Roberts County, South Dakota
Roberts County is a county in the U. S. state of South Dakota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 10,149, its county seat is Sisseton. The county was named either for S. G. Roberts of Fargo, North Dakota, or for Solomon Robar, an early local French fur trader, it was created on March 8, 1883, was organized by August 6 of that year. Its boundary was altered one time, in 1885. Roberts County is at the NE corner of South Dakota, its east boundary line abuts the west line of the state of Minnesota, its north boundary line abuts the south boundary line of the state of North Dakota. The Cottonwood Slough flows southward; the terrain consists of rolling hills, devoted to agriculture. The terrain slopes to the east. Roberts County has a total area of 1,136 square miles, of which 1,101 square miles is land and 35 square miles is water; the Traverse Gap is located in Eastern Roberts County along the Minnesota border. The Lake Traverse Indian Reservation is located in the county; as of the 2000 United States Census, there were 10,016 people, 3,683 households, 2,618 families in the county.
The population density was 9 people per square mile. There were 4,734 housing units at an average density of 4 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 68.29% White, 0.10% Black or African American, 29.86% Native American, 0.21% Asian, 0.03% from other races, 1.51% from two or more races. 0.63% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,683 households out of which 33.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.50% were married couples living together, 11.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.90% were non-families. 26.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.22. The county population contained 30.00% under the age of 18, 7.20% from 18 to 24, 23.60% from 25 to 44, 22.20% from 45 to 64, 17.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 98.80 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $28,322, the median income for a family was $33,361. Males had a median income of $25,516 versus $19,464 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,428. About 16.60% of families and 22.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.10% of those under age 18 and 17.40% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 10,149 people, 3,823 households, 2,655 families residing in the county; the population density was 9.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 4,905 housing units at an average density of 4.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 61.7% white, 34.5% American Indian, 0.2% Asian, 0.1% black or African American, 0.4% from other races, 3.0% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.2% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 31.3% were German, 19.2% were Norwegian, 6.3% were Irish, 3.8% were American.
Of the 3,823 households, 34.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.1% were married couples living together, 13.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.6% were non-families, 27.3% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.11. The median age was 39.5 years. The median income for a household in the county was $37,708 and the median income for a family was $46,146. Males had a median income of $34,080 versus $28,423 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,825. About 14.3% of families and 20.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.9% of those under age 18 and 11.0% of those age 65 or over. Sisseton Wilmot Agency Village Goodwill Long Hollow Sleepy Eye, Sisseton Sioux chief Gene Okerlund, wrestling announcer Roberts County is politically a swing county. National Register of Historic Places listings in Roberts County, South Dakota Roberts County, South Dakota
Brown County, South Dakota
Brown County is a county in the U. S. state of South Dakota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 36,531, making it the fourth-most populous county in South Dakota, its county seat is Aberdeen. The county is named for Alfred Brown, of Hutchinson County, South Dakota, a Dakota Territory legislator in 1879. Brown County is part of SD Micropolitan Statistical Area. Brown County lies on the north side of South Dakota, its north boundary line abuts the south boundary line of the state of North Dakota. The James River flows south-southwest through the county; the terrain of Brown County consists of rolling terrain, sloping to the south and east devoted to agriculture. The county has a total area of 1,731 square miles, of which 1,713 square miles is land and 18 square miles is water. Bodi State Game Production Area Casanova State Game Production Area Columbia Sttae Game Production Area Cutler State Game Production Area Diagonal Trees State Game Production Area Elm Creek State Game Production Area Erickson State Game Production Area Hansen Preserve State Game Production Area Hart Quarter State Game Production Area Hecla State Game Production Area Jilek-Dahme State Game Production Area Pigors Lake State Game Production Area Putney Slough State Game Production Area Putney State Game Production Area Renziehausen Slough State Game Bird Refuge Renziehausen State Game Production Area Richmond Dam State Game Production Area Richmond Lake State Recreation Area Richmond State Lakeside Use Area Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge Zabrasha State Game Production Area As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 35,460 people, 14,638 households, 9,324 families in the county.
The population density was 21 people per square mile. There were 15,861 housing units at an average density of 9 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 95.47% White, 0.28% Black or African American, 2.72% Native American, 0.40% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 0.18% from other races, 0.86% from two or more races. 0.67% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 55.0 % were of 12.7 % of Norwegian ancestry. There were 14,638 households out of which 29.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.80% were married couples living together, 7.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.30% were non-families. 30.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.91. The county population contained 23.60% under the age of 18, 11.60% from 18 to 24, 26.70% from 25 to 44, 21.90% from 45 to 64, 16.20% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,017, the median income for a family was $44,788. Males had a median income of $29,592 versus $20,445 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,464. About 7.00% of families and 9.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.30% of those under age 18 and 10.30% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 36,531 people, 15,489 households, 9,374 families in the county; the population density was 21.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 16,706 housing units at an average density of 9.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 93.2% white, 3.0% American Indian, 1.0% Asian, 0.5% black or African American, 0.1% Pacific islander, 0.4% from other races, 1.7% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.4% of the population.
