The Marshallese language (Marshallese: new orthography Kajin M̧ajeļ or old orthography Kajin Majōl known as Ebon, is a Micronesian language spoken in the Marshall Islands. The language is spoken by about 44,000 people in the Marshall Islands, making it the principal language of the country. There are roughly 6,000 speakers outside of the Marshall Islands, including those in Nauru and the United States. There are two major dialects: Ratak. Marshallese, a Micronesian language, is a member of the Eastern Oceanic subgroup of the Austronesian languages; the closest linguistic relatives of Marshallese are the other Micronesian languages, including Chuukese, Kosraean and Pohnpeian. Marshallese shows 33% lexical similarity with Pohnpeian. Within the Micronesian archipelago, Marshallese—along with the rest of the Micronesian language group—is not as related to the more ambiguously classified Oceanic language Yapese in Yap State, or to the Polynesian outlier languages Kapingamarangi and Nukuoro in Pohnpei State, less related to the non-Oceanic languages Palauan in Palau and Chamorro in the Mariana Islands.
The Republic of the Marshall Islands contains 34 atolls that are split into two chains, the eastern Ratak Chain and the western Rālik Chain. These two chains have different dialects, which differ lexically, are mutually intelligible; the atoll of Ujelang in the west was reported to have "slightly less homogeneous speech", but it has been uninhabited since 1980. The Ratak and Rālik dialects differ phonetically in how they deal with stems that begin with double consonants. Ratak Marshallese inserts a vowel to separate the consonants, while Ralik adds a vowel before the consonants. For example, the stem kkure'play' becomes ikkure in Rālik Marshallese and kukure in Ratak Marshallese. Marshallese enjoys vigorous use; as of 1979, the language was spoken by 43,900 people in the Marshall Islands. Additional groups of speakers in other countries including Nauru and the United States bring the total number of Marshallese speakers to 49,550 Along with Pohnpeian and Chuukese, Marshallese stands out among Micronesian languages in having tens of thousands of speakers.
A dictionary and at least two Bible translations have been published in Marshallese. Marshallese has a large consonant inventory, each consonant has some type of secondary articulation; the palatalized consonants are regarded as "light", the velarized and rounded consonants are regarded as "heavy", with the rounded consonants being both velarized and labialized. The "light" consonants are considered more relaxed articulations; the following are the consonant phonemes of Marshallese: Marshallese has no voicing contrast in consonants. However, stops may be allophonically voiced, when they are between vowels and not geminated. Final consonants are unreleased. Glides /j ɰ w/ vanish in many environments, with surrounding vowels assimilating their backness and roundedness; that is motivated by the limited surface distribution of these phonemes as well as other evidence that backness and roundedness are not specified phonemically for Marshallese vowels. In fact, the consonant /ɰ/ never surfaces phonetically but is used to explain the preceding phenomenon.
Bender explains that it was once believed there were six bilabial consonants because of observed surface realizations, /p pʲ pʷ m mʲ mʷ/, but he determined that two of these, /p m/, were allophones of /pʲ mʲ/ before front vowels and allophones of /pˠ mˠ/ before back vowels. Before front vowels, the velarized labial consonants /pˠ mˠ/ tend to have rounded articulations, but they remain unrounded on the phonemic level, there are no distinct /pʷ mʷ/ phonemes; the pronunciation guide used by Naan still recognizes as allophone symbols separate from in these same conditions while recognizing that there are only palatalized and velarized phonemes. This article uses in phonetic transcriptions; the consonant /tʲ/ may be phonetically realized as, or, in free variation. Word-internally it assumes a voiced fricative articulation as but not when geminated. /tʲ/ is used to adapt foreign sibilants into Marshallese. In phonetic transcription, this article uses and as voiceless and voiced allophones of the same phoneme.
