Aboyne. On the Upper Dee, Aboyne Castle grounds are used, it is fished in agreement with Glen Tanar Estate. Within the Aboyne Castle Policies, there is included an artificial, islet-studded Loch of Aboyne measuring 3 × 21⁄3 fur; the burn of Aboyne has kept its ancient name, only near the castle where the Allach Bridge was built over the burn. The Formaston Stone, a relic of historical importance, is preserved. Dating from between 800 and 1000, it has a mirror symbol, a decorated Celtic cross, an Ogham inscription. Aboyne Castle, including its gateway and northern boundary walls became a category B listed building on 24 November 1972.
Several other structures became listed building such as the early 19th century walled garden, garden house and the Wee House, listed at category C on 30 March 2000.
In the United Kingdom, representative peers were those peers elected by the members of the Peerage of Scotland and the Peerage of Ireland to sit in the British House of Lords. Until 1999, all members of the Peerage of England held the right to sit in the House of Lords. All peers who were created after 1707 as Peers of Great Britain and after 1801 as Peers of the United Kingdom held the same right to sit in the House of Lords. Representative peers were introduced in 1707, when the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland were united into the Kingdom of Great Britain. At the time there were 168 English and 154 Scottish peers; the English peers feared that the House of Lords would be swamped by the Scottish element, the election of a small number of representative peers to represent Scotland was negotiated. A similar arrangement was adopted when the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland merged into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in January 1801. Scotland was allowed to elect sixteen representative peers.
Those chosen by Scotland sat for the life of one Parliament, following each dissolution new Scottish peers were elected. In contrast, Irish representative peers sat for life. Elections for Irish peers ceased when the Irish Free State came into existence as a Dominion in December 1922. However, already-elected Irish peers continued to be entitled to sit until their death. Elections for Scottish peers ended in 1963, when all Scottish peers obtained the right to sit in the House of Lords. Under the House of Lords Act 1999, a new form of representative peer was introduced to allow some hereditary peers to stay in the House of Lords. Under articles XXII and XXIII of the Act of Union 1707, Scottish peers were entitled to elect sixteen representative peers to the House of Lords; each served for one Parliament or a maximum of seven years, but could be re-elected during future Parliaments. Upon the summons of a new Parliament, the Sovereign would issue a proclamation summoning Scottish peers to the Palace of Holyroodhouse.
The elections were held in the Great Gallery, a large room decorated by eighty-nine of Jacob de Wet's portraits of Scottish monarchs, from Fergus Mór to Charles II. The Lord Clerk Register would read out the Peerage Roll; the Roll was re–read, with each peer responding by publicly announcing his votes and the return being sent to the clerk of the crown at London. The same procedure was used; the block voting system was used, with each peer casting as many votes as there were seats to be filled. The system, permitted the party with the greatest number of peers the Conservatives, to procure a disproportionate number of seats, with opposing parties sometimes being left unrepresented; the Lord Clerk Register was responsible for tallying the votes. The return issued by the Lord Clerk Register was sufficient evidence to admit the representative peers to Parliament; the position and rights of Scottish peers in relation to the House of Lords remained unclear during most of the eighteenth century. In 1711, The 4th Duke of Hamilton, a peer of Scotland, was made Duke of Brandon in the Peerage of Great Britain.
When he sought to sit in the House of Lords, he was denied admittance, the Lords ruling that a peer of Scotland could not sit in the House of Lords unless he was a representative peer if he held a British peerage dignity. They reasoned that the Act of Union 1707 had established the number of Scots peers in the House of Lords at no more and no less than sixteen. In 1782, the House of Lords reversed the decision, holding that the Crown could admit anyone it pleases to the House of Lords, whether a Scottish peer or not, subject only to qualifications such as being of full age. Under the Peerage Act 1963, all Scottish peers procured the right to sit in the House of Lords, the system of electing representative peers was abolished. Scottish as well as British and English hereditary peers lost their automatic right to sit in the Upper House with the passage of the House of Lords Act 1999. During the debate on the House of Lords Bill, a question arose as to whether the proposal would violate the Treaty of Union.
