Science fiction is a genre of speculative fiction dealing with imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and technology, space exploration, time travel, extraterrestrials in fiction. Science fiction explores the potential consequences of scientific other various innovations, has been called a "literature of ideas." "Science fiction" is difficult to define as it includes a wide range of concepts and themes. James Blish wrote: "Wells used the term to cover what we would today call'hard' science fiction, in which a conscientious attempt to be faithful to known facts was the substrate on which the story was to be built, if the story was to contain a miracle, it ought at least not to contain a whole arsenal of them."Isaac Asimov said: "Science fiction can be defined as that branch of literature which deals with the reaction of human beings to changes in science and technology." According to Robert A. Heinlein, "A handy short definition of all science fiction might read: realistic speculation about possible future events, based solidly on adequate knowledge of the real world and present, on a thorough understanding of the nature and significance of the scientific method."Lester del Rey wrote, "Even the devoted aficionado or fan—has a hard time trying to explain what science fiction is," and that the reason for there not being a "full satisfactory definition" is that "there are no delineated limits to science fiction."
Author and editor Damon Knight summed up the difficulty, saying "science fiction is what we point to when we say it." Mark C. Glassy described the definition of science fiction as U. S. Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart did with the definition of pornography: "I know it when I see it." Science fiction had its beginnings in a time when the line between myth and fact was arguably more blurred than the present day. Written in the 2nd century CE by the satirist Lucian, A True Story contains many themes and tropes that are characteristic of contemporary science fiction, including travel to other worlds, extraterrestrial lifeforms, interplanetary warfare, artificial life; some consider it the first science-fiction novel. Some of the stories from The Arabian Nights, along with the 10th-century The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter and Ibn al-Nafis's 13th-century Theologus Autodidactus contain elements of science fiction. Products of the Age of Reason and the development of modern science itself, Johannes Kepler's Somnium, Francis Bacon's New Atlantis, Cyrano de Bergerac's Comical History of the States and Empires of the Moon and The States and Empires of the Sun, Margaret Cavendish's "The Blazing World", Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels, Ludvig Holberg's Nicolai Klimii Iter Subterraneum and Voltaire's Micromégas are regarded as some of the first true science-fantasy works.
Indeed, Isaac Asimov and Carl Sagan considered Somnium the first science-fiction story. Following the 18th-century development of the novel as a literary form, Mary Shelley's books Frankenstein and The Last Man helped define the form of the science-fiction novel. Brian Aldiss has argued. Edgar Allan Poe wrote several stories considered science fiction, including "The Unparalleled Adventure of One Hans Pfaall" which featured a trip to the Moon. Jules Verne was noted for his attention to detail and scientific accuracy Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea which predicted the contemporary nuclear submarine. In 1887, the novel El anacronópete by Spanish author Enrique Gaspar y Rimbau introduced the first time machine. Many critics consider H. G. Wells one of science fiction's most important authors, or "the Shakespeare of science fiction." His notable science-fiction works include The Time Machine, The Island of Doctor Moreau, The Invisible Man, The War of the Worlds. His science fiction imagined alien invasion, biological engineering and time travel.
In his non-fiction futurologist works he predicted the advent of airplanes, military tanks, nuclear weapons, satellite television, space travel, something resembling the World Wide Web. In 1912, Edgar Rice Burroughs published A Princess of Mars, the first of his three-decade-long planetary romance series of Barsoom novels, set on Mars and featuring John Carter as the hero. In 1926, Hugo Gernsback published the first American science-fiction magazine, Amazing Stories, in which he wrote: By'scientifiction' I mean the Jules Verne, H. G. Wells and Edgar Allan Poe type of story—a charming romance intermingled with scientific fact and prophetic vision... Not only do these amazing tales make tremendously interesting reading—they are always instructive, they supply knowledge... in a palatable form... New adventures pictured for us in the scientifiction of today are not at all impossible of realization tomorrow... Many great science stories destined to be of historical interest are still to be written...
