Airline hubs or hub airports are used by one or more airlines to concentrate passenger traffic and flight operations at a given airport. They serve, it is part of the hub-and-spoke system. An airline operates flights from several non-hub cities to the hub airport, passengers traveling between spoke cities need to connect through the hub; this paradigm creates economies of scale that allow an airline to serve city-pairs that could otherwise not be economically served on a non-stop basis. This system contrasts with the point-to-point model, in which there are no hubs and nonstop flights are instead offered between spoke cities. Hub airports serve origin and destination traffic. In the airline industry, a focus city is a destination from which an airline operates limited point-to-point routes. Ergo, a focus city caters to the local market rather than to connecting passengers. However, with the term's expanded usage, a focus city may function as a small-scale or total hub. Allegiant Air, JetBlue and Southwest Airlines are examples of US-based airlines that consider some of their focus cities run like a hub.
The hub-and-spoke system allows an airline to serve fewer routes, so fewer aircraft are needed. The system increases passenger loads. However, the system is costly. Additional employees and facilities are needed to cater to connecting passengers. To serve spoke cities of varying populations and demand, an airline requires several aircraft types, specific training and equipment are necessary for each type. In addition, airlines may experience capacity constraints. For the passenger, the hub-and-spoke system offers one-stop air service to a wide array of destinations. However, it requires having to make connections en route to their final destination, which increases travel time. Additionally, airlines can come to monopolise their hubs, allowing them to increase fares as passengers have no alternative. Airlines may operate banks of flights at their hubs, in which several flights arrive and depart within short periods of time; the banks may be known as "peaks" of activity at the hubs and the non-banks as "valleys".
Banking allows for short connection times for passengers. However, an airline must assemble a large number of resources to cater to the influx of flights during a bank, having several aircraft on the ground at the same time can lead to congestion and delays. In addition, banking could result in inefficient aircraft utilisation, with aircraft waiting at spoke cities for the next bank. Instead, some airlines have debanked their hubs, introducing a "rolling hub" in which flight arrivals and departures are spread throughout the day; this phenomenon is known as "depeaking". While costs may decrease, connection times are longer at a rolling hub. American Airlines was the first to depeak its hubs, trying to improve profitability following the September 11 attacks, it rebanked its hubs in 2015, feeling the gain in connecting passengers would outweigh the rise in costs. The hub-and-spoke system is used by some cargo airlines. FedEx Express established its main hub in Memphis in 1973, prior to the deregulation of the air cargo industry in the United States.
The system has created an efficient delivery system for the airline. Other airlines that use this system include UPS Airlines, TNT Airways, Cargolux and DHL Aviation, which operate their primary hubs at Louisville, Liège, Luxembourg and Leipzig respectively. Although the term focus city is used to refer to an airport from which an airline operates limited point-to-point routes, its usage has loosely expanded to refer to a small-scale hub as well. For example, JetBlue's New York–JFK focus city runs like a hub, although in reality it is still deemed as a focus city. A fortress hub exists when an airline controls a significant majority of the market at one of its hubs. Competition is difficult at fortress hubs. Examples include Delta hubs at Atlanta, Salt Lake City and Minneapolis–Saint Paul. Flag carriers have enjoyed similar dominance at the main international airport of their countries and some still do. Examples include Lufthansa at Frankfurt Airport, Air Canada at Toronto Pearson Airport, Alitalia at Rome Fiumicino Airport, KLM at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, Garuda Indonesia at Soekarno-Hatta International Airport, British Airways at London Heathrow, Air China at Beijing Capital Airport, Iberia at Madrid-Barajas Airport and Air France at Paris Orly and Charles de Gaulle Airports.