In suggesting that the Bill did indeed violate the Articles of Union, it was submitted that, prior to Union, the Estates of Parliament, Scotland's old, pre-Union parliament, was entitled to impose conditions, that one fundamental condition was a guarantee of representation of Scotland in both Houses of Parliament at Westminster. It was implied, that the Peerage Act 1963 did not violate the requirement of Scottish representation, set out in the Article XXII of the Treaty of Union, by allowing all Scottish peers to sit in the House of Lords: as long as a minimum of sixteen seats were reserved for Scotland, the principles of the Article would be upheld, it was further argued that the only way to rescind the requirement of Article XXII would be to dissolve the Union between England and Scotland, which the House of Lords Bill did not seek to do. Counsel for the Government held a different view, it was noted that the Peerage Act 1963 explicitly repealed the portions of the Articles of Union relating to elections of representative peers, that no parliamentary commentators had raised doubts as to the validity of those repeals.
As Article XXII had been, or at least purportedly, there was nothing specific in the Treaty that the bill transgressed. It was further asserted by the Government that Article XXII could be repealed because it had not been entrenched. Examples of entrenched provisions are numerous: Englan
Writ of acceleration
A writ in acceleration called a writ of acceleration, was a type of writ of summons that enabled the eldest son and heir apparent of a peer with multiple peerage titles to attend the British or Irish House of Lords, using one of his father's subsidiary titles. This procedure could be used to lower the average age of the house, increase the number of capable members in a house that drew on a small pool of talent, without increasing the effective size of the peerage and thereby diluting the exclusivity of noble titles; the procedure of writs of acceleration was introduced by King Edward IV in the mid 15th century. It was a rare occurrence, only 98 writs of acceleration were issued in over 400 years; the last writ of acceleration was issued in 1992 to the Conservative politician and close political associate of John Major, Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, Viscount Cranborne, the eldest son and heir apparent of the 6th Marquess of Salisbury. He was summoned as Baron Cecil of Essendon and not as Viscount Cranborne, the title he used by courtesy.
The procedure of writs of acceleration was abolished through the House of Lords Act 1999, along with the automatic right of hereditary peers to sit in the House of Lords. A writ of acceleration was granted only if the title being accelerated was a subsidiary one, not the main title, if the beneficiary of the writ was the heir apparent of the actual holder of the title; the heir apparent was not always summoned in his courtesy title. For example, William Cavendish, Marquess of Hartington, heir apparent of William Cavendish, 3rd Duke of Devonshire, was summoned as Baron Cavendish of Hardwick, it was not possible for heirs apparent of peers in the Peerage of Scotland and Peerage of Ireland to be given writs of acceleration after 1707 and 1801 as holders of titles in these peerages were not automatically guaranteed a seat in the British House of Lords. An heir apparent receiving such a writ took the precedence within the House of Lords owing to the title accelerated. For example, when Viscount Cranborne was accelerated to the barony of Cecil, he took precedence ahead of all barons in Parliament created after that date.
If an accelerated baron dies before his father, the barony passes to his heirs if any, else to his father. For example, Charles Boyle, Viscount Dungarvan, the eldest son of the 1st Earl of Burlington, was summoned to Parliament in 1689 in his father's barony of Clifford of Lanesborough, but predeceased his father, his son, the Earl's grandson, was granted a writ of attendance to the Lords in the barony. Acceleration can affect the numbering of holders of peerages. In the example above, the 1st Earl of Burlington was the 1st Baron Clifford of Lanesborough, his son Charles was, by virtue of the writ of accelaration, summoned to Parliament as Baron Clifford of Lanesborough, but predeceased his father. On the death of the 1st Earl of Burlington, Charles' son thus became the 2nd Earl of Burlington, but 3rd Baron Clifford of Lanesborough. Two issues of writs of acceleration may be noted. In 1628 James Stanley, Lord Strange, heir apparent of William Stanley, 6th Earl of Derby, was summoned to the House of Lords in the ancient Barony of Strange, a title assumed by his father.
However, the House of Lords decided that the sixth Earl’s assumption of the Barony of Strange had been erroneous. It was deemed that there were now two Baronies of Strange, the original one created in 1299 and the new one, created "accidentally" in 1628. Another noteworthy writ of acceleration was issued in 1717 to Charles Paulet, Marquess of Winchester, heir apparent of Charles Paulet, 2nd Duke of Bolton, he was meant to be summoned in his father's junior title of Baron St John of Basing, but was mistakenly summoned as Baron Pawlett of Basing. This inadvertently created a new peerage. However, the Barony of Pawlett of Basing became extinct on his death, while the Dukedom was passed on to his younger brother, the fourth Duke; the summons of Thomas Butler, 6th Earl of Ossory to the English House of Lords in 1666, as Baron Butler, of Moore Park, may represent an error for a writ of acceleration in his father's peerage of Baron Butler, of Lanthony. When it had been decided that the eldest son of a peer should become a member of the House of Lords, the alternative to a writ of acceleration was to create a new peerage.