Posterity will point to them as having blazed a new trail, not only in literature and fiction, but progress as well. In 1928, E. E. "Doc" Smith's first published work, The Skylark of Space, written in collaboration with Lee Hawkins Garby, appeared in Amazing Stories. It is called the first great space opera; the same year, Philip Francis Nowlan's original Buck Rogers story, Armageddon 2419 appeared in Amazing Stories. This was followed by the first serious science-fiction comic. In 1937, John W. Campbell became editor of Astounding Science Fiction, an event, sometimes conside
A trading card is a small card made out of paperboard or thick paper, which contains an image of a certain person, place or thing and a short description of the picture, along with other text. There is a wide variation of different types of cards. Modern cards go as far as to include swatches of game worn memorabilia, DNA hair samples of their subjects. Trading cards are traditionally associated with sports. Cards dealing with other subjects like Pokémon are considered a separate category from sports cards, known as non-sports trading cards; these feature cartoons, comic book characters, television series and film stills. In the 1990s, cards designed for playing games became popular enough to develop into a distinct category, collectible card games; these games are fantasy-based gameplay. Fantasy art cards are a subgenre of trading cards; the game with the highest number of cards and most popularity is Magic: the Gathering. Trade cards are the ancestors of trading cards; some of the earliest prizes found in retail products were cigarette cards — trade cards advertising the product that were inserted into paper packs of cigarettes as stiffeners to protect the contents.
Allen and Ginter in the U. S. in 1886, British company W. D. & H. O. Wills in 1888, were the first tobacco companies to print advertisements. A couple years lithograph pictures on the cards with an encyclopedic variety of topics from nature to war to sports — subjects that appealed to men who smoked - began to surface as well. By 1900, there were thousands of tobacco card sets manufactured by 300 different companies. Children would stand outside of stores to ask customers who bought cigarettes for the promotional cards. Following the success of cigarette cards, trade cards were produced by manufacturers of other products and included in the product or handed to the customer by the store clerk at the time of purchase. World War II put an end to cigarette card production due to limited paper resources, after the war cigarette cards never made a comeback. After that collectors of prizes from retail products took to collecting tea cards in the UK and bubble gum cards in the US; the first baseball cards were trade cards printed in the late 1860s by a sporting goods company, around the time baseball became a professional sport.
Most of the baseball cards around the beginning of the 20th century came in candy and tobacco products. It was during this era that the most valuable baseball card printed was produced - the infamous T206 tobacco card featuring Honus Wagner; the T206 Set, distributed by the American Tobacco Company in 1909, is considered by collectors to be the most popular set of all time. In 1933, Goudey Gum Company of Boston issued baseball cards with players biographies on the backs and was the first to put baseball cards in bubble gum; the 1933 Goudey set remains one of the most affordable vintage sets to this day. Bowman Gum of Philadelphia issued its first baseball cards in 1948. Topps Chewing Gum, Inc. now known as "The Topps Company, Inc.", started inserting trading cards into bubble gum packs in 1950 — with such topics as TV and film cowboy Hopalong Cassidy. Topps produced its first baseball trading card set in 1951, with the resulting design resembling that of playing cards. Topps owner and founder Sy Berger created the first true modern baseball card set, complete with playing record and statistics, the following year in the form of 1952 Topps Baseball.
This is one of the most popular sets of all time, due in large part to the fact that it contained Mickey Mantle's rookie card. Topps purchased their chief competitor, Bowman Gum, in 1956. Topps was the leader in the trading card industry from 1956 to 1980, not only in sports cards but in entertainment cards as well. Many of the top selling non-sports cards were produced by Topps, including Wacky Packages, Star Wars and Garbage Pail Kids. Topps inserted baseball cards as prizes into packs of gum until 1981, when cards were sold without the gum. Collectors were delighted, since the oil from the gum was ruining an otherwise pristine or valuable card. In an attempt to stay current with technology and digital trends and new trading card companies started to create digital trading cards that lives online or as a digital counterpart of a physical card. In 2000, Topps established themselves in the digital space by launching a new brand of sports cards, called etopps; these cards were sold online through individual IPO's in which the card is offered for a week at the IPO price.
