The Mars Observer spacecraft known as the Mars Geoscience/Climatology Orbiter, was a robotic space probe launched by NASA on September 25, 1992, to study the Martian surface, atmosphere and magnetic field. During the interplanetary cruise phase, communication with the spacecraft was lost on August 21, 1993, three days prior to orbital insertion. Attempts to re-establish communication with the spacecraft were unsuccessful. In 1984, a high priority mission to Mars was set forth by the Solar System Exploration Committee. Titled the Mars Geoscience/Climatology Orbiter, the Martian orbiter was planned to expand on the information gathered by the Viking program. Preliminary mission goals expected the probe to provide planetary magnetic field data, detection of certain spectral line signatures of minerals on the surface, images of the surface at 1 meter/pixel and global elevation data. Mars Observer was planned to be launched in 1990 by a Space Shuttle Orbiter; the possibility for an expendable rocket to be used was suggested, if the spacecraft was designed to meet certain constraints.
On March 12, 1987, the mission was rescheduled for launch in 1992, in lieu of other backlogged missions after the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster. Along with a launch delay, budget overruns necessitated the elimination of two instruments to meet the 1992 planned launch; as the development matured, the primary science objectives were finalized as: Determine the global elemental and mineralogical character of the surface material. Define globally the topography and gravitational field. Establish the nature of the Martian magnetic field. Determine the temporal and spatial distribution, abundance and sinks of volatiles and dust over a seasonal cycle. Explore the structure and circulation of the atmosphere; the program's total cost is estimated at $813 million. The Mars Observer spacecraft had a mass of 1,018 kilograms, its bus measured 1.1 meters tall, 2.2 meters wide, 1.6 meters deep. The spacecraft was based on previous satellite designs intended and developed to orbit Earth; the RCA AS-4000 Ku-band satellite design was used extensively for the spacecraft bus, thermal protection, solar array.
RCA TIROS and DMSP Block 50-2 satellite designs were utilized in the implementing the Attitude and Articulation Control System and data handling subsystem, power subsystem, into Mars Observer. Other elements such as the bipropellant components and high-gain antenna were designed for the mission; the spacecraft was three-axis stabilized with four reaction wheels and twenty-four thrusters with 1,346 kilograms of propellant. The propulsion system is a high thrust, monomethyl hydrazine/nitrogen tetroxide bipropellant system for larger maneuvers and a lower thrust hydrazine monopropellant system for minor orbital corrections during the mission. Of the bipropellant thrusters, four located on the aft, provide 490 newtons of thrust for course corrections, control of the spacecraft during the Mars orbital insertion maneuver and large orbit corrections during the mission. Of the hydrazine thrusters, eight provide 4.5 newtons to control orbit trim maneuvers. To determine the orientation of the spacecraft, a horizon sensor, a 6-slit star scanner, five sun sensors were included.
For telecommunications, the spacecraft included a two-axis gimbaled 1.5 meter, parabolic high-gain antenna, mounted to a 6 meter boom to communicate with the Deep Space Network across the X-band using two GFP NASA X-band transponders and two GFP command detector units. An assembly of six low-gain antennas, a single medium-gain antenna were included, to be used during the cruise phase while the high-gain antenna remained stowed, for contingency measures should communications through the high-gain antenna become restricted; when broadcasting to the Deep Space Network, a maximum of 10.66 kilobytes/second could be achieved while the spacecraft could receive commands at a maximum bandwidth of 62.5 bytes/second. Power was supplied to the spacecraft through a six panel solar array, measuring 7.0 meters wide and 3.7 meters tall, would provide an average of 1,147 watts when in orbit. To power the spacecraft while occluded from the Sun, two 42 A·h nickel-cadmium batteries were included; the computing system on the spacecraft was a retooling of the system used on the TIROS and DMSP satellites.