For example, in 1832 Edward Smith-Stanley, Lord Stanley and heir apparent of Edward Smith-Stanley, 12th Earl of Derby, was given a new peerage as Baron Stanley, of Bickerstaffe. Two years he succeeded his father in the Earldom; this was in contrast to his son, Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby, who in 1844 was summoned to the House of Lords through a writ of acceleration in the aforementioned title of Baron Stanley, of Bickerstaffe. Other examples of new peerages being created for heirs apparent include the barony of Butler in the peerage of England, 1666, for Thomas Butler, 6th Earl of Ossory, eldest son of James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde, who sat in the English House of Lords by virtue of this title, although he had been accelerated to the Irish House of Lords as Earl of Ossory. After his career in the House of Commons was ended by a defeat in the 1974 general election, Lord Balniel was given a life peerage as Baron Balniel, of Pitcorthie in the County
Liberal Party (UK)
The Liberal Party was one of the two major parties in the United Kingdom with the opposing Conservative Party in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The party arose from an alliance of Whigs and free trade Peelites and Radicals favourable to the ideals of the American and French Revolutions in the 1850s. By the end of the 19th century, it had formed four governments under William Gladstone. Despite being divided over the issue of Irish Home Rule, the party returned to government in 1905 and won a landslide victory in the following year's general election. Under Prime Ministers Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman and H. H. Asquith, the Liberal Party passed the welfare reforms that created a basic British welfare state. Although Asquith was the party's leader, its dominant figure was David Lloyd George. Asquith was overwhelmed by the wartime role of coalition Prime Minister and Lloyd George replaced him as Prime Minister in late 1916, but Asquith remained as Liberal Party leader; the pair fought for years over control of the party.
Historian Martin Pugh in The Oxford Companion to British History argues: Lloyd George made a greater impact on British public life than any other 20th-century leader, thanks to his pre-war introduction of Britain's social welfare system. Furthermore, in foreign affairs, he played a leading role in winning the First World War, redrawing the map of Europe at the peace conference, partitioning Ireland; the government of Lloyd George was dominated by the Conservative Party, which deposed him in 1922. By the end of the 1920s, the Labour Party had replaced the Liberals as the Conservatives' main rival; the party went into decline after 1918 and by the 1950s won no more than six seats at general elections. Apart from notable by-election victories, its fortunes did not improve until it formed the SDP–Liberal Alliance with the newly formed Social Democratic Party in 1981. At the 1983 general election, the Alliance won over a quarter of the vote, but only 23 of the 650 seats it contested. At the 1987 general election, its share of the vote fell below 23% and the Liberal and Social Democratic parties merged in 1988 to form the Liberal Democrats.
A splinter group reconstituted the Liberal Party in 1989. It was formed by party members opposed to the merger who saw the Liberal Democrats diluting Liberal ideals. Prominent intellectuals associated with the Liberal Party include the philosopher John Stuart Mill, the economist John Maynard Keynes and social planner William Beveridge; the Liberal Party grew out of the Whigs, who had their origins in an aristocratic faction in the reign of Charles II and the early 19th century Radicals. The Whigs were in favour of increasing the power of Parliament. Although their motives in this were to gain more power for themselves, the more idealistic Whigs came to support an expansion of democracy for its own sake; the great figures of reformist Whiggery were Charles James Fox and his disciple and successor Earl Grey. After decades in opposition, the Whigs returned to power under Grey in 1830 and carried the First Reform Act in 1832; the Reform Act was the climax of Whiggism, but it brought about the Whigs' demise.
The admission of the middle classes to the franchise and to the House of Commons led to the development of a systematic middle class liberalism and the end of Whiggery, although for many years reforming aristocrats held senior positions in the party. In the years after Grey's retirement, the party was led first by Lord Melbourne, a traditional Whig, by Lord John Russell, the son of a Duke but a crusading radical, by Lord Palmerston, a renegade Irish Tory and a conservative, although capable of radical gestures; as early as 1839, Russell had adopted the name of "Liberals", but in reality his party was a loose coalition of Whigs in the House of Lords and Radicals in the Commons. The leading Radicals were John Bright and Richard Cobden, who represented the manufacturing towns which had gained representation under the Reform Act, they favoured social reform, personal liberty, reducing the powers of the Crown and the Church of England, avoidance of war and foreign alliances and above all free trade.
