Mars 1 known as 1962 Beta Nu 1, Mars 2MV-4 and Sputnik 23, was an automatic interplanetary station launched in the direction of Mars on November 1, 1962, the first of the Soviet Mars probe program, with the intent of flying by the planet at a distance of about 11,000 km. It was designed to image the surface and send back data on cosmic radiation, micrometeoroid impacts and Mars' magnetic field, radiation environment, atmospheric structure, possible organic compounds. After leaving Earth orbit, the spacecraft and the Molniya booster fourth stage separated and the solar panels were deployed. Early telemetry indicated that there was a leak in one of the gas valves in the orientation system so the spacecraft was transferred to gyroscopic stabilization, it made sixty-one radio transmissions at two-day intervals and at five days, containing a large amount of interplanetary data. On 21 March 1963, when the spacecraft was at a distance of 106,760,000 km from Earth on its way to Mars, communications ceased due to failure of the spacecraft's antenna orientation system.
Mars 1's closest approach to Mars occurred on June 19, 1963 at a distance of 193,000 km, after which the spacecraft entered an orbit around the Sun. Mars 1 was a modified Venera-type spacecraft in the shape of a cylinder 3.3 m long and 1 m in diameter. The spacecraft measured 4 m across with the solar radiators deployed; the cylinder was divided into two compartments. The upper 2.7 m, the orbital module, contained on-board propulsion systems. The experiment module, containing the scientific instrumentation, comprised the bottom 0.6 m of the cylinder. A 1.7 m parabolic high gain antenna was used for communication, along with an omnidirectional antenna and a semi-directional antenna. Power was supplied by two solar panel wings with a total area of 2.6 m2 affixed to opposite sides of the spacecraft. Power was stored in a 42 ampere-hour cadmium-nickel battery. Communications were via a decimeter wavelength radio transmitter mounted in the orbital module which used the high-gain antenna; this was supplemented by a metre wavelength range transmitter through the omnidirectional antenna.
An 8 centimetre wavelength transmitter mounted in the experiment module was designed to transmit the TV images. Mounted in the experiment module was a 5-centimeter range impulse transmitter. Temperature control was achieved using a binary gas–liquid system and hemispherical radiators mounted on the ends of the solar panels; the craft carried various scientific instruments including a magnetometer probe, television photographic equipment, a spectroreflexometer, radiation sensors, a spectrograph to study ozone absorption bands, a micrometeoroid instrument. The probe recorded one micrometeorite strike every two minutes at altitudes ranging from 6,000 to 40,000 km from Earth's surface due to the Taurids meteor shower, recorded similar densities at distances from 20 to 40 million kilometres from Earth. Magnetic field intensities of 3–4 nanoteslas with peaks as high as 6–9 nT were measured in interplanetary space; the solar wind was detected. The radiation zones around Earth were detected, their magnitude confirmed.
This spacecraft is referenced as Sputnik 23 and Mars 2MV-4. It was designated Sputnik 30 in the U. S. Naval Space Command Satellite Situation Summary. Although it was called Mars 1, there were at least three other probes prior to this: Mars 2MV-4 No.1, Mars 1M No.2, Mars 1M No.1 Exploration of Mars List of missions to Mars Marsnik program Space exploration Unmanned space missions Mars 1 The Soviet Mars program, Professor Chris Mihos, Case Western Reserve University, National Space Science, Data Center
Stephen Bruce Harris was an English sports journalist, prominent from the 1930s to the 1950s, who wrote on tennis and cricket. Bruce Harris was born in Ireland and trained as a journalist in England in Middlesbrough and Birmingham before joining the Evening Standard in London in 1920 and turning his attention to sport. At first he specialised in tennis, but in 1932 the Evening Standard chose him ahead of his younger colleague E. W. Swanton, a cricket expert, to cover the forthcoming English cricket tour of Australia, he was the first journalist to have been sent on an overseas cricket tour by an individual newspaper. On the voyage to Australia, Douglas Jardine, England's captain on the 1932-33 tour, was planning his bodyline tactics, which he knew would be controversial. Harris was learning, they soon won each other's confidence. Harris supported Jardine's tactics throughout the tour, when the tour finished he wrote his first book, Jardine Justified, for which Jardine wrote a grateful foreword.
