John Marin was an early American modernist artist. He is known for his landscapes and watercolors. Marin was born in Rutherford, New Jersey and his mother died nine days after his birth, and he was raised by two aunts in Weehawken, New Jersey. He attended the Stevens Institute of Technology for a year, from 1899 to 1901, Marin attended the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts in Philadelphia. In Philadelphia he studied with Thomas Pollock Anshutz and William Merritt Chase and he studied at the Art Students League of New York. In 1905, like many American artists Marin went to Europe and he exhibited his work in the Salon, where he got his first exposure to modern art. He traveled through Europe for six years, and painted in the Netherlands, England, in 1909, Marin held his first one-man exhibition at Alfred Stieglitzs 291 gallery in New York City. He had been introduced to Stieglitz by the photographer Edward Steichen, Marins association with Stieglitz would last nearly forty years, and Stieglitzs philosophical and financial support would prove essential.
From 1909 until his death in 1946, Stieglitz showed Marins work almost every year in one of his galleries, Marin participated in the landmark 1913 Armory Show. Marin spent his first summer in Maine in 1914 and almost immediately the rocky coast there became one of his favorite subjects, over the rest of his life, Marin became intimately familiar with the many moods of the sea and sky in Maine. In painting water make the move the way the water moves. Marin had a show in 1936 at the Museum of Modern Art. Late in life Marin achieved tremendous prestige as an American painter, in 1950, he was honored by the University of Maine and Yale University with honorary degrees of Doctor of Fine Arts. Marin was a resident of Cliffside Park, New Jersey in his last years, and maintained a home in Addison, Maine. He was interred at Fairview Cemetery, John Marin was among the first American artists to make abstract paintings. Marin is often credited with influencing the Abstract Expressionists and his treatment of paint—handling oils almost like watercolors—his forays into abstraction, and his use of evocative stretches of bare canvas caught the eye of younger painters.
His experience with architecture might have contributed to the role played by architectural themes in his paintings, the Fogg Art Museum, Cambridge and many others. The White House acquired his 1952 painting The Circus No.1 in 2007, The Late Oils, New York, Adelson Galleries
Bates College Museum of Art
The Bates College Museum of Art is the art museum of Bates College in Lewiston, Maine. It holds various mediums of arts that showcase Maine and the greater American area. The museums collection offers an overview of modern and contemporary art, the Museum publishes numerous art collections, and art publications every year. The primary focuses of the collections are works on paper, including modern and contemporary art including drawings, prints. It is the largest museum of art in the city of Lewiston, Maine, in the 1930s, the college secured a private holding from the Museum of Modern Art of Vincent van Goghs Starry Night, for students participating in the Bates Plan. It holds 5,000 pieces and objects of contemporary domestic, the museum holds over 100 original artworks and sketches from Marsden Hartley. The MoA offers numerous lectures, artist symposiums, and workshops, the entire space is split into three components, the larger Upper Gallery, smaller Lower Gallery, and the Synergy Gallery which is primarily used for student exhibits and research.
Almost 20,000 visitors are attracted to the MoA annually, the museum opened on October 7,1955, as the Treat Gallery by Norma Berger, the niece of Marsden Hartley. With the ushering of the Olin Arts Center on to the campus, the scope was increased to facilitate educational programming in sync to the scholarly pursuits of the college and with the Lewiston-Auburn community. In 2005, the museum reorganized into four galleries, the Bates Gallery, Collection Gallery, the Underground Synergy Seminar space, as of 2010 the director of the museum is Dan Mills. The Bates College Art Museum was founded in 1955 as the Treat Gallery in the newly constructed Pettigrew Building at Bates College, Norma Berger, the niece of Marsden Hartley, a notable Maine artist, donated a large collection at the founding of the museum. In 1986, the moved to the new Olin Art Center gallery. After the renovation and installation, the new and expanded museum space enabled the Museum to organize major scholarly exhibitions of contemporary, over the past decade, ehe collection has grown to collect more art pieces of all mediums and support educational curriculum across disciplines.