For a century, free trade remained the one cause. In 1841, the Liberals lost office to the Conservatives under Sir Robert Peel, but their period in opposition was short because the Conservatives split over the repeal of the Corn Laws, a free trade issue; this allowed ministries led by Russell and the Peelite Lord Aberdeen to hold office for most of the 1850s and 1860s. A leading Peelite was William Ewart Gladstone, a reforming Chancellor of the Exchequer in most of these governments; the formal foundation of the Liberal Party is traditionally traced to 1859 and the formation of Palmerston's second government. However, the Whig-Radical amalgam could not become a true modern political party while it was dominated by aristocrats and it was not until the departure of the "Two Terrible Old Men", Russell and Palmerston, that Gladstone could become the first leader of the modern Liberal Party; this was brought about by Palmerston's death in 1865 and Russell's retirement in 1868. After a brief Conservative government, Gladstone won a huge victory at the 1868 election and formed the first Liberal government.
Clan Gordon known as the House of Gordon, is a Scottish clan. The chief of the clan was the powerful Earl of Huntly, now the Marquess of Huntly; the first Gordon on record is Richard of Gordon of Swinton, said to have been the grandson of a famous knight who slew some monstrous animal in the Merse during the time of King Malcolm III of Scotland. This Richard was Lord of the Barony of Gordon in the Merse. Richard de Gordon died in around 1200. Between 1150 and 1160 he granted from his estate a piece of land to the Monks of St. Mary at Kelso, a grant, confirmed by his son Thomas Gordon. Other notable Gordons from this time include Bertram de Gordon who wounded King Richard of England with an arrow at Châlons. Alicia Gordon, IV of the Gordon family was the heiress who married Adam Gordon. Adam Gordon was a soldier who King Alexander III of Scotland sent with King Louis of France to Palestine. One tradition is that from Adam's grandson, Sir Adam, all of the Gordons in Scotland are descended.* This Adam Gordon supported Sir William Wallace in 1297 to recapture the Castle of Wigtown from the English and Adam was made the Governor.
According to Professor J D Mackie, in "A History of Scotland", page 109, "...the Earl of Huntly was head of the Gordons, but by no means all the 150 houses which claimed the name of Gordon were sprung from the loins of his ancestor..." During the Wars of Scottish Independence Sir Adam Gordon, who had supported William Wallace, renounced his subsequent acceptance of the claims of Edward I of England and became a staunch supporter of Robert the Bruce. Adam was killed leading the Clan Gordon at the Battle of Halidon Hill in 1333 but his son Sir Alexander Gordon escaped and was the first Gordon to be designated "of Huntly". Chief Sir John Gordon was killed leading the clan at the Battle of Otterburn where the English were defeated in 1388, his son, Chief Sir Adam Gordon, was killed leading the clan at the Battle of Homildon Hill known as the Battle of Humbleton Hill on 14 September 1402. The chief left his only child, a daughter named Elizabeth Gordon who married Alexander Seton, the son of Sir William Seton, chief of Clan Seton.
The Battle of Arbroath was fought in 1445 where Patrick Gordon of Methlic, a cousin of the Earl of Huntly, was killed fighting the Clan Lindsay. From this Patrick Gordon the Earls of Aberdeen descend. In 1449 Alexander Seton, 1st Earl of Huntly, the eldest son of Elizabeth Gordon and Alexander Seton, Lord Gordon, changed the family name from Seton to Gordon.c. 1457. His male heirs through his third wife Elizabeth Crichton continued to bear the name of Gordon and were chiefs of Clan Gordon; the chief of Clan Lindsay, Alexander Lindsay, the 4th Earl of Crawford, was badly defeated by the Clan Gordon and Clan Ogilvy under Alexander Gordon, 1st Earl of Huntly at the Battle of Brechin in 1452. The Gordons became involved in the Clan Douglas for power; the Gordons supported the king but when Gordon moved his forces south, the Earl of Moray, an ally of the Douglases devastated the Gordon lands and burned Huntly Castle. However, the Gordons soon defeated their enemies. Huntly Castle was rebuilt and when the Douglases were defeated the power of the Gordons grew unchallenged.