Marshallese has no distinct /tʷ/ phoneme. The dorsal consonants /k ŋ kʷ ŋʷ/ are velar but with the tongue a little farther back, making them somewhere between velar and uvular in articulation. All dorsal phonemes are "heavy", none are "light"; as stated before, the palatal consonant articulations, are treated as allophones of the palatalized coronal obstruent /tʲ/ though palatal consonants are physically dorsal. For simplicity, this article uses unmarked in phonetic transcription. Bender describes /nˠ/ and /nʷ/ as being
Anil Kumar Tyagi, former Vice Chancellor of Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Delhi. Prior to this he is Co-ordinator of UGC- SAP Programme and head of Department of Biochemistry at South Campus of Delhi University and was Vice President of the Society of Biological Chemists, India from the year 2004 to 2006. J. C. Bose Fellowship. Vigyan Gaurav Samman Award from CST, UP Government.. Vice President, Society of Biological Chemists from 2004–2006. Ranbaxy Research Award, 1999. Dr. Nitya Anand Endowment Lecture Award of INSA, 1999. Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize for Science and Technology in Medical Science, 1995. P. S. Sarma memorial award of the Society of Biological Chemists, 1993. Dr. Kona Sampath Kumar prize of the University of Delhi, 1983. Fellow of the National Academy of Science, Indian Academy of Science and Indian National Science Academy. C. R. Krishnamurthy Memorial Oration Award by CDRI, Lucknow Prof. S. H. Zaidi Oration Award by ITRC, Lucknow Dr. Kona Sampath Kumar prize by the University of Delhi Fellow of the Society for Immunology and Immunopath Member of Guha Research Conference Life Member of the Society of Biological Chemists Life Member of Indian Society of Cell Biology Life Member of Association of Microbiologists of India Communalism and ramakatha in historical perspective Women Workers In Ancient India
Chiswell Earthworks is a land sculpture, located on the Isle of Portland, England. It is found above Chesil Beach's most southerly part Chesil Cove, at the end of the promenade sea wall, towards West Weares, it was created by John Maine RA, between 1986 and 1993. The Chiswell Earthworks land sculpture was built after a suggestion was made by Margaret Somerville, a Portland local and owner of the Chesil Gallery; the project became one of the Common Ground's New Milestone projects and was commissioned in 1986. John Maine RA, a sculptor with international reputation, was asked to undertake the commission. Maine firstly decided on a site for the project, ended up choosing a grassy area of hillside above the Sea Wall where Chesil Beach ends. Many local people believed that the sculpture would never see completion. However, an exhibition titled "Henry Moore and the Sea" was held at the Chesil Gallery in 1993 to mark the completion of the sculpture during the summer of that year. In total the sculpture took £250,000 to complete.
Since completion, the earthworks have been praised internationally, gathered various awards, is used by local people as well as for hosting various local events. Tom Maine short film on Chiswell Earthworks
Severe Cyclonic Storm Lehar was a tropical cyclone that affected the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Lehar was the second most intense tropical cyclone of the 2013 season, surpassed by Cyclone Phailin, as well as one of the two strong cyclones that affected Southern India in November 2013, the other being Cyclone Helen; the origins of Lehar can be tracked back to an area of low pressure that formed in the South China Sea on 18 November. The system drifted westwards and entered the Bay of Bengal, where it consolidated into a depression on 23 November, it moved west-northwest into an improving environment for further development before the system was named Lehar on 24 November, after it had developed into a cyclonic storm and passed over the Andaman and Nicobar Islands into the Bay of Bengal. Lehar intensified further into a severe cyclonic storm, equivalent to a category 1 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane wind scale, reaching its peak on 26 November, with 3-minute sustained wind speeds of 140 km/h and a minimum central pressure of 982 mbar.