In 2005, the museum reorganized into four galleries, the Bates Gallery, Collection Gallery, the Underground Synergy Seminar space, as of 2010 the director of the museum is Dan Mills. As of 2016, it holds over 5,000 objects including select and growing holdings of contemporary Chinese art, pre-Columbian art, Japanese woodblock prints, in addition to the original Marsden Hartley Memorial Collection, the museum contains works by many other notable artists. The museum has focused on collecting works of Maine artists, in the 1930s, the college secured a private holding from the Museum of Modern Art of Vincent van Goghs Starry Night. In 2016, the Museum has the following exhibitions, The View Out His Window by Jeffery Becton, The Art of Occupy, The Occuprint Portfolio, the Bates College Museum of Art offers curricular involvement with both the college and surrounding communities. The college uses the museum through their exhibitions and collections to teach writing skills and visual literacy, the museum serves as a tool for educators and students
Cleveland is a city in the U. S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Cuyahoga County, the states second most populous county. The city proper has a population of 388,072, making Cleveland the 51st largest city in the United States, Greater Cleveland ranked as the 32nd largest metropolitan area in the United States, with 2,055,612 people in 2016. The city is the center of the Cleveland–Akron–Canton Combined Statistical Area, the city is located on the southern shore of Lake Erie, approximately 60 miles west of the Pennsylvania border. Clevelands economy has diversified sectors that include manufacturing, financial services, Cleveland is home to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Residents of Cleveland are called Clevelanders, Cleveland has many nicknames, the oldest of which in contemporary use being The Forest City. Cleaveland oversaw the plan for what would become the downtown area, centered on Public Square, before returning home. The first settler in Cleaveland was Lorenzo Carter, who built a cabin on the banks of the Cuyahoga River, the Village of Cleaveland was incorporated on December 23,1814.
In spite of the swampy lowlands and harsh winters, its waterfront location proved to be an advantage. The area began rapid growth after the 1832 completion of the Ohio, growth continued with added railroad links. Cleveland incorporated as a city in 1836, in 1836, the city, located only on the eastern banks of the Cuyahoga River, nearly erupted into open warfare with neighboring Ohio City over a bridge connecting the two. Ohio City remained an independent municipality until its annexation by Cleveland in 1854, the citys prime geographic location as a transportation hub on the Great Lakes has played an important role in its development as a commercial center. Cleveland serves as a point for iron ore shipped from Minnesota. In 1870, John D. Rockefeller founded Standard Oil in Cleveland, other manufacturers located in Cleveland produced steam-powered cars, which included White and Gaeth, as well as the electric car company Baker. Because of the significant growth, Cleveland was known as the Sixth City during this period, by 1920, due in large part to the citys economic prosperity, Cleveland became the nations fifth largest city.
The city counted Progressive Era politicians such as the populist Mayor Tom L. Johnson among its leaders, many prominent Clevelanders from this era are buried in the historic Lake View Cemetery, including President James A. Garfield, and John D. Rockefeller. In commemoration of the centennial of Clevelands incorporation as a city, conceived as a way to energize a city after the Great Depression, it drew four million visitors in its first season, and seven million by the end of its second and final season in September 1937. The exposition was housed on grounds that are now used by the Great Lakes Science Center, following World War II, the city experienced a prosperous economy. In sports, the Indians won the 1948 World Series, the hockey Barons became champions of the American Hockey League, as a result, along with track and boxing champions produced, Cleveland was dubbed City of Champions in sports at this time
Parsons School of Design
Parsons School of Design is a private art and design college located in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Lower Manhattan in New York City. It is one of the five colleges of The New School, Parsons was the first school in the United States to offer programs in fashion design, interior design, and graphic design. Parsons offers 13 undergraduate bachelors programs and 17 graduate masters programs and it is currently ranked as the #1 art and design school in the United States and #2 in the world, just behind the Royal College of Art in London. Parsons is a member of the National Association of Schools of Art and Design, First established as the Chase School, the institution was founded in 1896 by the American impressionist painter William Merritt Chase. Chase led a group of Progressives who seceded from the Art Students League of New York in search of a more free, more dramatic. The Chase School changed its name in 1898 to the New York School of Art, a few years later, he became president of the New York School of Art.
Anticipating a new wave of the Industrial Revolution, Parsons predicted that art and his vision was borne out in a series of firsts for the School, establishing the first program in Fashion Design, Interior Design and Graphic Design in the United States. In 1909, the school was renamed the New York School of Fine, Parsons became sole director in 1911, a position which he maintained to his death in 1930. William M. Odom, who established the schools Paris Ateliers in 1921, as the modern curriculum developed, many successful designers remained closely tied to the School, and by the mid-1960s, Parsons had become the training ground for Seventh Avenue. In 1970, the School became a division of the New School for Social Research, the campus moved from Sutton Place to Greenwich Village in 1972. The merger with a vigorous, fully accredited university was a source of new funding and energy, in 2005, when the parent institution was renamed The New School, Parsons School of Design was renamed Parsons The New School for Design.