In 1454 the Douglasses broke out in rebellion again and when confronted with the king in the south and Huntly in the north were soundly defeated ending the confederacy of the Douglasses and Crawfords. For his notable contributions Alexander Gordon, 1st Earl of Huntly was styled Cock o' the North, a designation which has since been accorded to the heads of clan Gordon. In 1513, during the Anglo-Scottish Wars, the Clan Gordon led by Alexander Gordon, 3rd Earl of Huntly fought at the Battle of Flodden. In 1526 the title of Earl of Sutherland and chieftenship of the Clan Sutherland passed by right of marriage to Adam Gordon, a younger son of George Gordon, 2nd Earl of Huntly. During the Anglo-Scottish Wars, George Gordon, 4th Earl of Huntly defeated an English army at the Battle of Haddon Rig in 1542 but the Gordons were part of the Scottish army, defeated at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh in 1547. Chief George Gordon, 4th Earl of Huntly was General of the forces on the Borders who opposed the forces of Henry VIII of England and Gordon had many victorious encounters.
He was however killed at the Battle of Corrichie in 1562 fighting against the forces of James Stuart, Earl of Moray. Gordon was killed and his son, Sir John, other members of his family were executed at Aberdeen. Throughout the 16th century the Clan Gordon were involved in a long and bitter struggle against the Clan Forbes. In the 1520s there were murders by both sides, one of the most prominent killed by the Forbeses was Seton of Meldrum, a close connection of the Earl of Huntly, chief of Clan Gordon; the Earl of Huntly became involved in a plot against the Master of Forbes, the son of the sixth Lord Forbes. The sixth Lord Forbes had been implicated of the murder of Seton of Meldrum; the Master of Forbes was accused by the Earl of Huntly of conspiring to assassinate James V of Scotland in 1536 by shooting at him with a cannon. The Master of Forbes was tried and executed however just days his conviction was reversed and the Forbes family was restored to favor; the Protestant Reformation added to the feud between the Clan Forbes and Clan Gordon in that the Gordons remained Catholic and the Forbeses became Protestant.
The traditional enemies of the Forbses such as the Clan Leslie, Clan Irvine and Clan Seton sided with the Gordons while Protestant families such as the Clan Keith, Clan Fraser and Clan Crichton sided with the Cla
Dorothea Jordan known interchangeably as Mrs Jordan, Miss Francis or Miss Bland, was an Anglo-Irish actress and the mistress and companion of the future King William IV of the United Kingdom, for 20 years while he was Duke of Clarence. Together they had ten illegitimate children. Dorothea Bland was born near Waterford, Ireland, on 22 November 1761, was baptised at St Martin in the Fields, Middlesex, on 5 December of that year, she was the third of six children born from his mistress, Grace Phillips. Her older siblings are George Bland and Hester Bland, her younger siblings are Lucy Bland, Francis Bland and Nathaniel Phillips Bland, her paternal grandparents were Nathaniel Bland, Vicar General of Ardfert and Aghada, Judge of the Prerogative Court of Dublin and his second wife Lucy. The reports about Dorothea's maternal ancestry are sketchy, although it is stated that Grace Phillips was the daughter of a Welsh clergyman but he has not been identified with certainty. Before April 1774, when she was 13, Dorothea's father, who worked as a stagehand, abandoned the family to marry an Irish actress.
However, he continued to support the family by sending them meagre sums of money. This situation forced Dorothea to work to help her siblings, her mother, an actress by profession, put her on the stage. Dora became a famous actress and was said to have the most beautiful legs seen on the stage; the historical record of Jordan's first stage appearance is not clear. Some sources claim that Jordan made her debut in 1777 in Dublin, as Phoebe in As You Like It, whilst others that suggest she premiered as Lucy in the Interlude The Virgin Unmask'd, on the 3rd November 1779; the knowledge of Jordans's time and other roles performed in Ireland is fragmentary, however documentation shows her her last appearance in Dublin came on the 16th May 1782 when she spoke the The Maid of Oaks' Prologue. At the time she was pregnant with the illegitimate son of the married theatre manager of the Smock Alley Theatre, Richard Daly. Rumours spread and they fled to England Leeds, where she was employed by Tate Wilkinson, manager of the York Company.