A primary hub is the main hub for an airline. However, as an airline expands operations at its primary hub to the point that it experiences capacity limitations, it may elect to open secondary hubs. Examples of such hubs are Turkish Airlines' Istanbul–Sabiha Gökçen hub, British Airways' hub at London-Gatwick, Air India's hub at Mumbai and Lufthansa's hub at Munich. By operating multiple hubs, airlines can expand their geographic reach, they can better serve spoke–spoke markets, providing more itineraries with connections at different hubs. A given hub's capacity may become exhausted or capacity shortages may occur during peak periods of the day, at which point airlines may be compelled to shift traffic to a reliever hub. A reliever hub has the potential to serve several functions for an airline: it can bypass the congested hub, it can absorb
Sheremetyevo International Airport
Sheremetyevo International Airport is an international airport located in Khimki, Moscow Oblast, Russia, 29 km northwest of central Moscow. It is a hub for passenger operations of the Russian international airline Aeroflot, is one of the three major airports that serve Moscow, along with Moscow Domodedovo Airport and Vnukovo International Airport; the airport serves a number of international airlines, including Air France, KLM, Korean Air, Hainan Airlines, Air China, British Airways, Cham Wings Airlines. In 2017, the airport handled 40,093,000 passengers and 308,090 aircraft movements, making the airport the 50th busiest airport in the world, the busiest in the Russian Federation and former USSR. During 2018, the Airport reported a 14,3% increase in passengers for a total of 45.8 million. There was a 15.9% increase in aircraft traffic year over year. In 2018, the Airport reported revenue of € a 6 % increase year over year. Profit increased 7.4% year over year. These increases are attributed in part to increased air traffic due to the 2018 FIFA World Cup.
The airport was built as a military airfield called Sheremetyevsky named after a settlement with the same name. The decree about the construction of the Central Airdrome of the Air Force near the settlement of Chashnikovo on the outskirts of Moscow was issued on September 1, 1953 by the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union; the airport became operational on November 7, 1957 to celebrate the 40th anniversary of the October Revolution. After it was decided to turn the airport into a civilian one, Sheremetyevo was opened on 11 August 1959; the new airport received its name for two nearby venues: the village of Sheremetyevsky and the Savelov station on the railway of the same name. Sheremetyevo-1 was opened on 3 September 1964. On 12 September 1967, the first scheduled passenger flight of the Tupolev Tu-134 departed from Sheremetyevo, followed by the first scheduled flight of the Ilyushin Il-62 on 15 September. Sheremetyevo-2, the larger of the two terminal complexes, opened on 1 January 1980 for the 1980 Summer Olympics.
It was built according to the principles of design of Hannover-Langenhagen Airport and was the arrival and departure point for international flights. Flights to cities in Russia and charter flights arrived and departed from Sheremetyevo-1. In the 2000s, Sheremetyevo saw growing competition from Domodedovo International Airport, more modern and convenient to access. With major airlines leaving Sheremetyevo, the need for reconstruction became evident. In July 2010, a walkway opened between Terminals D, E, F, the Aeroexpress railway terminal on the public access side. In November 2010, a walkway opened between Terminals D, E, F on the security side. Both of have simplified transfer between transit flights. After the northern the recent construction work, the airport now has the capacity to receive more than 40 million passengers annually. Since 2009 all terminals have been identified by letters. In December 2011, a new Area control center was opened, it consolidates the gathering and control of the airport's different control centres across all of the organizations that affect its efficient operation.
The Situational Center forms part of the airport control center. SC is intended for joint work of top-managers, heads of state bodies, partners of Sheremetyevo, it is activated only in the case of an emergency. In 2013, TPS Avia – a company controlled by Alexander Ponomarenko, Arkady Rotenberg and Alexander Skorobogatko – won a competitive tender to develop Sheremetyevo International Airport’s northern area, including a new passenger terminal, a new freight terminal, a refuelling area and a tunnel linking the passenger terminal to three others terminals. In February 2016, TPS Avia combined its assets with Sheremetyevo Airport and committed to invest US$840 million to upgrade and expand the airport's infrastructure – as a result TPS Avia secured 68% stake in Sheremetyevo Airport; this infrastructure project, called the Long-Term Development Plan, aims to increase airport’s capacity to 80 million passengers a year by 2026. Sheremetyevo International Airport was the official airport of the 2018 FIFA World Cup.