The quantity sold depended on how many people was limited to a certain maximum. After a sale, the cards were held in a climate-controlled warehouse unless the buyer requests delivery, the cards could be traded online without changing hands except in the virtual sense. In January 2012, Topps announced. Digital collectable card games were estimated to be a $1.3B market in 2013. A number of tech start-ups have attempted to establish themselves in this space, notably Stampii, Deckdaq, 2Stic; these companies competed with the high cost of digital licensing of quality brand content, they had to struggle with the difficulty of monetizing Internet content in an 8- to 12-year-old demographic. The only successful
In the United States, a district attorney is the chief prosecutor for a local government area a county. The exact name of the office varies by state. Except in the smallest counties, a district attorney leads a staff of prosecutors, who are most known as deputy district attorneys; the Deputy who serves as the supervisor of the office is called the Assistant District Attorney. The majority of prosecutions will be delegated to DDAs, with the district attorney prosecuting the most important cases and having overall responsibility for their agency and its work. Depending upon the system in place, DAs may be appointed by the chief executive of the jurisdiction or elected by local voters; the district attorney, assistant district attorneys under the district attorney’s authority, are the attorneys representing a government body as prosecutors who are responsible for presenting cases against individuals and groups who are suspected of breaking the law and directing further criminal investigations and recommending the sentencing of offenders, are the only attorneys allowed to participate in grand jury proceedings.
The United States Judiciary Act of 1789, Section 35, provided for the appointment of a person in each judicial district to prosecute federal crimes and to represent the United States in all civil actions to which it was a party. There were 13 districts to cover the 11 States that had by that time ratified the constitution; each State was a district, except for Virginia which formed two. Districts were added; the statute did not confer a title upon these local agents of federal authority, but subsequent statutes and court decisions referred to them most as "district attorneys". In 1948, the Judicial Code adopted the term "United States attorneys"; this term for a prosecutor originates with the traditional use of the term "district" for multi-county prosecutorial jurisdictions in several U. S. states. For example, New York appointed prosecutors to multi-county districts prior to 1813. After those states broke up such districts and started appointing or electing prosecutors for individual counties, they continued to use the title "district attorney" for the most senior prosecutor in a county rather than switch to "county attorney".
District attorney and assistant district attorney are the most common titles for state prosecutors, are used by several major jurisdictions within the United States, such as California, Georgia, Nevada, New York, North Carolina, Oregon, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin. In St. Louis, the title is circuit attorney, while in St. Louis County, the title is prosecuting attorney. Alternative titles for the office include commonwealth's attorney, state's attorney, county attorney, circuit solicitor, or county prosecutor. In the United Kingdom, the equivalent position to a district attorney is a chief crown prosecutor, the equivalent to an assistant district attorney is a crown prosecutor; these prosecutors work under the Crown Prosecution Service in England and Wales, the Procurator Fiscal in Scotland, the Director of Public Prosecutions in Northern Ireland. In many other countries, the title of the chief prosecuting officer is Director of Public Prosecutions. In Canada, the equivalent position to a district attorney is a crown attorney, crown counsel or Crown Prosecutor depending on the province, the equivalent to an assistant district attorney is the assistant crown attorney, assistant crown counsel or assistant crown prosecutor respectively.
The assistant district attorney, or state prosecutor, is a law enforcement official who represents the state government on behalf of the district attorney in investigating and prosecuting individuals alleged to have committed a crime. In carrying out their duties to enforce state and local laws, ADAs have the authority to investigate persons, issue subpoenas, file formal criminal charges, plea bargain with defendants, grant immunity to witnesses and accused criminals. Administrative assistant district attorney, executive assistant district attorney, chief assistant district attorney, or first assistant district attorney are some of the titles given to the senior ADA leadership working under the DA; the chief ADA or first ADA, depending on the office, is considered the second-in-command, reports directly to the DA. The exact roles and job assignments for each title vary with each individual office, but include management of the daily activities and supervision of specialized divisions within the office.
