The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries and marking the transition from the Middle Ages to modernity. The traditional view focuses more on the early modern aspects of the Renaissance and argues that it was a break from the past, but many historians today focus more on its medieval aspects and argue that it was an extension of the middle ages; the intellectual basis of the Renaissance was its version of humanism, derived from the concept of Roman Humanitas and the rediscovery of classical Greek philosophy, such as that of Protagoras, who said that "Man is the measure of all things." This new thinking became manifest in art, politics and literature. Early examples were the development of perspective in oil painting and the recycled knowledge of how to make concrete. Although the invention of metal movable type sped the dissemination of ideas from the 15th century, the changes of the Renaissance were not uniformly experienced across Europe: the first traces appear in Italy as early as the late 13th century, in particular with the writings of Dante and the paintings of Giotto.
As a cultural movement, the Renaissance encompassed innovative flowering of Latin and vernacular literatures, beginning with the 14th-century resurgence of learning based on classical sources, which contemporaries credited to Petrarch. In politics, the Renaissance contributed to the development of the customs and conventions of diplomacy, in science to an increased reliance on observation and inductive reasoning. Although the Renaissance saw revolutions in many intellectual pursuits, as well as social and political upheaval, it is best known for its artistic developments and the contributions of such polymaths as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, who inspired the term "Renaissance man"; the Renaissance began in the 14th century in Italy. Various theories have been proposed to account for its origins and characteristics, focusing on a variety of factors including the social and civic peculiarities of Florence at the time: its political structure, the patronage of its dominant family, the Medici, the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy following the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks.
Other major centres were northern Italian city-states such as Venice, Milan and Rome during the Renaissance Papacy. The Renaissance has a long and complex historiography, and, in line with general scepticism of discrete periodizations, there has been much debate among historians reacting to the 19th-century glorification of the "Renaissance" and individual culture heroes as "Renaissance men", questioning the usefulness of Renaissance as a term and as a historical delineation; the art historian Erwin Panofsky observed of this resistance to the concept of "Renaissance": It is no accident that the factuality of the Italian Renaissance has been most vigorously questioned by those who are not obliged to take a professional interest in the aesthetic aspects of civilization – historians of economic and social developments and religious situations, most natural science – but only exceptionally by students of literature and hardly by historians of Art. Some observers have called into question whether the Renaissance was a cultural "advance" from the Middle Ages, instead seeing it as a period of pessimism and nostalgia for classical antiquity, while social and economic historians of the longue durée, have instead focused on the continuity between the two eras, which are linked, as Panofsky observed, "by a thousand ties".
The word Renaissance meaning "Rebirth", first appeared in English in the 1830s. The word occurs in Jules Michelet's 1855 work, Histoire de France; the word Renaissance has been extended to other historical and cultural movements, such as the Carolingian Renaissance and the Renaissance of the 12th century. The Renaissance was a cultural movement that profoundly affected European intellectual life in the early modern period. Beginning in Italy, spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence was felt in literature, art, politics, science and other aspects of intellectual inquiry. Renaissance scholars employed the humanist method in study, searched for realism and human emotion in art. Renaissance humanists such as Poggio Bracciolini sought out in Europe's monastic libraries the Latin literary and oratorical texts of Antiquity, while the Fall of Constantinople generated a wave of émigré Greek scholars bringing precious manuscripts in ancient Greek, many of which had fallen into obscurity in the West.
It is in their new focus on literary and historical texts that Renaissance scholars differed so markedly from the medieval scholars of the Renaissance of the 12th century, who had focused on studying Greek and Arabic works of natural sciences and mathematics, rather than on such cultural texts. In the revival of neo-Platonism Renaissance humanists did not reject Christianity. However, a subtle shift took place in the way that intellectuals approached religion, reflected in many other areas of cultural life. In addition, many Greek Christian works, including the Greek New Testament, were brought back from Byzantium to Western Europe and engaged Western scholars for the first time since late antiquity; this new engagement with Greek Christian works, the return to the original Greek of the Ne
Pietro Perugino, born Pietro Vannucci, was an Italian Renaissance painter of the Umbrian school, who developed some of the qualities that found classic expression in the High Renaissance. Raphael was his most famous pupil, he was born Pietro Vannucci in Città della Pieve, the son of Cristoforo Maria Vannucci. His nickname characterizes him as from the chief city of Umbria. Scholars continue to dispute the socioeconomic status of the Vannucci family. While certain academics maintain that Vannucci worked his way out of poverty, others argue that his family was among the wealthiest in the town, his exact date of birth is not known, but based on his age at death, mentioned by Vasari and Giovanni Santi, it is believed that he was born between 1446 and 1452. Pietro most began studying painting in local workshops in Perugia such as those of Bartolomeo Caporali or Fiorenzo di Lorenzo; the date of the first Florentine sojourn is unknown. According to Vasari, he was apprenticed to the workshop of Andrea del Verrocchio alongside Leonardo da Vinci, Domenico Ghirlandaio, Lorenzo di Credi, Filippino Lippi and others.