Moving along a west-northwestward path in the following days, the storm passed over an area having cooler waters and a moderate vertical wind shear. The storm's low-level circulation center started triggering a weakening trend. Lehar weakened to a Depression on 28 November and its exposed LLCC made its second landfall over the coast of Andhra Pradesh near Machilipatnam; the same day, it was last noted as a well marked low pressure area over Andhra Pradesh. Extensive preparation was done in the wake of the storm by the authorities of the coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh and Odisha, including the evacuation of 45,000 people in low-lying areas; the storm's rapid weakening before landfall led to minimal damage. On 19 November 2013 the Japan Meteorological Agency reported that a tropical depression had developed, about 365 km to the west of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Over the next few days the system moved towards the west-northwest and moved into an favourable environment, for further development while located over the Malay Peninsula during 21 November.
The system was subsequently last noted by the JMA during the next day, as it crossed 100°E and moved into the Andaman Sea. There, it developed a well-defined low-level circulation center; the Joint Typhoon Warning Center issued a Tropical cyclone formation alert on the system, assuming that it would intensify further as it moves into warmer sections of the Bay of Bengal. Tracking westward at over 08 knots, the system intensified over the next 24 hours. Early on 23 November, the JTWC classified the system as a Tropical Storm, designating it with 05B. A couple of hours the India Meteorological Department started tracking this system as a Depression, it was assigned the code BOB 07. Early the next day, the IMD reported that BOB 07 had reached deep depression status, afterwards, they upgraded BOB 07 into a cyclonic storm, naming it Lehar. Being located in an area of moderate vertical wind shear of around 15 knots, convection consolidated around the LLCC, though being displaced towards the northwest.
That day, Lehar developed a weak microwave eye-like feature. Lehar made its first landfall south of Port Blair and Nicobar, early on 25 November. However, it maintained strength; the cyclone strengthened further and developed strong radial outflow, compensating the moderate vertical wind shear in the region. Following this development, the IMD upgraded Lehar to a Severe Cyclonic Storm; the JTWC upgraded the system to a Category 1 Tropical Cyclone on the SSHS with winds of over 65 knots. However, multispectral satellite imagery showed that a deep central dense overcast was obscuring the low level circulation; the JTWC had poor confidence in the storm's position and couldn't locate its center. Lehar continued to track in a westerly direction just along the periphery of a subtropical ridge. Early on 26 November, the IMD upgraded Lehar to a Very Severe Cyclonic storm. Meanwhile, they have warned the coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh and Odisha of heavy rainfall and strong winds. Under the steering influence of the subtropical ridge, Lehar continued to track in a west-northwesterly direction.
The storm maintained a peak 1-minute average sustained windspeed of 75 knots. On passing over cooler waters and experiencing moderate easterly vertical wind shear, the storm started losing intensity. Though deep convection persisted along its well-define center, microwave imagery depicted drier air, restricting moist inflow along the southwestern periphery of the system. On 27 November, the convection around the storm's center started losing its structural organization. A scatterometer pass indicated the elongation of the LLCC with weakening wind field. Thereafter, Leher weakened into a Depression and made landfall south of Machilipatnam, Andhra Pradesh on 28 November. Increased frictional forces led to the degeneration of the storm into a well-marked low pressure area, while it moved inland; the cyclone gusts. It caused land slides, road blockage, uprooting of trees and damage to buildings. More than two dozen fishermen went missing and all of them were rescued by the Coast Guard and police. In Little Andaman, more than 2000 people were evacuated and kept in Onge-tikrey community hall there.
Manuel Rodrigues Coelho was a Portuguese organist and composer. He is the first important Iberian keyboard composer since Cabezón. Coelho was born in Elvas around 1555 and received early education at the Elvas Cathedral, he may have studied at the Badajoz Cathedral, where he worked as organist from 1573 to 1577. At some point during the 1580s Coelho worked at the cathedral there, he left the post in 1602 after becoming court organist at Lisbon. He died in 1635 in Lisbon; the composer's surviving works are preserved in a 1620 print Flores de musica pera o instrumento de tecla & harpa, published in Lisbon. The collection, dedicated to Philip II of Portugal, is the earliest surviving Portuguese keyboard print, it contains 24 tientos, 101 liturgical organ versets, four settings of the Spanish/Mozarabic version of Pange lingua, four intabulations of Lassus' Susanne ung jour. This large collection is a compilation of earlier composed material. Coelho's most important compositions are his tientos, which are long, multi-sectional pieces.