During the tournament, the airport observed a 16% increase in landing operations and an 11% increase in passenger traffic. In late 2018, SVO enacted a series of changes to its flight traffic. Rossiya Airlines announced the transfer of its flights from Vnukovo Airport to Sheremetyevo International Airport starting October 28, 2018. Rossiya Airlines is owned by Aeroflot. British Airways launched direct flights from London Heathrow to Sheremetyevo International Airport on the same day. Syrian airline Cham Wings Airlines began direct flights from Damascus to SVO in November of 2018 as well. In 2019, the Russian Federal Security Service began testing an automated passport control system at SVO; this system relies on biometric data and foreign passport recognition to allow Russian passengers to move through border control with fewer movement restrictions. If a success, the FSB may implement this system in other Russian airports. In 2018, Sheremetyevo International Airport has been recognized for the best customer service in the busiest airports in Europe category by ACI's global Airport
Aéropostale was a pioneering aviation company which operated from 1918 to 1933. It was founded in 1918 in Toulouse, France, as Société des lignes Latécoère known as Lignes aeriennes Latécoère or "The Line". Aéropostale founder Pierre-Georges Latécoère envisioned an air route connecting France to the French colonies in Africa and South America; the company's activities were to specialise in, but were by no means restricted to, airborne postal services. Between 1921 and 1927 the "Line" operated. In April 1927 Latécoère, having troubles with its planes, damaged due to long flights to South America, decided to sell 93% of his business to another Brazilian-based French businessman named Marcel Bouilloux-Lafont. On that basis Bouilloux-Lafont founded the Compagnie générale aéropostale, better known by the shorter name Aéropostale. On December 25, 1918, the company began serving its first route between Toulouse and Barcelona in Spain. In February 1919 the line was extended to Casablanca. By 1925 it extended to Dakar.
In November 1927 regular flights between Rio de Janeiro and Natal were started. Expansion continued to Paraguay and in July 1929 a scheduled route across the Andes Mountains to Santiago, was started extending down to Tierra del Fuego on the southern part of Chile. On May 12–13, 1930, the trip across the South Atlantic by air took place: a Latécoère 28 mail plane fitted with floats and a 650 horsepower Hispano-Suiza engine made the first nonstop flight. Aeropostale pilot Jean Mermoz flew 3,058 kilometres from Dakar to Natal in 19 hours, 35 minutes, with his plane holding 122 kilograms of mail. After a scandal in which postal payments from the French government were misused by Aeropostale, the company was dissolved in 1932 and merged with a number of other aviation companies to create Air France. Developed in the aftermath of World War I, air mail service owed much to the bravery of its earliest pilots. During the 1920s, every flight was a dangerous adventure, sometimes fatal; the period was eloquently described by the French writer Antoine de Saint-Exupéry – himself an Aéropostale pilot – in his novel Vol de Nuit, in which he describes a postal flight through the skies of South America.
Aéropostale's roster of pilots included such aviation legends as: Jean Mermoz Antoine de Saint-Exupéry Henri Guillaumet Marcel Reine Emile Lécrivain Pierre Deley Henri Larrieu Raymond Vanier Among the aircraft operated by the company were: One hundred Breguet 14s Farman F.70, for passenger and mail routes between Casablanca and Dakar and from Algiers to Biskra. Latécoère 26 Latécoère 28 Night Flight, a 1933 film starring Clark Gable, was based on the novel by Antoine de Saint Exupéry, which recounted his real life experiences when he managed and flew for the Aeroposta Argentina subsidiary in South America. In the movie the airline was given the fictitious name Trans-Andean European Air Mail. In 1995, Futuroscope paid homage to Aéropostale pilot Henri Guillaumet with a 3D IMAX film by Jean-Jacques Annaud, in Wings of Courage, chronicling the pilot's crash on the frozen lake surface of Laguna del Diamante in the Andes, while flying mail for the South American subsidiary, Aeroposta Argentina.