As of 2015, the School has been renamed The New Schools Parsons School of Design, like most universities in New York City, Parsons campus is spread among scattered buildings, but the main building is located at 13th Street and 5th Avenue. Many other facilities are in buildings shared by other colleges in The New School, Parsons has a campus abroad located in Paris’s First Arrondissement, known as Parsons Paris. 2 West 13th Street is most commonly known as the Sheila Johnson Design Center, the main Parsons campus is located at 2 West 13th Street in Greenwich Village in the borough of Manhattan. The renovation of the existing structures first and mezzanine levels was made possible in part by a $7 million gift from New School Trustee, the Urban Quad was designed by Lyn Rice Architects and encompasses a total area of 32,800 square feet. In addition to classrooms, the building includes the Anna-Maria and Stephen Kellen Gallery and Auditorium, the renovated ground floor provides a new home for the Anna-Maria and Stephen Kellen Archives, a collection of drawings, photographs and objects documenting 20th-century design.
The building hosts the Adam and Sophie Gimbel Design Library, a resource collection supporting art, the collection consists of approximately 45,000 book volumes,350 periodical titles,70,000 slides and 45,000 picture files. Special collections holdings number over 4,000, including many rare, in 2014 the fashion department moved from its Garment District location, the David M Schwartz Fashion Education Center, to the main campus in Greenwich Village
Among the many exhibitions that have been held in the vast spaces of U. S. The three-city exhibition started in New York Citys 69th Regiment Armory, on Lexington Avenue between 25th and 26th Streets, from February 17 until March 15,1913. The exhibition went on to show at the Art Institute of Chicago and to The Copley Society of Art in Boston, the show served as a catalyst for American artists, who became more independent and created their own artistic language. On 14 December 1911 an early meeting of what would become the Association of American Painters and Sculptors was organized at Madison Gallery in New York, the meeting included Henry Fitch Taylor, Jerome Myers, Elmer Livingston MacRae and Walt Kuhn. In January 1912, Walt Kuhn, Walter Pach, and Arthur B, Davies joined together with some two dozen of their colleagues to reinforce a professional coalition, AAPS. They intended the organization to lead the public taste in art, other founding AAPS members included D. Putnam Brinley, Gutzon Borglum, John Frederick Mowbray-Clarke, Leon Dabo, William J.
Glackens, Ernest Lawson, Jonas Lie, George Luks, Karl Anderson, James E. Fraser, Allen Tucker, Davies served as president of AAPS, with Kuhn acting as secretary. The AAPS members spent more than a year planning their first project, the International Exhibition of Modern Art, a show of giant proportions, unlike any New York had seen. The 69th Regiment Armory was settled on as the site for the exhibition in the spring of 1912, rented for a fee of $5,000. It was confirmed that the show would travel to Chicago. While in Paris Kuhn met up with Pach, who knew the art scene there intimately, only after Davies and Kuhn returned to New York in December did they issue an invitation for American artists to participate. Pach was responsible for securing loans from these painters for the Armory Show, most of the artists in Paris who sent works to the Armory Show knew Pach personally and entrusted their works to him. The Armory Show was the first, ultimately, the only exhibition mounted by the AAPS and it displayed some 1,300 paintings and decorative works by over 300 avant-garde European and American artists.