In terms of ancestry,Of the 15,489 households, 28.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.5% were married couples living together, 8.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.5% were non-families, 33.0% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.89. The median age was 38.6 years. The median income for a household in the county was $45,615 and the median income for a family was $58,683. Males had a median income of $37,997 versus $28,419 for females; the per capita income for the county was $23,878. About 5.6% of families and 10.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.6% of those under age 18 and 15.4% of those age 65 or over. Brown County was long a Democratic stronghold, home to notable Democrats including South Dakota Governor Ralph Herseth, US Senate majority leader Tom Daschle, Congresswoman Stephanie Herseth Sandlin, it voted Democratic except in Republican landslides in presidential elections from 1932 until 1996.
Since it has trended Republican at the local level, although the county was carried by Barack Obama in 2008. Aberdeen Columbia Groton National Register of Historic Places listings in Brown County, South Dakota Brown County, SD government website
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Day County, South Dakota
Day County is a county in the U. S. state of South Dakota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 5,710, its county seat is Webster. The county is named for pioneer and 1879 Dakota Territory legislator; the terrain of Day County consists of rolling hills devoted to agriculture. It is dotted with numerous lakes and ponds on its east portion; the terrain slopes to the west. The county has a total area of 1,091 square miles, of which 1,028 square miles is land and 63 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 12 South Dakota Highway 25 South Dakota Highway 27 As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 6,267 people, 2,586 households, 1,688 families in the county; the population density was 6 people per square mile. There were 3,618 housing units at an average density of 4 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 91.26% White, 0.13% Black or African American, 7.40% Native American, 0.06% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.16% from other races, 0.94% from two or more races. 0.38% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
34.5 % were of 10.9 % Polish ancestry. There were 2,586 households out of which 27.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.40% were married couples living together, 6.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.70% were non-families. 31.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.98. The county population contained 25.50% under the age of 18, 5.20% from 18 to 24, 22.40% from 25 to 44, 23.40% from 45 to 64, 23.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females there were 96.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,227, the median income for a family was $38,011. Males had a median income of $27,279 versus $18,179 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,856. About 11.40% of families and 14.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.40% of those under age 18 and 11.80% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 5,710 people, 2,504 households, 1,561 families in the county. The population density was 5.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,630 housing units at an average density of 3.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 88.1% white, 9.5% American Indian, 0.2% Asian, 0.1% black or African American, 0.4% from other races, 1.7% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.1% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 43.8% were German, 25.1% were Norwegian, 12.8% were Polish, 8.8% were Irish, 6.1% were American. Of the 2,504 households, 24.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.0% were married couples living together, 7.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.7% were non-families, 34.0% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.22 and the average family size was 2.83. The median age was 47.9 years. The median income for a household in the county was $36,818 and the median income for a family was $47,949.
Males had a median income of $36,549 versus $25,750 for females. The per capita income for the county was $20,542. About 10.7% of families and 12.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.7% of those under age 18 and 14.1% of those age 65 or over. Bristol Waubay Webster Day County voters have tended to vote Democratic for the past several decades. Since 1948 the county has selected the Democratic Party candidate in 71% of national elections. National Register of Historic Places listings in Day County, South Dakota Historic Mapworks: Day County 1929 Township Maps
James River (Dakotas)
The James River is a tributary of the Missouri River 710 miles long, draining an area of 20,653 square miles in the U. S. states of South Dakota. About 70 percent of the drainage area is in South Dakota; the river provides the main drainage of the flat lowland area of the Dakotas between the two plateau regions known as the Coteau du Missouri and the Coteau des Prairies. This narrow area was formed by the James lobe of the Laurentide Ice Sheet during the last ice age, as a consequence the watershed of the river is slender and it has few major tributaries for a river of its length; the James drops 5 inches per 1 mile, this low gradient sometimes leads to reverse flow. Reverse flow occurs when high inflow from tributaries leads to James River water flowing upstream for several miles above the joining water; this happens most north of Huron, South Dakota. The river arises in Wells County, North Dakota 10 mi northwest of Fessenden, it flows east towards New Rockford generally SSE through eastern North Dakota, past Jamestown, where it is first impounded by a large reservoir, joined by the Pipestem River.
It enters northeastern South Dakota in Brown County, where it is impounded to form two reservoirs northeast of Aberdeen. At Columbia, it is joined by the Elm River. Flowing southward across eastern South Dakota, it passes Huron and Mitchell, where it is joined by the Firesteel Creek. South of Mitchell, it joins the Missouri just east of Yankton; the James River flows across the state of South Dakota, the only river other than the Missouri to do so. River conditions during normal years include still water on both the James and its tributaries as well as flooding. Floods occur after snowmelt or heavy rains, as water breaches the James' low banks, such floods tend to cover a significant portion of the floodplain; when the river is still, water quality drops. Called "E-ta-zi-po-ka-se Wakpa," "unnavigable river", by the Dakota tribes, the river was named Rivière aux Jacques by French explorers. By the time Dakota Territory was incorporated, it was being called the James River. Thomas L. Rosser, a former Confederate general who helped to build the Northern Pacific Railroad across North Dakota.
A Virginian, he named the settlement of Jamestown, North Dakota, after the English colony of Jamestown, Virginia. However, the Dakota Territory Organic Act of 1861 renamed it the Dakota River; the new name failed to attain popular usage and the river retains its pre-1861 name. List of longest rivers of the United States List of rivers of North Dakota List of rivers of South Dakota