Guillaumet was portrayed by Craig Sheffer, Antoine de Saint-Exupéry by Tom Hulce, Jean Mermoz played by Val Kilmer. Aéropostale, a U. S. apparel outlet that took its name and some of its design cues from the Compagnie générale aéropostale. Aeropostal Alas de Venezuela referred to as just Aeropostal, an airline in Venezuela, established after the government took over air routes operated by the French Aéropostale Aeroposta Argentina, a subsidiary in Argentina. Citations BibliographyMary, Jack. "Aéropostale, les autres lignes: Algérie, Patagonie, Venezuela", 2012, ISBN 978-2-7089-9238-2 Binder, Yves Marc & Sophie. "Aéropostale, les carnets de vol de Léopold", 2009, ISBN 978-2-7089-9222-1 de Bure, Guillemette. "Les secrets de l’Aéropostale: Les années Bouilloux-Lafont 1926-1944", 2007, ISBN 2708992104 Daurat, Didier. "Dans le vent des hélices, témoignage du mythique directeur de la Ligne", passé à la postérité sous le nom de Rivière dans les pages de Vol de nuit Fleury, Jean-Gérard. "La Ligne", ouvrage de référence sur l'Aéropostale rédigé par un journaliste passionné d'aviation et collaborateur de l'industriel René Couzinet Hanson, Patricia King and Alan Gevinson.
The American Film Institute Catalog of Motion Pictures Produced in the United States: 1931-40, Feature Films. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1993. ISBN 978-0-52007-908-3. Mermoz, Jean Mes Vols, regroupement posthume de textes du pilote et d'hommages de ses collègues, amis et admirateurs Poivre d'Arvor, Patrick et Olivier. "Courriers de nuit", Place des Victoires, 2003, Mengès, 2004.
Arles is a city and commune in the south of France, in the Bouches-du-Rhône department, of which it is a subprefecture, in the former province of Provence. A large part of the Camargue is located on the territory of the commune, making it the largest commune in Metropolitan France in terms of territory; the city has a long history, was of considerable importance in the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis. The Roman and Romanesque Monuments of Arles were listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 1981; the Dutch post-Impressionist painter Vincent van Gogh lived in Arles from 1888 to 1889 and produced over 300 paintings and drawings during his time there. An international photography festival has been held in the city since 1970; the river Rhône forks into two branches just upstream of Arles. Because the Camargue is for a large part administratively part of Arles, the commune as a whole is the largest commune in Metropolitan France in terms of territory, although its population is only more than 50,000.
Its area is 758.93 km2, more than seven times the area of Paris. The Ligurians were in this area from about 800 BC. Celtic influences have been discovered; the city became an important Phoenician trading port, before being taken by the Romans. The Romans took the town in 123 BC and expanded it into an important city, with a canal link to the Mediterranean Sea being constructed in 104 BC. However, it struggled to escape the shadow of Massalia further along the coast, its chance came. Massalia backed Pompey; the town was formally established as a colony for veterans of the Roman legion Legio VI Ferrata, which had its base there. Its full title as a colony was Colonia Iulia Paterna Arelatensium Sextanorum, "the ancestral Julian colony of Arles of the soldiers of the Sixth." Arelate was a city of considerable importance in the province of Gallia Narbonensis. It covered an area of some 40 hectares and possessed a number of monuments, including an amphitheatre, triumphal arch, Roman circus, a full circuit of walls.
Ancient Arles was closer to the sea than it served as a major port. It had the southernmost bridge on the Rhône. Unusually, the Roman bridge was not fixed but consisted of a pontoon-style bridge of boats, with towers and drawbridges at each end; the boats were secured in place by anchors and were tethered to twin towers built just upstream of the bridge. This unusual design was a way of coping with the river's frequent violent floods, which would have made short work of a conventional bridge. Nothing remains of the Roman bridge, replaced by a more modern bridge near the same spot; the city reached a peak of influence during the 4th and 5th centuries, when Roman Emperors used it as their headquarters during military campaigns. In 395, it became the seat of the Praetorian Prefecture of the Gauls, governing the western part of the Western Empire: Gaul proper plus Hispania and Armorica. At that time, the city was home to 75,000–100,000 people, it became a favorite city of Emperor Constantine I, who built baths there, substantial remains of which are still standing.
