SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Marriage

Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a culturally recognised union between people, called spouses, that establishes rights and obligations between them, as well as between them and their children, between them and their in-laws. The definition of marriage varies around the world, not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion. Over time, it has expanded and constricted in terms of who and what is encompassed, it is an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is called a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.

In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns regarding the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights for women within marriage and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony in the eyes of the state.

When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution, it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony in the eyes of that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, which prevents interfaith and various other marriages that contradict religious laws from being entered into in the country.

For example, in the case of recognition of marriage in Israel, this includes recognition of not only interfaith civil marriages performed abroad, but overseas same-sex civil marriages. The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on, have established legal recognition for, the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry.

For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005. In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, forced marriage, marriageable age, criminalization of consensual behaviors such as premarital and extramarital sex.

The word "marria

Dong Van Karst Plateau Geopark

Dong Van Karst Plateau Geopark is a geopark in northern Vietnam. It shares border with China in the north, it is a member of the UNESCO Global Geoparks Network and Asia Pacific Geoparks Network since Oct 3, 2010. Dong Van Karst Plateau Geopark is located in Hà Giang Province, the northernmost province in Vietnam, it takes up most of the area of four of the province's districts: Mèo Vạc, Đồng Văn, Yên Minh, Quản Bạ. The area of the geopark is 2356,8 km2; the average elevation within the geopark is 1400 to 1600 meters above sea level. About 80% of the area of the geopark is covered by limestone. There are many huge mountains here, the highest one is Mount Mieu Vac, there are many deep canyons, the deepest one is Tu San; the climate of the geopark varies depending on elevation, but the majority of the park has a temperate climate with two seasons: rainy season and dry season. The annual mean temperature is 24 to 28 °C; the geopark is located at an extension foot mount East of the Himalayas. Geoheritages date from the Cambrian to the present in seven different stages and include palaeobiology, geomophology, karst and important faults.

The geology in this geopark reflects important events in Earth history, like of two mass extinction boundaries of Frasnian-Famennian and Permian-Triassic. This includes 3 groups of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, as well as stratigraphic, lithostratigraphic and biostratigraphic specificities, its paleontological diversity shows 19 groups of valuable ancient organisms like ancient fish, ancient flora, bivalves, foraminifera, conodonta and fossilized paths of molluscs. The Geopark has two natural conservation areas rich in fauna and flora species such as conifers, Asian black bear, Southern serow and many species of bird. Moreover, the unusual and mysterious Tonkin snub-nosed monkey is one of the 25 most endangered species of primate in the world, it is only found in Hà Giang province and was believed extinct until its rediscovery in the early 1990s. The oldest fossil found in the park was found at Lũng Cú peak, has been dated to 540 million years old. 17 ethnic minority groups live within the geopark, such as the Hmong, Dao, Lô Lô, Tày, Nùng.

They have a great and valuable cultural. Mã Pí Lèng Pass Tu San Canyon, the deepest canyon in Vietnam, it has a depth of about 800 m, a length of 1.7 km, cliffs that slope 70° to 90°. Lũng Cú Peak Fairy bosom peaks

Sorot River

The Sorot is a river in Novorzhevsky and Pushkinogorsky Districts of Pskov Oblast in Russia. It is a right tributary of the Velikaya River, it is 80 kilometres long, the area of its basin 3,910 square kilometres. The main tributary of the Sorot is the Lsta; the source of the Sorot is Lake Mikhalkinskoye in the eastern part of Novorzhevsky District. The river flows to the east, reaches the boundary between Novorzhevsky and Bezhanitsky Districts and turns north such that a stretch of it forms the boundary. Further north, it turns west, accepts the Lsta from the left, crosses Novorzhevsky and Pushkinogorsky Districts, joins the Velikaya downstream of the village of Selikhnovo. In the lower course, the Sorot flows through the Mikhaylovskoye Museum Reserve; the town of Novorzhev is located on the banks of the Sorot. The Sorot flows through a number of lakes, the biggest of which are Lake Beloguli and Lake Posadnikovskoye; the drainage basin of the Sorot is large and includes Novorzhevsky District, the northeastern part of Pushkinogorsky District, the western part of Bezhanitsky District, as well as minor areas in Dedovichsky and Porkhovsky Districts