Imitative counterpoint has a secondary role in them, whereas motivic figures and figuration, hallmarks of the Baroque style, are in the foreground. The harmonic language is clear in sharp contrast to the contemporary Italian composers. Coelho's liturgical pieces are less ornate, employ more strict counterpoint, they include a group of 23 versets para se cantarem ao órgâo, "for singing to the organ", which all consist of a vocal line with organ accompaniment. Apel, The History of Keyboard Music to 1700. Translated by Hans Tischler. Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-21141-7. Published as Geschichte der Orgel- und Klaviermusik bis 1700 by Bärenreiter-Verlag, Kassel. Bernardes, J. M. R. E Bernardes, I. R. S. Uma Discografia de Cds da Composição Musical em Portugal: Do Século XIII Nossos Dias, INCM.. Cruz, Maria Antonieta de Lima, Rodrigues Coelho, Lisboa, Ed. Europa, Colecção Os Grande Músicos. Hudson, Barton. "Manuel Rodrigues Coelho". Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press. Kastner, Santiago, Música Hispânica: O estilo do Padre Manuel R. Coelho e a interpretação da música hispânica para tecla desde 1450 até 1650.
Lisboa: Editorial Ática. Kastner, Macário Santiago, P. Manuel Rodrigues Coelho: 5 Tentos, Mainz: Schott’s Söhne. Kastner, Macário Santiago, P. Manuel Rodrigues Coelho: 4 Susanas, Mainz: Schott’s Söhne. Kastner, Contribución al estúdio de la música española y portuguesa. Lisboa: Editorial Ática. Kastner, Macário Santiago, Manuel Rodrigues Coelho: Flores De Musica Pera o Instrumento de Tecla & Harpa, Vol. I, Portugaliae Musica, Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, 2.ª edição. Kastner, Macário Santiago, Manuel Rodrigues Coelho: Flores De Musica Pera o Instrumento de Tecla & Harpa, Vol. II, Portugaliae Musica, Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian. Kastner, Macario Santiago, Três Compositores Lusitanos para Instrumentos de Tecla/Drei Lusitanische Komponisten für Tasteninstrumente. António Carreira, Rodrigues Coelho, Pedro de Araújo. Lisboa: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, pp. 27–116. Mazza, José, Dicionário Biográfico de Músicos Portugueses, ed. E notas de José Augusto Alegria, Lisboa, Tipografia da Editorial Império.
Nery, Rui Vieira, A Música no Ciclo da Bibliotheca Lusitana, Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian. Rocha, Edite Maria Oliveira da, Manuel Rodrigues Coelho “Flores de Música”: Problemas de Interpretação, Tese de Doutoramento, Departamento de Comunicação e Arte, Universidade de Aveiro, Policopiado. Vasconcelos, Joaquim de, Os Músicos Portuguezes: Biografia, Bibliografia, 2 volumes, Imprensa Portugueza. Vieira, Diccionario Biographico de Musicos Portuguezes, Lambertini, Edição Facsimilada de Arquimedes Livros. Viterbo, Francisco Marques de Sousa, Tangedores da Capella Real: Manuel Rodrigues Coelho, Sep. da Arte Musical. Hello Free scores at Órgãos de Portugal Rodrigues Coelho in HOASM Free scores by Coelho Rodrigues Manuel on loumy.org Free scores by Manuel Rodrigues Coelho at the International Music Score Library Project THE END
Minimum wage law is the body of law which prohibits employers from hiring employees or workers for less than a given hourly, daily or monthly minimum wage. More than 90% of all countries have some kind of minimum wage legislation; until minimum wage laws were very focused. In the US and Great Britain, for example, they applied only to children. Only after the Great Depression did many industrialized economies extend them to the general work force; the laws were specific to certain industries. In France, for example, they were extensions of existing trade union legislation. In the US, industry specific wage restrictions were held to be unconstitutional; the country's Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 established a uniform national minimum wage for nonfarm, nonsupervisory workers. Coverage was extended to most of the labor force. In 1894, New Zealand established such arbitration boards with the Industrial Conciliation and Arbitration Act In 1896, the colony of Victoria, Australia established similar boards In 1907, the Harvester decision was handed down in Australia.
