A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Tennessee Walking Horse
The Tennessee Walking Horse or Tennessee Walker is a breed of gaited horse known for its unique four-beat running-walk and flashy movement. It was developed in the southern United States for use on farms and plantations, it is a popular riding horse due to smooth gaits and sure-footedness. The Tennessee Walking Horse is seen in the show ring, but is popular as a pleasure and trail riding horse using both English and Western equipment. Tennessee Walkers are seen in movies, television shows and other performances; the breed was developed beginning in the late 18th century when Narragansett Pacers and Canadian Pacers from the eastern United States were crossed with gaited Spanish Mustangs from Texas. Other breeds were added, in 1886 a foal named Black Allan was born, he is now considered the foundation sire of the breed. In 1935 the Tennessee Walking Horse Breeders' Association was formed, it closed the studbook in 1947. In 1939, the first Tennessee Walking Horse National Celebration was held. In the early 21st century, this annual event has attracted considerable attention and controversy, because of efforts to prevent abuse of horses, practiced to enhance their performance in the show ring.
The two basic categories of Tennessee Walking Horse show competition are called "flat-shod" and "performance", distinguished by desired leg action. Flat-shod horses, wearing regular horseshoes, exhibit less exaggerated movement. Performance horses are shod with built-up pads or "stacks", along with other weighted action devices, creating the so-called "Big Lick" style; the United States Equestrian Federation and some breed organizations now prohibit the use of stacks and action devices at shows they sanction. In addition, the Tennessee Walking Horse is the breed most affected by the Horse Protection Act of 1970, it prohibits the practice of soring, abusive practices which were used to enhance the Big Lick movement prized in the show ring. Despite the law, some horses are still being abused; the controversy over continuing soring practices has led to a split within the breed community, criminal charges against a number of individuals, the creation of several separate breed organizations. The modern Tennessee Walking Horse is described as "refined and elegant, yet solidly built".
It is a tall horse with a long neck. The head is well-defined, with well-placed ears; the breed averages 14.3 to 17 hands high and 900 to 1,200 pounds. The shoulders and hip are sloping, with a short back and strong coupling; the hindquarters are of "moderate thickness and depth", well-muscled, it is acceptable for the hind legs to be over-angulated, cow-hocked or sickle-hocked. They are found in all solid colors, several pinto patterns. Common colors such as bay and chestnut are found, as are colors caused by dilution genes such as the dun, champagne and silver dapple genes. Pinto patterns include overo and tobiano; the Tennessee Walking Horse has a reputation for having a calm disposition and a smooth riding gait. While the horses are famous for flashy movement, they are popular for trail and pleasure riding as well as show; the Tennessee Walking Horse is best known for its running-walk. This is a four-beat gait with the same footfall pattern as a regular, or flat, but faster. While a horse performing a flat walk moves at 4 to 8 miles per hour, the running walk allows the same horse to travel at 10 to 20 miles per hour.
In the running walk, the horse's rear feet overstep the prints of its front feet by 6 to 18 inches, with a longer overstep being more prized in the Tennessee Walking Horse breed. While performing the running walk, the horse nods its head in rhythm with its gait. Besides the flat and running walks, the third main gait performed by Tennessee Walking Horses is the canter; some members of the breed perform other variations of lateral ambling gaits, including the rack, stepping pace, fox trot and single-foot, which are allowable for pleasure riding but penalized in the show ring. A few Tennessee Walking Horses can trot, have a long, reaching stride; the Tennessee Walker originated from the cross of Narragansett Pacer and Canadian Pacer horses brought to Kentucky starting in 1790, with gaited Spanish Mustangs imported from Texas. These horses were bred on the limestone pastures of Middle Tennessee, became known as "Tennessee Pacers". Used as all-purpose horses on plantations and farms, they were used for riding and racing.