A senior ADA may oversee or prosecute some of the larger crimes within the jurisdiction. In some offices, the Exec ADA has the responsibility of hiring lawyers and support staff, as well as supervising press-releases and overseeing the work of the office; some District Attorneys maintain their own law enforcement arm whose members are sworn peace officers. Depending on the jurisdiction, they are referred to as District Attorney Investigators or county detectives. List of district attorneys by county Allegheny County District Attorney Baltimore County State's Attorney Bronx County District Attorney Commonwealth's attorney Cook County State's Attorney Dallas County District Attorney Denver District Attorney's Office District Attorney of Philadelphia Essex County Prosecutor's Office King County Prosecuting Attorney Kings County District Attorney Law and order Los Angeles County District Attorney Milwaukee County District Attorney New York County District Attorney Prosecuting Attorney of Honolulu Queens County District Attorney Richmond County District Attorney San Diego County District Attor
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System. It is a giant planet with a mass one-thousandth that of the Sun, but two-and-a-half times that of all the other planets in the Solar System combined. Jupiter and Saturn are gas giants. Jupiter has been known to astronomers since antiquity, it is named after the Roman god Jupiter. When viewed from Earth, Jupiter can reach an apparent magnitude of −2.94, bright enough for its reflected light to cast shadows, making it on average the third-brightest natural object in the night sky after the Moon and Venus. Jupiter is composed of hydrogen with a quarter of its mass being helium, though helium comprises only about a tenth of the number of molecules, it may have a rocky core of heavier elements, but like the other giant planets, Jupiter lacks a well-defined solid surface. Because of its rapid rotation, the planet's shape is that of an oblate spheroid; the outer atmosphere is visibly segregated into several bands at different latitudes, resulting in turbulence and storms along their interacting boundaries.
A prominent result is the Great Red Spot, a giant storm, known to have existed since at least the 17th century when it was first seen by telescope. Surrounding Jupiter is a powerful magnetosphere. Jupiter has 79 known moons, including the four large Galilean moons discovered by Galileo Galilei in 1610. Ganymede, the largest of these, has a diameter greater than that of the planet Mercury. Jupiter has been explored on several occasions by robotic spacecraft, most notably during the early Pioneer and Voyager flyby missions and by the Galileo orbiter. In late February 2007, Jupiter was visited by the New Horizons probe, which used Jupiter's gravity to increase its speed and bend its trajectory en route to Pluto; the latest probe to visit the planet is Juno, which entered into orbit around Jupiter on July 4, 2016. Future targets for exploration in the Jupiter system include the probable ice-covered liquid ocean of its moon Europa. Astronomers have discovered nearly 500 planetary systems with multiple planets.
These systems include a few planets with masses several times greater than Earth's, orbiting closer to their star than Mercury is to the Sun, sometimes Jupiter-mass gas giants close to their star. Earth and its neighbor planets may have formed from fragments of planets after collisions with Jupiter destroyed those super-Earths near the Sun; as Jupiter came toward the inner Solar System, in what theorists call the grand tack hypothesis, gravitational tugs and pulls occurred causing a series of collisions between the super-Earths as their orbits began to overlap. Researchers from Lund University found that Jupiter's migration went on for around 700,000 years, in a period 2-3 million years after the celestial body started its life as an ice asteroid far from the sun; the journey inwards in the solar system followed a spiraling course in which Jupiter continued to circle around the sun, albeit in an tight path. The reason behind the actual migration relates to gravitational forces from the surrounding gases in the solar system.
Jupiter moving out of the inner Solar System would have allowed the formation of inner planets, including Earth. Jupiter is composed of gaseous and liquid matter, it is the largest of hence its largest planet. It has a diameter of 142,984 km at its equator; the average density of Jupiter, 1.326 g/cm3, is the second highest of the giant planets, but lower than those of the four terrestrial planets. Jupiter's upper atmosphere is about 88–92% hydrogen and 8–12% helium by percent volume of gas molecules. A helium atom has about four times as much mass as a hydrogen atom, so the composition changes when described as the proportion of mass contributed by different atoms. Thus, Jupiter's atmosphere is 75% hydrogen and 24% helium by mass, with the remaining one percent of the mass consisting of other elements; the atmosphere contains trace amounts of methane, water vapor and silicon-based compounds. There are traces of carbon, hydrogen sulfide, oxygen and sulfur; the outermost layer of the atmosphere contains crystals of frozen ammonia.