It established a'living wage' for a man, his wife and two children to "live in frugal comfort" In 1909, the Trade Boards Act was enacted in the United Kingdom, establishing four such boards In 1912, the state of Massachusetts, United States, set minimum wages for women and children In the United States, statutory minimum wages were first introduced nationally in 1938 In the 1960s, minimum wage laws were introduced into Latin America as part of the Alliance for Progress. In 1896 in Victoria, Australia, an amendment to the Factories Act provided for the creation of a wages board; the wages board did not set a universal minimum wage. First enacted as a four-year experiment, the wages board was renewed in 1900 and made permanent in 1904. By 1902, other Australian states, such as New South Wales and Western Australia, had formed wages boards; the notion of a "basic wage" was established in 1907 with the Harvester Judgment. In Australia, on 14 December 2005, the Australian Fair Pay Commission was established under the Workplace Relations Amendment Act 2005 responsible for the adjustment of the standard federal minimum wage, replacing the role of the Australian Industrial Relations Commission that took submissions from a variety of sources to determine appropriate minimum wages.
The Australian Fair Pay Commission was replaced by Fair Work Australia in 2010. Australian Fair Work Ombudsman, Minimum Wages Fact Sheet Since Plano Real, the Brazilian national minimum wage is adjusted annually. Historical data and a rough approximation to US Dollars can be seen in the table below. In Brazil each increase the minimum wage results in a significant burden on the federal budget, because the minimum wage is tied to social security benefits and other government programs and salaries. Under the Canadian Constitution's federal-provincial division of powers, the responsibility for enacting and enforcing labour laws rests with the ten provinces; this means that each territory has its own minimum wage. Some provinces allow lower wages to be paid to liquor servers and other tip earners, and/or to inexperienced employees; the federal government could theoretically set its own minimum wage rates for workers in federal jurisdiction industries. As of 2006 however, the federal minimum wage is defined to be the general adult minimum wage rate of the province or territory where the work is performed.
This means, for example, that an interprovincial railway company could not pay a worker in British Columbia less than $10.45 an hour regardless of the worker's experience. The Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security set the People's Republic of China's first minimum wage law on 1 March 2004; the Regulations on Enterprises Minimum Wage was made to "ensure the basic needs of the worker and his family, to help improve workers' performance and to promote fair competition between enterprises." One monthly minimum wage was set for full-time workers, one hourly minimum wage for part-time workers. Provinces and autonomous regions are allowed to legislate for their own minimum wage separate from the national one. A law approved February 2013 mandates a nationwide minimum wage at 40% average urban salaries to be phased in by 2015. See List of minimum wages in China for a list of the latest minimum monthly wages for various provinces or municipalities in China. In the European Union 18 out of 27 member states have national minimum wages.
Many countries, such as Sweden, Denmark, Austria and Cyprus have no minimum wage laws but rely on employer groups and trade unions to set minimum earnings through collective bargaining. The first nationwide minimum wage in France was introduced via the Interprofessional Guaranteed Minimum Wage law, passed in 1950 and accompanied by a High Commission for Collective Agreements and a companion law known as "SMAG" for rural/agricultural occupations; the SMIG, which established one baseline hourly wage rate for the Paris region and one for the rest of the country, was indexed to price inflation but rose more than average wages. It was replaced by in 1970, which remain