They were known for their smooth sure-footedness on the rocky Tennessee terrain. Morgan, Standardbred and American Saddlebred blood was added to the breed through decades of breeding. In 1886, Black Allan was born. By the stallion Allendorf and out of a Morgan mare named Maggie Marshall, he became the foundation sire of the Tennessee Walking Horse breed. A failure as a trotting horse, due to his insistence on pacing, Black Allan was instead used for breeding. From his line, a foal named Roan Allen was born in 1904. Able to perform several ambling gaits, Roan Allen became a successful show horse, in turn sired several famous Tennessee Walking Horses; the Tennessee Walking Horse Breeders' Association was formed in 1935. To reflect interest in showing horses, the name was changed in 1974 to the current Tennessee Walking Horse Breeders' and Exhibitors' Association; the stud book was closed in 1947, meaning that since that date every Tennessee Walker must have both its dam and stud registered in order to be eligible for registration.
In 1950, the United States Department of
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Lewisburg is a city in, the county seat of Marshall County, United States. The population was 11,371 in 2014. Lewisburg is located in Middle Tennessee, fifty miles south of Nashville and fifty-two miles north of Huntsville, Alabama. Residents have access to the larger cities via nearby I-65. Located among rolling hills, Lewisburg was named for the explorer Meriwether Lewis. By 1838, the town was supporting a bank; the downtown area is similar to many other small southern towns, with a courthouse on a square, surrounded by retail and commercial businesses. Shopping centers are located on the west ends of town. Lewisburg is located at 35°26′57″N 86°47′35″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 11.7 square miles all of, land. As of the census of 2000, there were 10,413 people, 4,242 households, 2,740 families residing in the city; the population density was 891.5 people per square mile. There were 4,584 housing units at an average density of 392.4 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the city was 79.96% White, 15.44% African American, 0.19% Native American, 0.47% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 2.85% from other races, 1.06% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.15% of the population. There were 4,242 households out of which 29.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.4% were married couples living together, 16.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.4% were non-families. 31.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.94. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.2% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 27.3% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, 16.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $31,033, the median income for a family was $38,246.
Males had a median income of $30,619 versus $21,765 for females. The per capita income was $16,401. About 12.7% of families and 16.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.1% of those under age 18 and 14.2% of those age 65 or over. The area in which Lewisburg and Marshall County is located was long occupied by various cultures of indigenous peoples. Historic Native Americans were here when French and English explorers entered the area. Revolutionary War veterans were given land grants in this area by the State of North Carolina for services rendered during the war followed in the 1780s. North Carolina still claimed this territory under its colonial charter, but gave up that claim and Tennessee became an independent state. Marshall County, named in honor of the young nation's first Supreme Court Chief Justice and noted American jurist, John Marshall, was established by an act of the Tennessee General Assembly in 1836; the act which created the county specified that the county seat be named Lewisburg to commemorate the deeds of frontier explorer Meriweather Lewis.
He had been leader of the Lewis and Clark Expedition to explore the Louisiana Territory soon after its purchase. Lewisburg was incorporated on a site of 50 acres donated for civic purpose. There was white violence against freedmen during and after Reconstruction, extending into the early 20th century; some lynchings of African Americans took place at the Marshall County Courthouse in Lewisburg during the period of highest violence around the turn of the 20th century. Two unidentified black men were lynched without trial in Lewisburg on August 5, 1903. Another account said that John Milligan and John L. Hunter had been killed in Needmore by a mob that week, they are the same men. Until 1925, Lewisburg served the area principally as a trading and shipping center for its livestock and farm produce; as the county seat, it was a center of the justice system and active as a retail center for the area farmers. The world headquarters of the Tennessee Walking Horse Breeders' and Exhibitors' Association has been based in Lewisburg since 1939.