The interior contains denser materials—by mass it is 71% hydrogen, 24% helium, 5% other elements. Through infrared and ultraviolet measurements, trace amounts of benzene and other hydrocarbons have been found; the atmospheric proportions of hydrogen and helium are close to the theoretical composition of the primordial solar nebula. Neon in the upper atmosphere only consists of 20 parts per million by mass, about a tenth as abundant as in the Sun. Helium is depleted to about 80% of the Sun's helium composition; this depletion is a result of precipitation of these elements into the interior of the planet. Based on spectroscopy, Saturn is thought to be similar in composition to Jupiter, but the other giant planets Uranus and Neptune have less hydrogen and helium and more ices and are thus now termed ice giants. Jupiter's mass is 2.5 times that of all the other planets in the Solar System combined—this is so massive that its barycenter with the Sun lies above the Sun's surface at 1.068 solar radii from the Sun's center.
Jupiter is much larger than Earth and less dense: its volume is that of about 1,321 Earths, but it is only 318 times as massive. Jupiter's radius is about 1/10 the radius of the Sun, its mass is 0.001 times the mass of the Sun, so the densities of the two bodies are similar. A "Jupiter mass" is used as a u
Arachnids are a class of joint-legged invertebrate animals, in the subphylum Chelicerata. All adult arachnids have eight legs, although the front pair of legs in some species has converted to a sensory function, while in other species, different appendages can grow large enough to take on the appearance of extra pairs of legs; the term is derived from the Greek word ἀράχνη, from the myth of the hubristic human weaver Arachne, turned into a spider. Spiders are the largest order in the class, which includes scorpions, mites and solifuges. In 2019, a molecular phylogenetic study placed horseshoe crabs in Arachnida. All extant arachnids are terrestrial, living on land. However, some inhabit freshwater environments and, with the exception of the pelagic zone, marine environments as well, they comprise over 100,000 named species. All adult arachnids have eight legs, arachnids may be distinguished from insects by this fact, since insects have six legs. However, arachnids have two further pairs of appendages that have become adapted for feeding and sensory perception.
The first pair, the chelicerae, serve in defense. The next pair of appendages, the pedipalps, have been adapted for feeding, and/or reproductive functions. In Solifugae, the palps are quite leg-like; the larvae of mites and Ricinulei have only six legs. However, mites are variable: as well as eight, there are adult mites with six or four legs. Arachnids are further distinguished from insects by the fact, their body is organized into two tagmata, called the prosoma, or cephalothorax, the opisthosoma, or abdomen. The cephalothorax is derived from the fusion of the cephalon and the thorax, is covered by a single, unsegmented carapace; the abdomen is segmented in the more primitive forms, but varying degrees of fusion between the segments occur in many groups. It is divided into a preabdomen and postabdomen, although this is only visible in scorpions, in some orders, such as the Acari, the abdominal sections are fused. A telson is present in scorpions, where it has been modified to a stinger, in the Schizomida, whip scorpions and Palpigradi.
Like all arthropods, arachnids have an exoskeleton, they have an internal structure of cartilage-like tissue, called the endosternite, to which certain muscle groups are attached. The endosternite is calcified in some Opiliones. Most arachnids lack extensor muscles in the distal joints of their appendages. Spiders and whipscorpions extend their limbs hydraulically using the pressure of their hemolymph. Solifuges and some harvestmen extend their knees by the use of elastic thickenings in the joint cuticle. Scorpions and some harvestmen have evolved muscles that extend two leg joints at once; the equivalent joints of the pedipalps of scorpions though, are extended by elastic recoil. There are characteristics that are important for the terrestrial lifestyle of arachnids, such as internal respiratory surfaces in the form of tracheae, or modification of the book gill into a book lung, an internal series of vascular lamellae used for gas exchange with the air. While the tracheae are individual systems of tubes, similar to those in insects, ricinuleids and some spiders possess sieve tracheae, in which several tubes arise in a bundle from a small chamber connected to the spiracle.