His son, Constantine II, was born in Arles. Usurper Constantine III declared himself emperor in the West and made Arles his capital in 408. Arles became renowned as a religious centre during the late Roman Empire, it was the birthplace of the sceptical philosopher Favorinus. It was a key location for Roman Christianity and an important base for the Christianization of Gaul; the city's bishopric was held by a series of outstanding clerics, beginning with Saint Trophimus around 225 and continuing with Saint Honoratus Saint Hilarius in the first half of the 5th century. The political tension between the Catholic bishops of Arles and the Visigothic kings is epitomized in the career of the Frankish St. Caesarius, bishop of Arles 503–542, suspected by the Arian Visigoth Alaric II of conspiring with the Burgundians to turn over the Arelate to Burgundy, was exiled for a year to Bordeaux in Aquitaine. Political tensions were evident again in 512, when Arles held out against Theodoric the Great and Caesarius was imprisoned and sent to Ravenna to explain his actions before the Ostrogothic king.
The friction between the Arian Christianity of the Visigoths and the Catholicism of the bishops sent out from Rome established deep roots for religious heterodoxy heresy, in Occitan culture. At Treves in 385, Priscillian achieved the distinction of becoming the first Christian executed for heresy. Despite this tension and the city's decline in the face of barbarian invasions, Arles remained a great religious centre and host of church councils, the rival of Vienne, for hundreds of years; the Barbegal aqueduct and mill is a Roman watermill complex located on the territory of the commune of Fontvieille, a few kilometres from Arles. The complex has been referred to as "the greatest known concentration of mechanical power in the ancient world"; the remains of the mill streams and buildings which housed the overshot water wheels are still visible at the site, it is by far the best-preserved of ancient mills. There are two aqueducts which join just north of the mill complex, a sluice which enabled the operators to control the water supply to the complex.
The mill c
Burger King is an American global chain of hamburger fast food restaurants. Headquartered in the unincorporated area of Miami-Dade County, the company was founded in 1953 as Insta-Burger King, a Jacksonville, Florida–based restaurant chain. After Insta-Burger King ran into financial difficulties in 1954, its two Miami-based franchisees David Edgerton and James McLamore purchased the company and renamed it "Burger King". Over the next half-century, the company would change hands four times, with its third set of owners, a partnership of TPG Capital, Bain Capital, Goldman Sachs Capital Partners, taking it public in 2002. In late 2010, 3G Capital of Brazil acquired a majority stake in the company, in a deal valued at US$3.26 billion. The new owners promptly initiated a restructuring of the company to reverse its fortunes. 3G, along with partner Berkshire Hathaway merged the company with the Canadian-based doughnut chain Tim Hortons, under the auspices of a new Canadian-based parent company named Restaurant Brands International.
The 1970s were the "Golden Age" of the company's advertising, but beginning in the early-1980s, Burger King advertising began losing focus. A series of less successful advertising campaigns created by a procession of advertising agencies continued for the next two decades. In 2003, Burger King hired the Miami-based advertising agency Crispin Porter + Bogusky, which reorganized its advertising with a series of new campaigns centered on a redesigned Burger King character nicknamed "The King", accompanied by a new online presence. While successful, some of CP+B's commercials were derided for perceived sexism or cultural insensitivity. Burger King's new owner, 3G Capital terminated the relationship with CP+B in 2011 and moved its advertising to McGarryBowen, to begin a new product-oriented campaign with expanded demographic targeting. Burger King's menu has expanded from a basic offering of burgers, French fries and milkshakes to a larger and more diverse set of products. In 1957, the "Whopper" became the first major addition to the menu, it has become Burger King's signature product since.