Impressionist and Cubist works were represented, news reports and reviews were filled with accusations of quackery, insanity and anarchy, as well as parodies, caricatures and mock exhibitions. About the modern works, former President Theodore Roosevelt declared, Thats not art, the civil authorities did not, close down or otherwise interfere with the show. Julian Street, an art critic, wrote that the work resembled an explosion in a shingle factory, the painting was purchased from the Armory Show by Fredric C. The exhibition went on to show at the Art Institute of Chicago and to The Copley Society of Art in Boston, while in Chicago, the exhibition created a scandal that reached the governors office. Several articles in the press recounted the issue, a visit of an investigator to the show and his report on the pictures caused Lieutenant Governor Barratt OHara to order an immediate examination of the entire exhibition
American modernism, much like the modernism movement in general, is a trend of philosophical thought arising from the widespread changes in culture and society in the age of modernity. American modernism is an artistic and cultural movement in the United States beginning at the turn of the 20th century, like its European counterpart, American modernism stemmed from a rejection of Enlightenment thinking, seeking to better represent reality in a new, more industrialized world. Characteristically, modernist art has a tendency to abstraction, is innovative, futuristic and it includes visual art, music, design, architecture as well as life style. It reacts against historicism, artistic conventions and institutionalization of art, Art was not only to be dealt with in academies, theaters or concert halls, but to be included in everyday life and accessible for everybody. Furthermore, cultural institutions concentrated on art and scholars paid little attention to the revolutionary styles of modernism.
The victory in World War I confirmed the status of the U. S. as a player and gave the people self-confidence. American modernism benefited from the diversity of immigrant cultures, Artists were inspired by African, Caribbean and European folk cultures and embedded these exotic styles in their works. The Modernist American movement is a reflection of American life in the 20th century, in this quickly industrializing world and hastened pace of life, it is easy for the individual to be swallowed up by the vastness of things, left wandering, devoid of purpose. Social boundaries in race, sex, the unity of a war rallied country was dying, along with it the illusion of the pleasantries it sold to its soldiers and people. The world was left violent and spiritually empty, the middle class worker falls into a distinctly unnoticeable position, a cog much too small to hope to find recognition in much greater machine. Citizens were overcome with their own futility, youths dreams shatter with failure and a disillusioning disappointment in recognition of limit and loss.
The lives of the disillusioned and outcasts become more focal, ability to define self through hard work and resourcefulness, to create your own vision of yourself without the help of traditional means becomes prized. Some authors endorse this, while others, such as F. Scott Fitzgerald, challenged how alluring, Modernist America had to find common ground in a world no longer unified in belief. The unity found lay in the ground of the shared consciousness within all human experience. The importance of the individual is emphasized, the limited nature of the human experience forms a bond across all bridges of race, sex, wealth. Society, in way, found shared meaning, even in disarray. Some see modernism in the tradition of 19th century aestheticism and the art for arts sake movement, clement Greenberg argues that modernist art excludes anything outside itself. Others see modernist art, for example in blues and jazz music, as a medium for emotions and moods and many works dealt with issues, like feminism
Cleveland Institute of Art
The Cleveland Institute of Art, previously Cleveland School of Art, located in University Circle, Ohio, is one of the nation’s leading independent colleges of art and design. The college was founded in 1882 as the Western Reserve School of Design for Women, having become a co-educational school, it was renamed the Cleveland School of Art in 1892. After unsuccessful attempts to merge the school with Western Reserve University, in the fall of 1905, the first classes were held in a newly constructed building at the corner of Magnolia Drive and Juniper Road in Clevelands University Circle. Beginning in 1917, the offered classes for children and adults on weekends. The school participated in the WPA Federal Art Project during the Great Depression, medical drawing and mapmaking were added to the curriculum during World War II. The school began offering a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree in 1947 and it became the Cleveland Institute of Art the following year, the college gradually incorporated more academic courses into the curriculum, while retaining its key objective to offer practical training.
In 1956 the school moved to a new building on East Boulevard that it would name for George Gund II, who served as the colleges board president and generous patron from 1942-1966. In 1981 the college acquired the former Albert Kahn designed Euclid Avenue assembly plant which was built by Ford in 1914-1915, Cleveland Institute of Art named the building the Joseph McCullough Center For Visual Arts following remodeling. In early 2013, CIA announced it would sell its East Boulevard building to the Cleveland Museum of Art and this new George Gund Building houses, the Peter B. The building houses the American Greetings Welcome Center, the Admissions and Financial Aid offices, the new building has been designed to look crisp and contemporary without detracting from the historic McCullough building next door. Uptown Phase II, at the corner of Euclid Avenue and Ford Drive, Services for students include Career Services, Center for Writing and Learning Support. Cleveland Institute of Art Is a founding member of the Association of Independent Colleges of Art, in 2013,2014, and 2015, Cleveland Institute of Art was named a Best Midwestern College by the Princeton Review.