Arthur Mailey, the former Australian Test player, while deploring the closeness between Jardine and Harris, thought Jardine Justified full of "interesting and well-written passages" and better than most tour books. The reviewer for the Brisbane Telegraph noted that apart from the behaviour of the cricket crowds Harris evidently enjoyed Australia and wrote about it enthusiastically; the reviewer for The Age noted that the book included "several entertaining chapters relating to matters other than cricket". This "other-than-cricket" journalism became a feature of Harris's tour books. Of his book on the 1936-37 tour of Australia and New Zealand, the New Zealand Herald's reviewer wrote that between accounts of the matches Harris records "his journalist's impressions of Australia and its institutions. Gambling, life-saving on the beaches, hotel-closing, immigration are discussed. Many a good story enlivens his pages." The Sydney Morning Herald reviewer of Harris's book on the 1946-47 tour praised his ability to rise above the partisanship that mars cricket journalism, said, "he is an agreeable companion in these pages, in which he shows that he has an eager capacity for observing the life and people around him as he passed from place to place".
The Sydney Daily Telegraph reviewer of the same book devoted most of his review to an appreciation of Harris's chapter on Australia's liquor licensing laws. Harris was the first journalist to accompany five touring English cricket teams to Australia, beginning with the 1932-33 tour and ending with the 1954-55 tour, he wrote a book about each Australian tour, as well as several about Test series in England in the 1950s. Harris was the secretary of the Cricket Writers' Club soon after its founding in 1947 and served as the club's chairman, he died at his home in Ealing after a long illness, aged 73. Jardine Justified: The Truth about the Ashes 1937 Australian Test Tour With England in Australia: The Truth about the Tests In Quest of the Ashes, 1950-51 Cricket Triumph: England versus Australia, 1953 Ashes Triumphant: Australia versus England, 1954-5 England versus South Africa, 1955 Defending the Ashes, 1956 West Indies Cricket Challenge, 1957 The True Book about Cricket
The year 1845 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below. January 14 – Physikalische Gesellschaft zu Berlin established and begins publishing Fortschritte der Physik and Verhandlungen. August 28 – The journal Scientific American begins publication. Alexander von Humboldt's Kosmos: Entwurf einer physischen Weltbeschreibung begins publication. April – Lord Rosse discovers that the nebula M51 has a spiral structure. September–October – Cornish mathematician John Couch Adams communicates to James Challis and George Biddell Airy his calculations demonstrating that a body is perturbing the orbit of Uranus. November 10 – Urbain Le Verrier presents to the Académie des sciences in Paris a memoir showing that existing theories fail to account for the motion of Uranus. Construction begins in Ireland of the "Leviathan of Parsonstown", a telescope built by Lord Rosse. August–September – Previously unknown Potato blight strikes the potato crop in Ireland: start of the Irish Potato Famine.
March 17 – Stephen Perry patents the rubber band in England. Edmond Frémy discovers the oxidizing agent Frémy's salt. August – John Franklin's expedition with HMS Erebus and HMS Terror to find the Northwest Passage is last seen entering Baffin Bay prior to its mysterious disappearance. December 27 – Anesthesia is used in childbirth for the first time, by Dr Crawford Long in Jefferson, Georgia. September 13 – Michael Faraday discovers that an intense magnetic field can rotate the plane of polarized light, the Faraday effect. C. H. D. Buys Ballot confirms the Doppler effect for sound waves. Kirchhoff's circuit laws are first described by German physicist Gustav Kirchhoff. July 26–August 10 – Isambard Kingdom Brunel’s iron steamship Great Britain makes the Transatlantic Crossing from Liverpool to New York, the first screw propelled vessel to make the passage. Copley Medal: Theodor Schwann Wollaston Medal for Geology: John Phillips March 3 – Georg Cantor, Russian-born German mathematician. March 27 – Wilhelm Röntgen, German physicist, discoverer of X-rays, Nobel laureate.