The Tennessee Walking Horse, a gaited breed, is considered to have been developed in Middle Tennessee, the area is still a center of breeding and exhibitions for this horse. Marshall County is significant because of three men who have served as Governor of Tennessee were living here when they were elected to office: Henry Horton, Jim Nance McCord, Buford Ellington. Today, Lewisburg/Marshall County is the home of several nationally known industries. Due to restructuring and movement of industry offshore, it has suffered many thousand job losses in recent years, but it maintains a viable work force, it is served by Marshall County Schools, including Marshall County High School. Buford Ellington, politician living here. Marcus Haislip, Marcus Deshon Haislip is an American professional basketball player who last played for Gaziantep Basketbol of the Turkish Basketball Super League Dont'a Hightower and raised here. An infielder, Maxwell first played in 1998 for the Chicago Cubs. WJJM 94.3 FM Lewisburg Local City Guide Marshall County Chamber of Commerce Goats, Mus
Governor of Tennessee
The Governor of Tennessee is the head of government of the U. S. state of Tennessee. The governor is the only official in Tennessee state government, directly elected by the voters of the entire state; the current governor is Bill Lee, a member of the Republican Party, who took office on January 19, 2019. The Tennessee Constitution provides that the governor must be at least 30 years old and must have lived in the state for at least seven years before being elected to the office; the governor may serve no more than two terms consecutively. There are only two other U. S. states, New Jersey and Hawaii, where the governor is the only state official to be elected statewide. The Tennessee Constitution provides that “The supreme executive power of this state shall be vested in a governor.” Most state department heads and some members of boards and commissions are appointed by the governor. The governor is the commander-in-chief of the state's army and navy and the state militia, except when they have been called up into federal service.
The governor chairs the Tennessee Board of Regents and the University of Tennessee Board of Trustees and holds seats on the State Funding Board, State Building Commission, Board of Equalization, Tennessee Local Development Authority, School Bond Authority, Tennessee Industrial and Agricultural Development Commission. The Tennessee governor can veto laws passed by the Tennessee General Assembly and has line-item veto authority for individual spending items included in bills passed by the legislature. In either situation, the governor's veto can be overridden by a simple majority of both houses of the legislature. If a governor exercises the veto authority after the legislature has adjourned, the veto stands, it is uncommon for Tennessee governors to use their veto power because it is so easy for the General Assembly to override a veto. The state constitution empowers the governor to call the General Assembly into special session, with the subjects to be considered limited to matters specified in the call.
As of 2010, the governor's salary was set at $170,340 per year. This is the ninth highest U. S. gubernatorial salary. Haslam and his predecessor, Phil Bredesen, both were independently wealthy before taking office and refused to accept state salaries for their service as governor. Tennessee does not elect a lieutenant governor. If a vacancy occurs in the office of governor due to the governor's death, removal, or resignation from office, the Tennessee Constitution provides for the Speaker of the Tennessee Senate to become governor; because this has the effect of making the speaker the lieutenant governor, the speaker is referred to by the title "lieutenant governor." And was granted this title by statute in 1951. Following the lieutenant governor/senate speaker in the line of succession are the speaker of the Tennessee House of Representatives, the secretary of state, the comptroller. In the event the governor's office becomes vacant during the first 18 months of his term, a special election for the balance of the term must be held at the time of the next federal general election.
If the vacancy occurs after the first 18 months, whoever ascends to the governorship serves out the balance of the term. In either case, a partial term counts toward the two-term limit. Governor William Blount served from 1790 to 1796, when Tennessee was known as the Southwest Territory, he was replaced by the state's first governor. Other notable governors include Willie Blount, Sam Houston, future U. S Presidents James K. Polk and Andrew Johnson
Supreme Court of the United States
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States. Established pursuant to Article III of the U. S. Constitution in 1789, it has original jurisdiction over a narrow range of cases, including suits between two or more states and those involving ambassadors, it has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all federal court and state court cases that involve a point of federal constitutional or statutory law. The Court has the power of judicial review, the ability to invalidate a statute for violating a provision of the Constitution or an executive act for being unlawful. However, it may act only within the context of a case in an area of law over which it has jurisdiction; the court may decide cases having political overtones, but it has ruled that it does not have power to decide nonjusticiable political questions. Each year it agrees to hear about one hundred to one hundred fifty of the more than seven thousand cases that it is asked to review.