This type of tracheal system has certainly evolved from the book lungs, indicates that the tracheae of arachnids are not homologous with those of insects. Further adaptations to terrestrial life are appendages modified for more efficient locomotion on land, internal fertilisation, special sensory organs, water conservation enhanced by efficient excretory structures as well as a waxy layer covering the cuticle; the excretory glands of arachnids include up to four pairs of coxal glands along the side of the prosoma, one or two pairs of Malpighian tubules, emptying into the gut. Many arachnids have the other type of excretory gland, although several do have both; the primary nitrogenous waste product in arachnids is guanine. Arachnid blood is variable in composition, depending on the mode of respiration. Arachnids with an efficient tracheal system do not need to transport oxygen in the blood, may have a reduced circulatory system. In scorpions and some spiders, the blood contains haemocyanin, a copper-based pigment with a similar function to haemoglobin in vertebrates.
The heart is located in the forward part of the abdomen, may or may not be segmented. Some mites have no heart at all. Arachnids are carnivorous, feeding on the pre-digested bodies of insects and other small animals. Only in the harvestmen and among mites, such as the house dust mite, is there ingestion of solid food particles, thus exposure to internal parasites, although it is not unusual for spiders to eat their own silk. Several groups secrete venom from specialized glands to kill prey or enemies. Several mites and ticks are parasites. Arachnids produce digestive juices in their stomachs, use their pedipalps and chelicerae to pour them over their dead prey; the digestive juices turn the prey into a broth of nutrients, which the arachnid sucks into a pre-buccal cavity located in front of the mouth. Behind the mouth is a muscular, sclerotised pharynx, which acts as a pump, sucking the food through the mouth and on into the oesophagus and stomach. In some arachnids, the oesophagus a
Charles Adlard is a British comic book artist, known for his work on books such as The Walking Dead and Savage. Adlard began his work in the UK on White Death with Robbie Morrison and 2000 AD series including Judge Dredd, Armitage, he has continued working for them with the series Savage. In the United States he is best known for his work on The X-Files, Astronauts in Trouble and The Walking Dead, he has been the penciller on The Walking Dead since 2004. Other work includes: Mars Attacks!. He illustrated. In 1992, he collaborated with Guy N. Smith Crabs' Fury; the one-shot was re-released as a limited edition in September 2008 through Ghostwriter Publications. In 2012, Adlard was one of several artists to illustrate a variant cover for Robert Kirkman's The Walking Dead #100, released 11 July at the San Diego Comic-Con. Judge Dredd: "The Hand of Fate" "War Games" "Endgame" "The Satanist" "Gulag" Warheads: Black Dawn Armitage: "Influential Circles" "Flashback" "Flashback II" Judge Hershey: "Hershey & Steel - Degenomancer" Rogue Trooper: "Angels" The X-Files #1-16, 18-19, 22-23, 27-29 The Crow: Wild Justice Shadowman #5-15 Hellblazer #108 The Establishment #1-13 Nikolai Dante: "The Full Dante" "Masque of Dante" "Tour of Duty" "Fists of Fury" "Last Dance of the Trans-Siberian" "The BandyMan" White Death Pulp Sci-Fi: "Buzz Tycho's Last Stand" Astronauts in Trouble Batman/Scarface Thunderbolts: Life Sentences #1 Codeflesh Savage: "Savage Book I" "Savage Book II" "Savage Book III" Warlock The Walking Dead #7- Rock Bottom Le Souffle du Wendigo Playing the Game FutureQuake #5 Gen 13 Bootleg #20 cover artist July 1998 Charlie Adlard at the Comic Book DB Charlie Adlard at the Grand Comics Database Charlie Adlard at the Big Comic Book DataBase Charlie Adlard at 2000 AD online Comic Book Awards Almanac Incoherentboy Chats With…Charlie Adlard – Part I, incoherentboy.com, 14 October 2012 artINTERVIEWS with Charlie Adlard, artinterviews.tumblr.com 2005 Interview, 2000ADReview.co.uk Interview with Charlie Adlard about his works and comics in general, web.archive.org.
Charlie Adlard: giving life to the zombies of the Walking Dead, The Times, 6 July 2009. Interview, imaginedaily.com.