April 21 – William Healey Dall, American malacologist and explorer. May 4 – William Kingdon Clifford, English geometer. May 16 – Élie Metchnikoff, Russian-born microbiologist, Nobel laureate. June 16 – Heinrich Dressel, German archaeologist. July 4 – Thomas Barnardo, Irish-born physician and philanthropist. September 11 – Émile Baudot, telegraph engineer. November 14 – Ulisse Dini, Italian mathematician. January 11 – Etheldred Benett, British geologist. March 13 – John Frederic Daniell, English chemist and physicist. March 18 –'Johnny Appleseed', American nurseryman. April 10 – Thomas Sewall, American anatomist. October 18 – Dominique, comte de Cassini, French astronomer. Jean Henri Jaume Saint-Hilaire, French botanist
Shasta is the name of a Hindu deity in India. Shasta is a generic Sanskrit term for a teacher; the word Shasta was first used in the sense of a Hindu deity in South India during the 3rd century CE. He is identified with many deities like Ayyappa. According to Guruswamy Viswanatha Sarma, who made an extensive study of the Sastha concept and Ayyappan chose eight Sastha incarnations for Loka Kshema. Shasta is a generic term that means "Teacher, Lord, Ruler" in Sanskrit. In South India, a number of deities are associated with Shasta; the Tamil song Shasta Varavu states that there are eight important forms of Shasta. This is present in the agamic work Dyana Ratnavali; the Ashta-Shasta are Aadhi Maha Shasta, Dharma Shasta, Gnana Shasta, Kalyana Varadha Shasta, Sammohana Shasta, Santhana Prapti Shasta, Veda Shasta and Veera Shasta. Brahma Shasta is another term associated with Kartikeya. In Tamil Nadu, Aiyanar is used as another name of the deity Shasta; the earliest reference to Aiyanar-Shasta is from the Arcot district in Tamil Nadu.
The stones are dated to the 3rd century C. E, they read "Ayanappa. This is followed by another inscription in Uraiyur near Tiruchirapalli, dated to the 4th century C. E. Literary references to Aiyanar-Chathan are found in Silappatikaram, a Tamil work dated to the 4th to 5th centuries C. E; the Tamil sangam classics Purananuru, Akananuru etc. refer to ayyanar and "chathan" in many poems. There are several numerous references to sasta in sangam works; some Tamil inscriptions of sangam times and of the pallava and chola period coming in from various parts of the empire refer to him as sevugan and mahasasta. The hymns of some alwars like tirumangai alwar and nammalwar in temples like tirumogur near madurai refer to sasta. A Sanskrit work dated prior to the 7th century known as Brahmanda Purana mentions Shasta as harihara suta or son of Narayana and Shiva. There are references in puranas that narrate as to how sasta during his tenure on earth long ago conducted discourses on vedas and vedantas to a galaxy of gods and sages.
On the Saivite revivalist Appar sang about Shasta as the progeny of Shiva and tirumaal in one of his Tevarams in the 7th century. The child saint tirugnanasambandar in one of his songs praises ayyanar as celibate god and terrible in warfare, taking his abode alongside bhootaganas of Lord Siva; the place sanctity and history document or sthalapuranam of tiruvanaikkaval, a saivite temple near trichy, first documented by sage kasyapa informs us that sasta once served lord sivan at that site and after being blessed with a vision was instructed by lord to take abode in the outer sanctorum. It says. Adi sankara has referred to ayyanar in sivanandalahari in one verse; some ancient hagiographies have accounted that sri sankara was a deivamsam of sree sasta, the same way as tirugnana sambandar was a divine portion of skanda and sundarar a divine portion of alalasundarar. He is known to have composed verses praising the deity but the same are not available to us as of today. From the Chola period onwards the popularity of Aiyanar-Shasta became more pronounced as is attested by epigraphy and imagery.
The Shasta religious tradition is well developed in the state of Kerala. The earliest inscription to Shasta was made in 855 C. E. by an Ay King at the Padmanabhapuram Sivan temple. Independent temples to Shasta are known from the 11th century C. E. Prior to that, Shasta veneration took place in the temples of Shiva and Vishnu, the premier gods of the Hindu pantheon. Since late medieval times, the warrior deity Ayyappa's following has become popular in the 20th century. According to the Brahmanda Purana,which dates prior to the 7th century mentions Shasta as harihara suta or son of Siva and Narayana; the Saivite revivalist Appar sang about Shasta as the progeny of Shiva and tirumaal in one of his Tevaram in the 7th century. The Tamil song Shasta Varavu states that there are eight important forms of Shasta; the Dyana ratnavali confirms the same fact. The Ashta-Shasta are Aadhi Maha Shasta, Dharma Shasta, Gnana Shasta, Kalyana Varadha Shasta, Sammohana Shasta, Santhana Prapti Shasta, Veda Shasta and Veera Shasta.