In 2015 CIA was the college of art and design to achieve this designation. Princeton Review is a services company widely known for its test preparation programs and college. In 2015, Money magazine named Cleveland Institute of Art to its Best Colleges for your Money ranking, Cleveland Cinematheque, a nationally recognized alternative film theater, is part of Cleveland Institute of Art. The recently completed George Gund Building adjoins the historic Joseph McCullough Center for the Visual Arts at 11610 Euclid Avenue, reinberger Gallery presents free rotating art exhibits and lectures. Visiting artists often present lectures and symposia, the gallery is closed on Sundays. CIAs Uptown Residence Hall houses some 130 first-year students in the Uptown Development on Euclid Avenue
Greenwich Village, often referred to by locals as simply the Village, is a neighborhood on the west side of Lower Manhattan, New York City. Greenwich Village has been known as a haven, the Bohemian capital, the cradle of the modern LGBT movement. Groenwijck, one of the Dutch names for the village, was Anglicized to Greenwich, two of New Yorks private colleges, New York University and the New School, are located in Greenwich Village. The neighborhoods surrounding it are the East Village and NoHo to the east, SoHo to the south, the East Village was formerly considered part of the Lower East Side and never associated with Greenwich Village. The western part of Greenwich Village is known as the West Village, some believe it starts at Seventh Avenue and its southern extension, a border to the west of which the neighborhood changes substantially in character and becomes heavily residential. The Far West Village is another sub-neighborhood of Greenwich Village that is bordered on its west by the Hudson River and on its east by Hudson Street.
Greenwich Village is located in New Yorks 10th congressional district, New Yorks 25th State Senate district, New Yorks 66th State Assembly district, encyclopaedia Britannicas 1956 article on New York states that the southern border of the Village is Spring Street, reflecting an earlier understanding. The newer district of SoHo has since encroached on the Villages historic border, many of the neighborhoods streets are narrow and some curve at odd angles. This is generally regarded as adding to both the character and charm of the neighborhood. In addition, as the meandering Greenwich Street used to be on the Hudson River shoreline, much of the neighborhood west of Greenwich Street is on landfill, but still follows the older street grid. When Sixth and Seventh Avenues were built in the early 20th century, they were built diagonally to the street plan. Unlike the streets of most of Manhattan above Houston Street, streets in the Village typically are named rather than numbered, while some of the formerly named streets are now numbered, they still do not always conform to the usual grid pattern when they enter the neighborhood.
The Districts convoluted borders run no farther south than 4th Street or St. Lukes Place, redevelopment in that area is severely restricted, and developers must preserve the main façade and aesthetics of the buildings during renovation. In the 16th century, Native Americans referred to its farthest northwest corner, by the cove on the Hudson River at present-day Gansevoort Street, the land was cleared and turned into pasture by Dutch and freed African settlers in the 1630s, who named their settlement Noortwyck. In the 1630s, Governor Wouter van Twiller farmed tobacco on 200 acres here at his Farm in the Woods, sir Peter Warren began accumulating land in 1731 and built a frame house capacious enough to hold a sitting of the Assembly when smallpox rendered the city dangerous in 1739. The building was designed by Joseph-François Mangin, who would co-design New York City Hall, by 1821, the prison, designed for 432 inmates, held 817 instead, a number made possible only by the frequent release of prisoners, sometimes as many as 50 a day.
The oldest house remaining in Greenwich Village is the Isaacs-Hendricks House, when the Church of St. Luke in the Fields was founded in 1820 it stood in fields south of the road that led from Greenwich Lane down to a landing on the North River. In 1822, a fever epidemic in New York encouraged residents to flee to the healthier air of Greenwich Village
Lovell is a town in Oxford County, United States. The population was 1,140 at the 2010 census, Lovell is the site of Kezar Lake, a resort area. First settled in 1777, the community had 85 inhabitants by 1790, New Suncook Plantation would be incorporated as a town on November 15,1800, renamed after Captain John Lovewell, the fallen expedition leader. The Kezar River provided water power for industry, in the 19th century, mills produced spools, long lumber, axe handles, ox goads, sleighs, cabinet work and coffins, and boots and shoes. Following the Civil War, the Portland and Ogdensburg Railroad connected to Fryeburg and hotels opened, and the town remains a summer resort. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has an area of 47.89 square miles. Lovell is drained by the Kezar River, a tributary of the Saco River, Kezar Lake is a significant lake within the town. Lovell is crossed by State Route 5 and it borders the towns of Stoneham to the north, Waterford to the east, Sweden to the southeast, Fryeburg to the southwest, and Stow to the west.