Her first performance in England was the tragic role of Calista in The Fair Penitent, for which she had been tutored for by the scholar Cornelious Swan. Swan wrote to Tate to express his amazement at Jordan's talents: ‘“For Wilkinson,” said he, “I have given the Jordan but three lessons, she is so adroit at receiving my instructions, that I declare she repeats the character as well as Mrs. Cibber did”’ Though no specific dates can be sourced, Dora is believed to have performed her prized role as Lady Teazle in Sheridan's The School for Scandal before she arrived in London. In 1785, she made her first London appearance at Drury Lane as Peggy in A Country Girl; the Morning post the next morning reported her performance as such:'Nature has endowed her with talents sufficient to combat and excel her competitors in the same walk. Her person and manner are adapted for representing the peculiarities of youthful innocence and frivolity, it came to be recognised that her talent lay in comedy, she was acclaimed for her "naturalness" on stage, called a'child of nature', a derogatory term for someone, of illegitimate birth.
Audiences enjoyed her performances in breeches roles such as Viola in Twelfth Night, Sir Harry Wildair in The Constant Couple and William in Rosina. " Despite her being'the most admired comic actress of her time', Jordan was a competent Shakespearean and tragic actress, playing the roles of Ophelia, Imogen in Cymbeline and Zara by Adam Hill. When she first auditioned for Wilkinson, when she was asked whether she preferred'tragedy, comedy or opera?' she answered "All"Her engagement at Drury Lane lasted until 1809, she played a large variety of parts. During the rebuilding of Drury Lane she played at the Haymarket. Here, in 1814, she made her last appearance on the London stage, the following year, at Margate, retired altogether. During her time on the stage she wrote the popular song The Bluebells of Scotland, published under her name around 1800. In 1815, the renowned theatre critic, William Hazlitt, wrote:'Mrs Jordan's excellences were all natural to her, it was not as an actress, but as herself.
Nature had formed in her most prodigal humour. Mrs Jordan, the child of nature, whose voice was a cordial to the heart, because it came from it, full, like the luscious juice of the rich grape.' She had an affair with her first manager, Richard Daly, the manager of the Theatre Royal, married, had an illegitimate child with him: Frances Daly. In England, she had a short-lived affair with an army lieutenant, Charles Doyne, who proposed marriage, but she turned him do
East Grinstead (UK Parliament constituency)
East Grinstead was a parliamentary constituency in the Kingdom of England, the Kingdom of Great Britain, the United Kingdom. It first existed as a Parliamentary borough from 1307, returning two Members of Parliament to the House of Commons elected by the bloc vote system; the borough was disfranchised under the Reform Act 1832, but the name was revived at the 1885 election when the Redistribution of Seats Act created a new single-member county division of the same name. Upon its abolition for the 1983 election, its territory was divided between Mid Wealden. 1885-1918: The Sessional Divisions of Cuckfield, East Grinstead, Uckfield. 1918-1950: The Urban Districts of Burgess Hill, East Grinstead, Hayward's Heath, Uckfield, the Rural Districts of Cuckfield, East Grinstead, Uckfield. 1950-1955: The Urban Districts of Cuckfield and East Grinstead, the Rural District of Uckfield, in the Rural District of Cuckfield the parishes of Ardingly, Bolney, Cuckfield Rural, Horsted Keynes, Lindfield Rural, West Hoathly, Worth, in the Rural District of Battle the parishes of Burwash and Ticehurst.
1955-1974: The Urban Districts of Cuckfield and East Grinstead, the Rural District of Uckfield, in the Rural District of Cuckfield the parishes of Ardingly, Bolney, Cuckfield Rural, Horsted Keynes, Lindfield Rural, West Hoathly, Worth. 1974-1983: The Urban District of East Grinstead, the Rural District of Uckfield. Constituency abolished Constituency revived General Election 1914/15: Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915; the political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the July 1914, the following candidates had been selected. General Election 1939/40: Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1940; the political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the Autumn of 1939, the following candidates had been selected. British parliamentary election results 1885–1918. Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. P. 404. ISBN 0-900178-27-2. Craig, F. W. S.. British parliamentary election results 1918–1949.
Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. P. 481. ISBN 0-900178-06-X. Hills, Wallace Henry. "The Borough of East Grinstead and its Members of Parliament". The History of East Grinstead: The rise and progress of the town and the history of its institutions & People. Farncombe. Retrieved 29 October 2010