The semiautonomous system was able to store up to 2,000 commands in the included 64 kilobytes of random-access memory, execute them at a maximum rate of 12.5 commands/second. To record data, redundant digital tape recorders were included and each capable of storing up to 187.5 megabytes, for playback to the Deep Space Network. Mars Observer was launched on September 25, 1992 at 17:05:01 UTC by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration from Space Launch Complex 40 at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida, aboard a Commercial Titan III CT-4 launch vehicle; the complete burn sequence lasted for 34 minutes after a solid-fuel Transfer Orbit Stage placed the spacecraft into an 11-month, Mars transfer trajectory, at a final speed of 5.28 km/s with respect to Mars. On August 25, 1992, particulate contamination was found within the spacecraft. After a full inspection, a cleaning was determined necessary and was performed on August 29; the suspected cause of the contamination were measures taken to pro
The St. Anne Chapel or the Church of St. Anne and written as Inagod Chapel, is a Roman Catholic religious building in the town of Inagod in Lifou in the Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia, a dependent territory of France in Oceania; the chapel is located in the district of Losi in Inagod. It is on the right side of the main island south of the road, it is located 10 meters above the sea. According to the writings of J. B. P. Fabre, the chapel was built in 1866 and was made with materials like plaster; the construction of this building was made by the tribe for the same reverend and at the same time, a small house was built 5 meters from the chapel, in the southwest side. The chapel is used for Catholic worship. A new chapel was built according to an octagonal plan, according to the old designs of Christian architecture. Roman Catholicism in France Nouméa Cathedral
Erigeron trifidus is a Canadian species of flowering plant in the daisy family known by the common name Alberta fleabane. It is native to British Columbia in western Canada. Erigeron trifidus grows on scree slopes in alpine zones at high elevations, it is a small perennial herb more than 10 centimeters tall, producing a branching underground caudex. Leaves are 3-lobed, up to 3 cm long; the inflorescence is made up of only one flower heads per stem. Each head contains 20–40 white, lavender, or pink ray florets surrounding numerous yellow disc florets. Hooker, William Jackson 1834. Flora Boreali-Americana 2: plate CXX line drawings of Erigeron trifidus
Ali Akbar Nateq-Nouri is an Iranian politician. Nateq-Nouri was the interior minister of the Islamic Republic, he served as the Chairman of the Parliament from 1992 to 2000. He was a candidate in the Iranian presidential election in 1997, he was Khamanei's preferred candidate. He was given nearly seven million votes, he served as an advisor to Iran's supreme leader until his resignation in 2017. He was a critic of former Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, he visited Egypt in 2010. Nateq-Nouri was at the center of an international dispute in 2009 after he referred to Bahrain as Iran's 14th province. Bahrain paused negotiations with Iran regarding gas imports in response, the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf condemned the remarks; the Iranian foreign minister commented on the controversy and stated that Nateq-Nouri's remarks about the history of Bahrain had been misinterpreted by the media and that Iran respected Bahrain's sovereignty. Nateq-Nouri himself told Al Jazeera that his remarks about the history of the region had been misunderstood and that his comment was not relevant to today's Iran-Bahrain relationship
Kajokeji spelled Kajokaji, Kajo-keji and Kago Kaju, is a town in South Sudan. Kajokeji is part of the six counties of Central Equatoria, it is 150 kilometres, by road, south of Juba, the capital of and largest city in South Sudan. It lies near the state border with Eastern Equatoria State and close to the international border with Uganda, to the south; the town of Nimule lies 50 kilometres by road southeast of Kajo Keji, at the point where the Victoria Nile leaves Uganda to enter South Sudan. The coordinates of Kajo Keji are:3°50'57.0"N, 31°39'28.0"E. Kajo Keji and the surrounding community are home to the Kuku people; the town is home to the headquarters of the Anglican Diocese of Kajo Keji, with Bishop Emmanuel Murye Modi being the prelate. Equity Bank South Sudan Limited maintains a branch in the town, being the only commercial bank in the county; as of June 2010, the population of Kajo Keji was estimated at 196,000. Transport in South Sudan The Kajo Keji Project
"Hangin' Around" is a single released in 2006 by the UK hip hop/R&B group Big Brovaz. It was the second single from their second album, Re-Entry the first with independent label RAF/Genetic Records and their first as a four-piece; the single became Big Brovaz' lowest charting UK single to date, missing the top 40 of the UK Singles Chart peaking at number fifty-seven and dropping out the following week. This is due to lack of airplay and video airplay as the video was ignored by channels such as The Box who had supported their previous work. Radio stations such as BBC Radio 1 failed to playlist the track and in not doing so, it failed to make the top fifty in the UK radio airplay chart. Due to the underperformance of both "Yours Fatally" and more so "Hangin' Around", the Re-Entry album was pushed back further to 2007; the CD single for "Hangin' Around" featured the song "Hear Me Knockin'", featured on the Re-Entry album. "Hangin' Around" features a sample from The Carpenters' track "Rainy Days and Mondays".
UK CD 1 "Hangin' Around" "Hear Me Knockin'" UK CD 2 "Hangin' Around" "Hangin' Around" "Hangin' Around" "Hangin' Around" "Hangin' Around"