Kezar Lake has good habitat for bass, white perch, chain pickerel, rainbow smelt, lake trout. There is a boat launch area at the north end of the lake in North Lovell. This climatic region is typified by large temperature differences, with warm to hot summers. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Lovell has a continental climate. As of the census of 2010, there were 1,140 people,477 households, the population density was 26.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,227 housing units at a density of 28.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97. 4% White,0. 4% African American,0. 3% Native American,0. 4% Asian,0. 1% Pacific Islander,0. 1% from other races, and 1. 5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0. 9% of the population,25. 4% of all households were made up of individuals and 11. 5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.39 and the family size was 2.83. The median age in the town was 49.8 years
It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, and New York to the west. The state is named for the Massachusett tribe, which inhabited the area. The capital of Massachusetts and the most populous city in New England is Boston, over 80% of Massachusetts population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history and industry. Originally dependent on agriculture and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution, during the 20th century, Massachusetts economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a leader in biotechnology, higher education, finance. Plymouth was the site of the first colony in New England, founded in 1620 by the Pilgrims, in 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of Americas most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, in 1786, Shays Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention.
In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, in the late 18th century, Boston became known as the Cradle of Liberty for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution. The entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist, temperance, in the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams, both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most highly regarded academic institutions in the world. Massachusetts public school students place among the top nations in the world in academic performance, the official name of the state is the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
While this designation is part of the official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has the position and powers within the United States as other states. Massachusetts was originally inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc and Massachusett. While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, and tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems. Between 1617 and 1619, smallpox killed approximately 90% of the Massachusetts Bay Native Americans, the first English settlers in Massachusetts, the Pilgrims, arrived via the Mayflower at Plymouth in 1620, and developed friendly relations with the native Wampanoag people. This was the second successful permanent English colony in the part of North America that became the United States, the event known as the First Thanksgiving was celebrated by the Pilgrims after their first harvest in the New World which lasted for three days
Gertrude Stein was an American novelist, poet and art collector. Born in the Allegheny West neighborhood of Pittsburgh and raised in Oakland, Stein moved to Paris in 1903, in 1933, Stein published a quasi-memoir of her Paris years, The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas, written in the voice of her partner, Alice B. Toklas, an American-born member of the Parisian avant-garde, the book became a literary bestseller and vaulted Stein from the relative obscurity of the cult-literature scene into the limelight of mainstream attention. Her books include Q. E. D. about a romantic affair involving several of Steins female friends, Fernhurst, a fictional story about a romantic affair, Three Lives. In Tender Buttons, Stein commented on lesbian sexuality and her activities during World War II have been the subject of analysis and commentary. After the war ended, Stein expressed admiration for another Nazi collaborator, some have argued that certain accounts of Steins wartime activities have amounted to a witch hunt.
Stein, the youngest of a family of five children, was born on February 3,1874, in Allegheny, Pennsylvania to upper-middle-class Jewish parents and her father was a wealthy businessman with real estate holdings. German and English were spoken in their home, when Stein was three years old and her family moved to Vienna, and Paris. Accompanied by governesses and tutors, the Steins endeavored to imbue their children with the sensibilities of European history. Stein attended First Hebrew Congregation of Oaklands Sabbath school, during their residence in Oakland, they lived for four years on a ten-acre lot, and Stein built many memories of California there. She would often go on excursions with her brother, Stein found formal schooling in Oakland unstimulating, but she read often, Wordsworth, Burns, Smollett and more. When Stein was 14 years old, her mother died, Three years later, her father died as well. Steins eldest brother, Michael Stein, took over the family holdings and in 1892 arranged for Gertrude and another sister, Bertha.
Here she lived with her uncle David Bachrach, who in 1877 had married Gertrudes maternal aunt, in Baltimore, Stein met Claribel and Etta Cone, who held Saturday evening salons that she would emulate in Paris. The Cones shared an appreciation for art and conversation about it, Stein attended Radcliffe College, an annex of Harvard University, from 1893 to 1897 and was a student of psychologist William James. In 1934, behavioral psychologist B. F. Skinner interpreted Steins difficult poem Tender Buttons as an example of normal motor automatism. In a letter Stein wrote during the 1930s, she explained that she never accepted the theory of writing, here can be automatic movements