A marsh is a wetland, dominated by herbaceous rather than woody plant species. Marshes can be found at the edges of lakes and streams, where they form a transition between the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, they are dominated by grasses, rushes or reeds. If woody plants are present they tend to be low-growing shrubs, sometimes called carrs; this form of vegetation is what differentiates marshes from other types of wetland such as swamps, which are dominated by trees, mires, which are wetlands that have accumulated deposits of acidic peat. Marshes provide a habitat for many species of plants and insects that have adapted to living in flooded conditions; the plants must be able to survive in wet mud with low oxygen levels. Many of these plants, have aerenchyma, channels within the stem that allow air to move from the leaves into the rooting zone. Marsh plants tend to have rhizomes for underground storage and reproduction. Common examples include cattails, sedges and sawgrass. Aquatic animals, from fish to salamanders, are able to live with a low amount of oxygen in the water.
Some can obtain oxygen from the air instead, while others can live indefinitely in conditions of low oxygen. Marshes provide habitats for many kinds of invertebrates, amphibians and aquatic mammals. Marshes have high levels of biological production, some of the highest in the world, therefore are important in supporting fisheries. Marshes improve water quality by acting as a sink to filter pollutants and sediment from the water that flows through them. Marshes are able to absorb water during periods of heavy rainfall and release it into waterways and therefore reduce the magnitude of flooding; the pH in marshes tends to be neutral to alkaline, as opposed to bogs, where peat accumulates under more acid conditions. Marshes differ depending on their location and salinity. Both of these factors influence the range and scope of animal and plant life that can survive and reproduce in these environments; the three main types of marsh are salt marshes, freshwater tidal marshes, freshwater marshes. These three can be found worldwide and each contains a different set of organisms.
Saltwater marshes are found around the world in mid to high latitudes, wherever there are sections of protected coastline. They are located close enough to the shoreline that the motion of the tides affects them, sporadically, they are covered with water, they flourish where the rate of sediment buildup is greater than the rate at which the land level is sinking. Salt marshes are dominated by specially adapted rooted vegetation salt-tolerant grasses. Salt marshes are most found in lagoons, on the sheltered side of shingle or sandspit; the currents there carry the fine particles around to the quiet side of the spit and sediment begins to build up. These locations allow the marshes to absorb the excess nutrients from the water running through them before they reach the oceans and estuaries; these marshes are declining. Coastal development and urban sprawl has caused significant loss of these essential habitats. Although considered a freshwater marsh, this form of marsh is affected by the ocean tides.
However, without the stresses of salinity at work in its saltwater counterpart, the diversity of the plants and animals that live in and use freshwater tidal marshes is much higher than in salt marshes. The most serious threats to this form of marsh are the increasing size and pollution of the cities surrounding them. Ranging in both size and geographic location, freshwater marshes make up the most common form of wetland in North America, they are the most diverse of the three types of marsh. Some examples of freshwater marsh types in North America are: Wet meadows occur in areas such as shallow lake basins, low-lying depressions, the land between shallow marshes and upland areas, they occur on the edges of large lakes and rivers. Wet meadows have high plant diversity and high densities of buried seeds, they are flooded but are dry in the summer. Vernal pools are a type of marsh found only seasonally in shallow depressions in the land, they can be covered in shallow water, but in the summer and fall, they can be dry.
In western North America, vernal pools tend to form in open grasslands, whereas in the east they occur in forested landscapes. Further south, vernal pools form in pine flatwoods. Many amphibian species depend upon vernal pools for spring breeding. An example is the endangered gopher frog. Similar temporary ponds occur in other world ecosystems. However, the term vernal pool can be applied to all such temporary pool ecosystems. Playa lakes are a form of shallow freshwater marsh that occurs in the southern high plains of the United States. Like vernal pools, they are only present at certain times of the year and have a circular shape; as the playa dries during the summer, conspicuous plant zonation develops along the shoreline. Prairie potholes are found in the northern parts of North America as the Prairie Pothole Region; these landscapes were once covered by glaciers, as a result shallow depressions were formed in great numbers. These depressions fill with water in the spring, they provide important breeding habitats for many species of waterfowl.
Some pools only occur seasonally. Many kinds of marsh occur along the fringes of large rivers; the different types are produced by factors such as water level, ice scour, waves. Large tracts of ti
David Andrew Coles is a goalkeeping coach, the goalkeeper coach of England U18. He was the goalkeeping coach at Southampton F. C. from 1997 for 8 years which included their run to the F. A. Cup final, he worked as the goalkeeping coach for their South Coast rivals Portsmouth F. C. before moving to West Ham United in July 2010. He parted company with the club on 24 June 2011, following the arrival of Sam Allardyce before joining Al Jazira. On 21 November 2013, Coles rejoined Portsmouth as goalkeeping coach. On 23 January 2014, he replaced Lee Kendall as goalkeeping coach at Bristol City, who left the position for the England Women's goalkeeping coach with the FA. On 8 Jun 2019, Coles parted company with Bristol City. In his playing days, Coles was a goalkeeper in the lower leagues at Aldershot, he played in Finland 1988 and at non-league Gloucester City and Cobham. David Coles Interview David Coles Joins Bristol City David Coles at Footballdatabase
The Drummoyne District Rugby Football Club is a rugby union club based in Drummoyne, New South Wales, in Sydney, Australia. Its predecessor Glebe and Balmain Rugby Clubs are among the oldest in Australia and today it competes prominently in the First Division of the New South Wales Suburban Rugby Union. According to its website, the Drummoyne DRFC traces its origins to the foundations of rugby union in Australia, with its predecessor Balmain Rugby Club formed in 1873, winning the newly formed Southern Rugby Union's first competition in 1875. In neighbouring Glebe, another rugby club was founded in 1889 and these two clubs formed the foundation of Drummoyne; the Glebe-Balmain Club was established in 1919 and decided to change its name to the Drummoyne District Rugby Football Club in 1931. The club has produced many representative players, the first Rugby Union team to leave Australian shores for an overseas tour, the historic 1882 NSW team to NZ, included 3 players from the Balmain Club: M. H.
Howard, R. W. Thallon and C. Hawkins. In 1909-10 Bill McKell to become Australia's Governor General, played on the wing for Balmain and the first Wallaby Captain, Dr. H. Moran of the 1908 Australian side, served as Balmain's president in 1911-12. Shute Shield: 1925, 1936 Kentwell Cup: 1947, 2000, 2004, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2010 and 2012. Division 1 Club Championship - Bruce Graham Shield: 2004, 2008, 2012 Burke Cup: 2000, 2004 Whiddon Cup: 2001, 2015, 2017 Sutherland Cup: 2010 Barraclough Cup: 1999 Stockdale Cup: 1999 Division 3 Club Championship - Keith'Doc' Harris Shield 1997 Clark Cup: 1997 Nicholson Cup: 1997 McLean Cup: 1996 Grose Cup: 1996 Drummoyne's club colours are red and yellow and its home ground is Drummoyne Oval; the club fields a women's sevens rugby side. Official website "Men in Scarlet" - The History of the Balmain, Glebe & Drummoyne Rugby Clubs 1874-2004, by John Mulford