Kickstarter is an American public-benefit corporation based in Brooklyn, New York, that maintains a global crowdfunding platform focused on creativity and merchandising. The company's stated mission is to "help bring creative projects to life". Kickstarter has received more than $4 billion in pledges from 15.5 million backers to fund 257,000 creative projects, such as films, stage shows, journalism, video games and food-related projects. People who back Kickstarter projects are offered tangible rewards or experiences in exchange for their pledges; this model traces its roots to subscription model of arts patronage, where artists would go directly to their audiences to fund their work. Kickstarter launched on April 28, 2009, by Perry Chen, Yancey Strickler, Charles Adler; the New York Times called Kickstarter "the people's NEA". Time named it one of the "Best Inventions of 2010" and "Best Websites of 2011". Kickstarter raised $10 million funding from backers including NYC-based venture firm Union Square Ventures and angel investors such as Jack Dorsey, Zach Klein and Caterina Fake.
The company is based in Brooklyn. Andy Baio served as the site's CTO until November 2010. Lance Ivy has been Lead Developer since the website launched. On February 14, 2013, Kickstarter released; the app was aimed at users who create and back projects and was the first time Kickstarter had an official mobile presence. On October 31, 2012, Kickstarter opened projects based in the United Kingdom, followed by projects based in Canada on September 9, 2013, Australia and New Zealand on November 13, 2013, the Netherlands on April 28, 2014, Ireland and Sweden on September 15, 2014, Germany on April 28, 2015, France and Spain on May 19, 2015, Belgium, Italy and Switzerland on June 16, 2015, Singapore and Hong Kong on August 30, 2016, Mexico on November 15, 2016 and Japan on September 12, 2017. In July 2017, Strickler announced his resignation. Kickstarter is one of a number of crowdfunding platforms for gathering money from the public, which circumvents traditional avenues of investment. Project creators choose a minimum funding goal.
If the goal is not met by the deadline, no funds are collected. The kickstarter platform is open to backers from anywhere in the world and to creators from many countries, including the US, UK, Australia, New Zealand, The Netherlands, Ireland, Sweden, France, Austria, Belgium, Luxembourg and Mexico. Kickstarter applies a 5% fee on the total amount of the funds raised, their payments processor applies an additional 3–5% fee. Unlike many forums for fundraising or investment, Kickstarter claims no ownership over the projects and the work they produce; the web pages of projects launched on the site are permanently archived and accessible to the public. After funding is completed and uploaded media cannot be edited or removed from the site. There is no guarantee that people who post projects on Kickstarter will deliver on their projects, use the money to implement their projects, or that the completed projects will meet backers' expectations. Kickstarter advises backers to use their own judgment on supporting a project.
They warn project leaders that they could be liable for legal damages from backers for failure to deliver on promises. Projects might fail after a successful fundraising campaign when creators underestimate the total costs required or technical difficulties to be overcome. Asked what made Kickstarter different from other crowdfunding platforms, co-founder Perry Chen said: "I wonder if people know what the definition of crowdfunding is. Or, if there’s an agreed upon definition of what it is. We haven’t supported the use of the term because it can provoke more confusion. In our case, we focus on a middle ground between commerce. People are offering cool stuff and experiences in exchange for the support of their ideas. People are creating these mini-economies around their project ideas. So, you aren’t coming to the site to get something for nothing. We focus on creative projects—music, technology, design and publishing—and within the category of crowdfunding of the arts, we are ten times the size of all of the others combined."
On June 21, 2012, Kickstarter began publishing statistics on its projects. As of February 13, 2015, there were 207,135 launched projects, with a success rate of 40%; the total amount pledged was $1,523,718,656. The business grew in its early years. In 2010 Kickstarter had $27,638,318 pledged; the corresponding figures for 2011 were 11,836 funded projects and $99,344,381 pledged. On February 9, 2012, Kickstarter hit a number of milestones. A dock made for the iPhone designed by Casey Hopkins became the first Kickstarter project to exceed one million dollars in pledges. A few hours a new adventure game project started by computer game developers, Double Fine Productions, reached the same figure, having been launched less than 24 hours earlier, finished with over $3 million pledged; this was the first time Kickstarter raised over a million dollars in pledges in a single day. On August 30, 2014, the "Coolest Cooler", an icebox created by Ryan Grepper, became the most funded Kickstarter project in history, with US$13.28 million in funding, breaking the record held by the Pebble smart watch.
In July 2012, Wharton professor Ethan Mollick and Jeanne Pi conducted research