Piero della Francesca is thought to have taught him perspective form. In 1472, he must have completed his apprenticeship since he was enrolled as a master in the Confraternity of St Luke. Pietro, although talented, was not enthusiastic about his work. Perugino was one of the earliest Italian practitioners of oil painting; some of his early works were extensive frescoes for the convent of the Ingessati fathers, destroyed during the Siege of Florence. A good specimen of his early style in tempera is the tondo in the Musée du Louvre of the Virgin and Child Enthroned between Saints. Perugino returned from Florence to Perugia, where his Florentine training showed in the Adoration of the Magi for the church of Santa Maria dei Servi of Perugia. In about 1480, he was called to Rome by Sixtus IV to paint fresco panels for the Sistine Chapel walls; the frescoes he executed there included Moses and Zipporah, the Baptism of Christ, Delivery of the Keys. Pinturicchio accompanied Perugino to Rome, was made his partner, receiving a third of the profits.
He may have done some of the Zipporah subject. The Sistine frescoes were the major high Renaissance commission in Rome; the altar wall was painted with the Assumption, the Nativity, Moses in the Bulrushes. These works were destroyed to make a space for Michelangelo's Last Judgement. Between 1486 and 1499, Perugino worked in Florence, making one journey to Rome and several to Perugia, where he may have maintained a second studio, he had an established studio in Florence, received a great number of commissions. His Pietà in the Uffizi is an uncharacteristically stark work that avoids Perugino's sometimes too easy sentimental piety. In 1499 the guild of the cambio of Perugia asked him to decorate their audience-hall, the Sala delle Udienze del Collegio del Cambio; the humanist Francesco Maturanzio acted as his consultant. This extensive scheme, which may have been finished by 1500, comprised the painting of the vault, showing the seven planets and the signs of the zodiac, the representation on the walls of two sacred subjects: the Nativity and Transfiguration.
On the mid-pilaster of the hall Perugino placed his own portrait in bust-form. It is probable that Raphael, who in boyhood, towards 1496, had been placed by his uncles under the tuition of Perugino, bore a hand in the work of the vaulting. Perugino was made one of the priors of Perugia in 1501. On one occasion Michelangelo told Perugino to his face that he was a bungler in art: Vannucci brought an action for defamation of character, unsuccessfully. Put on his mettle by this mortifying transaction, he produced the masterpiece of the Madonna and Saints for the Certosa of Pavia, now disassembled and scattered among museums: the only portion in the Certosa is God the Father with cherubim. An Annunciation has disappeared; this was succeeded in 1504–1507 by the Annunziata Altarpiece for the high altar of the Basilica dell'Annunziata in Florence, in which he replaced Filippino Lippi. The work was a failure. Perugino lost his students. Pope Julius II had summoned Perugino to paint the Stanza of the Incendio del Borgo in the Vatican City.
Among his latest works, many of which decline into repetitious studio routine, one of the best is the extensive altarpiece of the church of San Agostino in Perugia now dispersed. Perugino's last frescoes were painted for the church of the Madonna delle Lacrime in Trevi, the monastery of Sant'Agnese in Perugia, in 1522 for th
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino, known as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance. His work is admired for its clarity of form, ease of composition, visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human grandeur. Together with Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, he forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period. Raphael was enormously productive, running an unusually large workshop and, despite his death at 37, leaving a large body of work. Many of his works are found in the Vatican Palace, where the frescoed Raphael Rooms were the central, the largest, work of his career; the best known work is The School of Athens in the Vatican Stanza della Segnatura. After his early years in Rome, much of his work was executed by his workshop from his drawings, with considerable loss of quality, he was influential in his lifetime, though outside Rome his work was known from his collaborative printmaking. After his death, the influence of his great rival Michelangelo was more widespread until the 18th and 19th centuries, when Raphael's more serene and harmonious qualities were again regarded as the highest models.