According to federal statute, the court consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight associate justices, all of whom are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. Once appointed, justices have lifetime tenure unless they resign, retire, or are removed from office; each justice has a single vote in deciding. When the chief justice is in the majority, he decides. In modern discourse, justices are categorized as having conservative, moderate, or liberal philosophies of law and of judicial interpretation. While a far greater number of cases in recent history have been decided unanimously, decisions in cases of the highest profile have come down to just one single vote, exemplifying the justices' alignment according to these categories; the Court meets in the Supreme Court Building in Washington, D. C, its law enforcement arm is the Supreme Court of the United States Police. It was while debating the division of powers between the legislative and executive departments that delegates to the 1787 Constitutional Convention established the parameters for the national judiciary.
Creating a "third branch" of government was a novel idea. Early on, some delegates argued that national laws could be enforced by state courts, while others, including James Madison, advocated for a national judicial authority consisting of various tribunals chosen by the national legislature, it was proposed that the judiciary should have a role in checking the executive power to veto or revise laws. In the end, the Framers compromised by sketching only a general outline of the judiciary, vesting federal judicial power in "one supreme Court, in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish", they delineated neither the exact powers and prerogatives of the Supreme Court nor the organization of the Template:Judicial branch as a whole. The 1st United States Congress provided the detailed organization of a federal judiciary through the Judiciary Act of 1789; the Supreme Court, the country's highest judicial tribunal, was to sit in the nation's Capital and would be composed of a chief justice and five associate justices.
The act divided the country into judicial districts, which were in turn organized into circuits. Justices were required to "ride circuit" and hold circuit court twice a year in their assigned judicial district. After signing the act into law, President George Washington nominated the following people to serve on the court: John Jay for chief justice and John Rutledge, William Cushing, Robert H. Harrison, James Wilson, John Blair Jr. as associate justices. All six were confirmed by the Senate on September 26, 1789. Harrison, declined to serve. In his place, Washington nominated James Iredell; the Supreme Court held its inaugural session from February 2 through February 10, 1790, at the Royal Exchange in New York City the U. S. capital. A second session was held there in August 1790; the earliest sessions of the court were devoted to organizational proceedings, as the first cases did not reach it until 1791. When the national capital moved to Philadelphia in 1790, the Supreme Court did so as well.
After meeting at Independence Hall, the Court established its chambers at City Hall. Under Chief Justices Jay and Ellsworth, the Court heard few cases; as the Court had only six members, every decision that it made by a majority was made by two-thirds. However, Congress has always allowed less than the court's full membership to make decisions, starting with a quorum of four justices in 1789; the court lacked a home of its own and had little prestige, a situation not helped by the era's highest-profile case, Chisholm v. Georgia, reversed within two years by the adoption of the Eleventh Amendment; the court's power and prestige grew during the Marshall Court. Under Marshall, the court established the power of judicial review over acts of Congress, including specifying itself as the supreme expositor of the Constitution and making several important constitutional rulings that gave shape and substance to the balance of power between the federal government and states; the Marshall Court ended the practice of each justice issuin
Murfreesboro is a city in, the county seat of, Rutherford County, United States. The population was 108,755 according to the 2010 census, up from 68,816 residents certified in 2000. In 2017, census estimates showed a population of 136,372; the city is home to both the center of population of Tennessee, the geographic center of Tennessee. Murfreesboro is located 34 miles southeast of downtown Nashville in the Nashville metropolitan area of Middle Tennessee, it is one of the fastest growing cities in the country. Murfreesboro is home to Middle Tennessee State University, the second largest undergraduate university in the state of Tennessee, with 22,729 total students as of fall 2014. In 2006, Murfreesboro was ranked by Money as the 84th best place to live in the United States, out of 745 cities with a population over 50,000. In 2018, Murfreesboro was ranked by Money as the 19th best place to live in the United States. On October 27, 1811, the Tennessee General Assembly designated the location for a new county seat for Rutherford County, giving it the name Cannonsburgh in honor of Newton Cannon, then-representative to the Assembly for the local area.