Conversely, BK has introduced many products. Some of these failures in the United States have seen success in foreign markets, where BK has tailored its menu for regional tastes. From 2002 to 2010, Burger King aggressively targeted the 18–34 male demographic with larger products that carried correspondingly large amounts of unhealthy fats and trans-fats; this tactic would damage the company's financial underpinnings, cast a negative pall on its earnings. Beginning in 2011, the company began to move away from its previous male-oriented menu and introduce new menu items, product reformulations and packaging, as part of its current owner 3G Capital's restructuring plans of the company; as of December 31, 2018, Burger King reported. Of these, nearly half are located in the United States, 99.7% are owned and operated, with its new owners moving to an entirely franchised model in 2013. BK has used several variations of franchising to expand its operations; the manner in which the company licenses its franchisees varies depending on the region, with some regional franchises, known as master franchises, responsible for selling franchise sub-licenses on the company's behalf.
Burger King's relationship with its franchises has not always been harmonious. Occasional spats between the two have caused numerous issues, in several instances, the company's and its licensees' relations have degenerated into precedent-setting court cases. Burger King's Australian franchise Hungry Jack's is the only franchise to operate under a different name, due to a trademark dispute and a series of legal cases between the two; the predecessor to Burger King was founded in 1953 in Florida, as Insta-Burger King. After visiting the McDonald brothers' original store location in San Bernardino, the founders and owners, who had purchased the rights to two pieces of equipment called "Insta-machines", opened their first restaurants, their production model was based on one of the machines they had acquired, an oven called the "Insta-Broiler". This strategy proved to be so successful that they required all of their franchises to use the device. After the company faltered in 1959, it was purchased by its Miami, franchisees, James McLamore and David R. Edgerton.
They initiated a corporate restructuring of the chain. They ran the company as an independent entity for eight years, before selling it to the Pillsbury Company in 1967. Pillsbury's management tried several times to restructure Burger King during the late 1970s and the early 1980s; the most prominent change came in 1978 when Burger King hired McDonald's executive Donald N. Smith to help revamp the company. In a plan called "Operation Phoenix", Smith restructured corporate business practices at all levels of the company. Changes included updated franchise agreements, a broader menu and new standardized restaurant designs. Smith left Burger King for PepsiCo in 1980 shortly before a system-wide decline in sales. Pillsbury's Executive Vice President of Restaurant Operations Norman E. Brinker was tasked with turning the brand around, strengthening its position against its main rival McDonald's. One of his initiatives was a new advertising campaign featuring a series of attack ads against its major competitors.
This campaign started a competitive period between Burger King, McDonald's, top burger chains known as the Burger wars. Brinker left Burger King i
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
Marignane is a commune in the Bouches-du-Rhône department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southern France. It is a component of the Aix-Marseille-Provence Metropolis, the largest suburb of the city of Marseille, it is located 18.3 km to the northwest of Marseille. The climate is hot-summer mediterranean; the city serves as the basis for data from Marseille through the weather station at the airport, in the city. In the 15th century the Count of Provence owned the land, from 1603 to the French Revolution it belonged to the Covets. In the 17th century the Covets refurbished the castle. Three chapels and one convent were built in the 17th and 18th century: Notre-Dame de Pitié, Saint-Nicolas, Sainte-Anne, Couvent des Minimes. From 1995 to 2008, the mayor has been Daniel Simonpieri, former member of the Front National and of the MNR. Since 2008, the mayor is Eric Le Dissés. Public secondary schools: Collège Georges Brassens Lycée Maurice Genevoix Private schools: Institution Saint Louis Sainte Marie Aadil Assana, footballer The Marseille Provence Airport is located in Marignane.
Eurocopter, the manufacturer of the Franco-German NHI NH90 and Tiger military helicopters, has its head office on the grounds of Marseille Provence Airport in Marignane. Marignane is twinned with: Ravanusa, Italy Novi Ligure, Italy Wolfsburg, Germany - Figueres, Spain Göd, Hungary Slănic, Romania Étang de Berre Communes of the Bouches-du-Rhône department Official website