His career falls into three phases and three styles, first described by Giorgio Vasari: his early years in Umbria a period of about four years absorbing the artistic traditions of Florence, followed by his last hectic and triumphant twelve years in Rome, working for two Popes and their close associates. Raphael was born in the small but artistically significant central Italian city of Urbino in the Marche region, where his father Giovanni Santi was court painter to the Duke; the reputation of the court had been established by Federico da Montefeltro, a successful condottiere, created Duke of Urbino by Pope Sixtus IV – Urbino formed part of the Papal States – and who died the year before Raphael was born. The emphasis of Federico's court was rather more literary than artistic, but Giovanni Santi was a poet of sorts as well as a painter, had written a rhymed chronicle of the life of Federico, both wrote the texts and produced the decor for masque-like court entertainments, his poem to Federico shows him as keen to show awareness of the most advanced North Italian painters, Early Netherlandish artists as well.
In the small court of Urbino he was more integrated into the central circle of the ruling family than most court painters. Federico was succeeded by his son Guidobaldo da Montefeltro, who married Elisabetta Gonzaga, daughter of the ruler of Mantua, the most brilliant of the smaller Italian courts for both music and the visual arts. Under them, the court continued as a centre for literary culture. Growing up in the circle of this small court gave Raphael the excellent manners and social skills stressed by Vasari. Court life in Urbino at just after this period was to become set as the model of the virtues of the Italian humanist court through Baldassare Castiglione's depiction of it in his classic work The Book of the Courtier, published in 1528. Castiglione moved to Urbino in 1504, when Raphael was no longer based there but visited, they became good friends, he became close to other regular visitors to the court: Pietro Bibbiena and Pietro Bembo, both cardinals, were becoming well known as writers, would be in Rome during Raphael's period there.
Raphael mixed in the highest circles throughout his life, one of the factors that tended to give a misleading impression of effortlessness to his career. He did not receive a full humanistic education however, his mother Màgia died in 1491 when Raphael was eight, followed on August 1, 1494 by his father, who had remarried. Raphael was thus orphaned at eleven, he continued to live with his stepmother when not staying as an apprentice with a master. He had shown talent, according to Vasari, who says that Raphael had been "a great help to his father". A self-portrait drawing from his teenage years shows his precocity, his father's workshop continued and together with his stepmother, Raphael evidently played a part in managing it from a early age. In Urbino, he came into contact with the works of Paolo Uccello the court painter, Luca Signorelli, who until 1498 was based in nearby Città di Castello. According to Vasari, his father placed him in the workshop of the Umbrian master Pietro Perugino as an apprentice "despite the tears of his mother".
The evidence of an apprenticeship comes only from Vasari and another source, has been disputed—eight was early for an apprenticeship to begin. An alternative theory is that he received at least some training from Timoteo Viti, who acted as court painter in Urbino from 1495. Most modern historians agree that Raphael at least worked as an assistant to Perugino from around 1500. Vasari wrote that it was impossible to distinguish between their hands at this period, but many modern art historians claim to do better and detect his hand in specific areas of works by Perugino or his workshop. Apart from stylistic closeness, their techniques are similar as well, for example having paint applied thickly, using an oil varnish medium, in shadows and darker garments, but thinly on flesh areas. An excess of resin in the varnish causes cracking of areas of paint in the works of both masters; the Perugino workshop w
Adoration of the Magi (Perugino, Perugia)
The Adoration of the Magi is a painting by the Italian Renaissance painter Pietro Perugino, housed in the Galleria Nazionale dell'Umbria of Perugia, Italy. According to Italian art historian Vittoria Garibaldi, it was one of the earliest commissions received by Perugino around the end of his apprenticeship in Florence, while others date it to the late 1470s; the painting was executed for the church of Santa Maria dei Servi in Perugia, connected to the Baglioni family. The scene follows a standard layout, with the nativity hut on the right and the visitors' procession, developing horizontally, on the left. On the background, behind the ox and the donkey, is a rocky, hilly landscape painted using aerial perspective; the Virgin holds the blessing child on her knees, behind her is St. Joseph, with a stick; the oldest of the magi is kneeled, while the other two are offering the gifts. The crowded procession includes figures which are common in Perugino's works, such as the boy with a turban and the blonde youngsters in elegant postures.