At the suggestion of William Lytle, it was renamed Murfreesborough on November 29, 1811, after Revolutionary War hero Colonel Hardy Murfree. The name was shortened to Murfreesboro in January 1812. Author Mary Noailles Murfree was his great-granddaughter; as Tennessee settlement expanded to the west, the location of the state capital in Knoxville became inconvenient for most newcomers. In 1818, Murfreesboro was designated as the capital of Tennessee and its population boomed. Eight years however, it was itself replaced by Nashville. On December 31, 1862, the Battle of Stones River called the Battle of Murfreesboro, was fought near the city between the Union Army of the Cumberland and the Confederate Army of Tennessee; this was a major engagement of the American Civil War, between December 31 and January 2, 1863, the rival armies suffered a combined total of 23,515 casualties. It was the bloodiest battle of the war by percentage of casualties. Following the Confederate retreat after the drawn Battle of Perryville in central Kentucky, the Confederate army moved through East Tennessee and turned northwest to defend Murfreesboro.
General Braxton Bragg's veteran cavalry harassed Union General William Rosecrans' troop movements and destroying many of his supply trains. However, they could not prevent supplies and reinforcements from reaching Rosecrans. Despite the large number of casualties, the battle was inconclusive, it is considered a Union victory, since afterwards General Bragg retreated 36 miles south to Tullahoma. So, the Union army did not move against Bragg until a full six months in June 1863; the battle was significant since it did provide the Union army with a base to push the eventual drive further south, which allowed the advances against Chattanooga and Atlanta. These allowed the Union to divide the Eastern and Western theaters, followed by Sherman's March to the Sea; the Stones River National Battlefield is now a national historical site. General Rosecrans' move to the south depended on a secure source of provisions, Murfreesboro was chosen to become his supply depot. Soon after the battle, Brigadier General James St. Clair Morton, Chief Engineer of the Army of the Cumberland, was ordered to build Fortress Rosecrans, some 2 miles northwest of the town.
The fortifications were the largest built during the war. Fortress Rosecrans consisted of four redoubts and connecting fortifications; the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad and the West Fork of the Stones River both passed through the fortress, while two roads provided additional transportation. The fort's interior was a huge logistical resource center, including sawmills, quartermaster maintenance depots, ammunition magazines, living quarters for the 2,000 men who handled the operations and defended the post; the fortress was completed in June 1863, only did Rosecrans dare to move south. The fortress was never attacked, in part because the Union troops held the town of Murfreesboro hostage by training their artillery on the courthouse. Major portions of the earthworks still have been incorporated into the battlefield site. Murfreesboro had begun as a agricultural community, but by 1853 the area was home to several colleges and academies, gaining the nickname the "Athens of Tennessee". Despite the wartime trauma, the town's growth had begun to recover by the early 1900s, in contrast to other areas of the devastated South.
In 1911, the state legislature created Middle Tennessee State Normal School, a two-year institute to train teachers. It would soon merge with the Tennessee College for Women. In 1925 the Normal School was expanded to a four-year college. In 1965 it became Middle Tennessee State University. MTSU now has the largest undergraduate enrollment in the state, including many international students. World War II resulted in Murfreesboro diversifying into industry and education. Growth has been steady since that time. Murfreesboro has enjoyed substantial residential and commercial growth, with its population increasing 123.9% between 1990 and 2010, from 44,922 to 100,575. The city has been a destination for many immigrants leaving areas affected by warfare; the city has become more cosmopolitan by attracting more numerous international students to the university. The city council has six members, all elected at-large for four-year term