Among the Ashta-Shasta,the Adhi Maha Sastha and Dharma Shasta are worshipped. Aiyanar is worshiped as the protector of Village in Sri lanka. Ayyappan is worshipped in Kerala. Although Ayyappan and Aiyanar are incarnations of Sastha,there are large difference between them.. The major difference between them are Ayyappan is celibate,while Aiyanar is grihastha and has two wives Puranai and Pushkalai Aiyanar rides on Horse and white elephant, while Ayyappan rides on Horse and Tiger. In Kerala, Ayyappan is worshiped in Sabarimala temple while Aiyanar is worshipped in Achankovil Sree Dharmasastha TempleHowever, due to the fact that Ayyappan and Aiyanar both are incarnations of Sastha, the difference between them narrowed in the course of history. Tamil devotees did not discriminate Ayyappan with Ayyanar and they believe that Ayyappan is the avatar of Ayyanar, it can be noted that Sri Lankan Ayyanar temples are being converted into Ayyappan temples following the outbreak of Sabarimala pilgrimage of Sri Lankan devotees in recent years.
The Ashta Sasthas are: Adhi Maha Sastha-He is worshipped with two consorts – Poorna and Pushkala. He is worshipped in many villages of South, as a protector of their houses an
The Ponte dell'Accademia is one of only four bridges to span the Grand Canal in Venice, Italy. It crosses near the southern end of the canal, is named for the Accademia di Belle Arti di Venezia, which from 1807 to 2004 was housed in the Scuola della Carità together with the Gallerie dell'Accademia, still there; the bridge links the sestieri of San Marco. A bridge on the site was first suggested as early as 1488; the provveditore Luca Trum proposed in the Council to build two bridges across the Grand Canal, one here and the other at Santa Sofia. The members of the Council, laughed at him, the motion was not put to the vote; the original steel structure, designed by Alfred Neville, opened on 20 November 1854, but was demolished and replaced by a wooden bridge designed by Eugenio Miozzi and opened in 1933, despite widespread hopes for a stone bridge. Lovers have attempted to attach padlocks to the metal hand rails of the bridge, but Venetian authorities have cracked down on this. Panoramic virtual tour of Ponte dell Accademia & Accademia gallery High-resolution 360° Panoramas of Accademia Bridge | Art Atlas
Nina D. Berova is a Professor of Chemistry at Columbia University, she is recognised as a world leader in chiroptical spectroscopy. Her contributions include the development of porphyrin tweezers, she was the 2007 winner of the Società Chimica Italiana Chirality Medal. Berova earned her PhD at the University of Sofia in 1972, she stayed working for the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences for her early career. During this time she worked on chiroptical spectroscopy at Ruhr University Bochum, where she worked under the supervision of Günther Snatzke, she was made an Associate Professor in Organic Chemistry at Sofia University in 1982, made a visiting Professor at Columbia University in 1988. Soon after she became a Research Professor at Columbia University, working with Koji Nakanishi on chiroptical spectroscopy of natural products, their work started with the examination of biopolymers using exciton chirality, including pectin classification and the determination of glycosidic bonds. Berova was the only woman to win the Chirality Medal.
Berova's citation reads "in recognition of her outstanding achievements in the field of chiroptical spectroscopy and the elucidation of a wide range of important chemical and biological problems related to molecular and supramolecular chirality". She has delivered short courses on chrioptical spectroscopies included Optical Rotatory Dispersion, Circular Dichroism and Raman Optical Activity, she was elected an honorary member of the Italian Chemical Society at the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa in 2012. Her publications include. Circular Dichroism: Principles and Applications. Wiley. ISBN 9780471330035. Berova, Nina. Comprehensive Chiroptical Spectroscopy. Wiley. ISBN 9780470641354. Berova, Nina. "Application of electronic circular dichroism in configurational and conformational analysis of organic compounds". Chemical Society Reviews. 36. Berova, Nina. "Physicochemical characterization of a ouabain isomer isolated from bovine hypothalamus". PNAS. 90: 8189–8193. Bibcode:1993PNAS...90.8189T. Doi:10.1073/pnas.90.17.8189.
PMC 47314. PMID 8396262. Berova has been Editor of the journal Chirality since 1998, her awards and honours include.