The man on the extreme left is a self-portrait of Perugino. The Virgin and Child are reminiscent of Perugino's Gambier Parry Madonna at the Courtauld Institute in London, dating to the early 1470s. In general, the scene's style is related to Verrocchio's workshop, where Perugino made his apprenticeship; the characters, forming a crowd typical of late-Gothic art, show a robust appearance seen in the works of Fiorenzo di Lorenzo the earliest master of Perugino. The integration between the characters and the landscape is inspired to Piero della Francesca, such as the golden ratio tree. Garibaldi, Vittoria. "Perugino". Pittori del Rinascimento. Florence: Scala. ISBN 978-88-8117-099-9
Portrait of Francesco delle Opere
The Portrait of Francesco delle Opere is a painting by the Italian Renaissance artist Perugino, dating to 1494 and housed in the Uffizi Gallery, Florence. The first mention of the painting is in the inventory of Cardinal Leopoldo de' Medici's artworks, as a work of "Second Manner Raphael". In the 19th century it was attributed to Perugino and Jacopo Francia, again to Perugino by Antonio Ramirez de Montalvo, who discovered an inscription in the rear; this reads: "1494 DI LVGLIO PIETRO PERVGINO PINSE FRANCO DEL LOPRE PEYNAGA". It was long considered a self-portrait, from 1883 it was therefore exhibited in the gallery of self-portraits in the Vasarian Corridor. In 1881 the subject was identified as Francesco delle Opere, a gem carver and a friend of Perugino. Francesco delle Opere is portrayed from three-quarters, with a black beret and a mantle of the same color, a red blouse under, a white shirt, his hand holds a cartouche with the words Timete Devm, the beginning of a famous preaching by Girolamo Savonarola.
The hands lie on an invisible parapet which coincides with the painting's lower border, as in Flemish contemporary works such as Hans Memling's Man with a Letter. Aside from the attention to details, the painting share with Memling's the presence of a city with pointed towers on the left; the presence of small trees and a lake in the background landscape are typical of the Umbrian school of the period. Portrait of Lorenzo di Credi Portrait of Perugino Garibaldi, Vittoria. "Perugino". Pittori del Rinascimento. Florence: Scala. Page at Florence's museums website High definition image at Googleart
Pietà is a painting by the Italian Renaissance artist Pietro Perugino, executed around 1483-1493, housed in the Uffizi Gallery, Florence. The work was painted for the church of the convent of San Giusto alle mura together with the Agony in the Garden and a Crucifixion. Renaissance art biographer Giorgio Vasari saw them in side altars of the church of San Giovanni Battista alla Calza, after the original location had been destroyed during the Siege of Florence in 1529, it was moved to the Uffizi in the 20th century. The dating of the work is disputed: it varies from 1482, the year of Perugino's return from Rome, to a later period, although before the end of the century, when the artist started to use only line oil, which in these works is used only at an experimental level; the painting was restored in 1998. The scene of the Pietà was depicted by Perugino under a portico, a typical theme of his art in the 1480s and 1490s; the serene landscape with light trees is common in his paintings of the period.
Such as in the German Vesperbilder, Jesus's body is horizontal and quite rigid held by John the Evangelist on the left and Mary Magdalene on the right. At the sides are further saints, a young one on the left, with the hands joined in his chest, an aged one on the right, looking down; the use of less pale tonalities for Mary Magdalene is similar to that used by Luca Signorelli at the time. Garibaldi, Vittoria. "Perugino". Pittori del Rinascimento. Florence: Scala
The Vallombrosa Altarpiece is a painting by the Italian Renaissance painter Pietro Perugino, dating to 1500–01. It is housed in the Accademia Gallery of Italy; the painting was commissioned to Perugino for the high altar of the Vallombrosa Abbey, in the Florence countryside, was finished within July 1500. The work was completed by a predella, of which only two portraits remain. After the Napoleonic invasion of Italy and the suppression of the abbey, the canvas was moved to Paris in 1810. However, it was restored to Tuscany in 1817, being assigned to the Florentine gallery in this occasion; as for other Perugino's works, the panel is divided into two sections, in a pattern derived from his Assumption of the Sistine Chapel: the upper part with God and celestial figures, the lower one, with the saints. In the middle is the ascending Mary, enclosed within an almond which ends at the lunette, in turn occupied by a blessing God surrounded by angels. Below are four saints, portrayed above an indeterminate hilly landscape: from left, Bernard degli Uberti, John Gualbert and Michael Archangel.
At the lower edge is the artist's signature, reading "PETRVS PERVSINVS PINXIT AD MCCCCC". San Pietro Polyptych Ascension of Christ Garibaldi, Vittoria. "Perugino". Pittori del Rinascimento. Florence: Scala