The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Kongens Lyngby is the seat and commercial centre of Lyngby-Taarbæk Municipality in the northern suburbs of Copenhagen, Denmark. Lyngby Hovedgade is a shopping street and the site of a branch of Magasin du Nord as well as Lyngby Storcenter. The district is home to several major companies, including COWI A/S. Lyngby station is located on the Hillerød radial of Copenhagens S-train network, Kongens Lyngby borders, the municipality of Gentofte, where the Danish Prime Ministers official residence, Marienborg and the Gladsaxe municipality. The name Kongens Lyngby is first recorded in 1893, at that time large parts of North Zealand belonged to the Catholic Church (represented by Roskilde Cathedral and the name Lyngby was associated with several places. Store Lyngby belonged to Arresø church and our Lyngby, on the other hand, was crown land. It may therefore have been to distinguish it from other places that the name emerged. The original Lyngby village is now known as Bondebyen, Kongens Lyngby was the site of a watermill, Lyngby Watermill, which is first mentioned in 1492 but is probably several hundred years older.
A royal road, Lyngby Kongevej, was created in 1584 to provide a link between Copenhagen and Fredericks new Frederiksborg Castle from where it was extended to Fredensborg and Helsingør. It was the first of a number of royal roads created by Frederick II, in the 18th century, a growing number of country houses were built in the area by civil servants and merchants from Copenhagen. Kongens Lyngby had no rights but developed into a local service centre with an increasing number of craftsmen. In the 1930s, Kongens Lyngby developed into a modern suburb, the North Line was converted into an S-train line with more stations and Kongens Lyngby gradually merged with the neighboring settlements. Kongens Lyngby is the important shopping destination in the northern suburbs, Lyngby Hovedgade is a busy shopping site and is the site of a Magasin du Nord as well as Lyngby Storcenter
Hvidovre is the main town in Hvidovre Municipality, Denmark. The town, a suburb of Copenhagen, is about 10 km southwest of the capitals center, Hvidovre has been inhabited since prehistoric times. In 1929, a 3, 500-year-old sword from the Bronze Age was excavated in Hvidovre, a farm, was located in the area in about 1160 when Esbern Snare gave it to Sorø Abbey that passed it on to Bishop Absalon. A church was built during the Romanesque period, the name Hvidovre, meaning White Ovre, refers to the colour of the church, which was built in white chalk, as opposed to the one in Rødovre, Red Ovre, which was built in red brick. At the turn of the 20th century, Hvidovre was still a rural community. In 1901, the still only had a population of 500. Some of the land closest to the border with Copenhagen was converted into allotments in the 1920s, at the end of World War One, Copenhagen suffered from severe housing shortage. Many of the farmers in Hvidovre saw it as an opportunity to make a profit by selling their land off in small lots.
3,226 out of the 3,899 lots that existed in Hvidovre in 1924 had been sold off since 1918. The buyers were typically workers from Copenhagen and the houses built out of Chevrolet or Ford boxes. The boxes were cheap and delivered on the site, others lived in already existing summer houses. The settlement was not legal but by 1923 accounted for 34% of the population in the municipality. In May 1945, a few days before the end of World War II, the city is well known for its football team, Hvidovre IF, where famous Danish football players such as Peter Schmeichel, Kenneth Brylle, Carsten Hallum and Michael Manniche have played. Stephan Andersen, with a past in Charlton, has played for the club and it is the birthplace of the Brøndby defender Daniel Agger and of Thomas Kahlenberg. A film-production camp Filmbyen is located in Hvidovre, which has described as a peculiar post-industrial filmmaking hub. European Film Industries, Face to Face with Hollywood
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
Ballerup is a Danish town, seat of the Ballerup Municipality, in the Region Hovedstaden. There are approximately 25 schools in Ballerup Municipality, Ballerup has its own educational institution specialized in the study and research of music. The town is in the suburbs of Copenhagen and is part of Copenhagens urban area. Ballerup Super Arena is the velodrome of Ballerup and it hosted the UCI Track Cycling World Championships in 2002 and 2010 and many rounds of the UCI Track Cycling World Cup Classics. Jämsä, Finland East Kilbride, Scotland Prague 10, Czech Republic Ballerup station Ballerup Super Arena Media related to Ballerup at Wikimedia Commons
In recent times, town twinning has increasingly been used to form strategic international business links between member cities. In the United Kingdom, the twin towns is most commonly used. In mainland Europe, the most commonly used terms are twin towns, partnership towns, partner towns, the European Commission uses the term twinned towns and refers to the process as town twinning. Spain uses the term ciudades hermanadas that means sister cities, Germany and the Czech Republic use Partnerstadt / Miasto Partnerskie / Partnerské město, which translate as Partner Town or City. France uses Ville Jumelée, and Italy has Gemellaggio and Comune gemellato, in the Netherlands, the term is Stedenband. In Greece, the word αδελφοποίηση has been adopted, in Iceland, the terms vinabæir and vinaborgir are used. In the former Soviet Bloc, twin towns and twin cities are used, the Americas, South Asia, and Australasia use the term sister cities or twin cities. In China, the term is 友好城市, other government bodies enter into a twinning relationship, such as the agreement between the provinces of Hainan in China and Jeju-do in South Korea.
The Douzelage is a twinning association with one town from each of the member states of the European Union. In recent years, the term city diplomacy has gained increased usage and acceptance, particularly as a strand of paradiplomacy and public diplomacy. It is formally used in the workings of the United Cities and Local Governments, the importance of cities developing their own foreign economic policies on trade, foreign investment and attracting foreign talent has been highlighted by the World Economic Forum. The earliest known town twinning in Europe was between Paderborn, and Le Mans, France, in 836, starting in 1905, Keighley in West Yorkshire, had a twinning arrangement with French communities Suresnes and Puteaux. The first recorded modern twinning agreement was between Keighley and Poix-du-Nord in Nord, France, in 1920 following the end of the First World War and this was initially referred to as an adoption of the French town, formal twinning charters were not exchanged until 1986.
The practice was continued after the Second World War as a way to promote mutual understanding, for example, Coventry twinned with Stalingrad and with Dresden as an act of peace and reconciliation, all three cities having been heavily bombed during the war. Similarly, in 1947, Bristol Corporation sent five leading citizens on a mission to Hanover. Reading in 1947 was the first British town to form links with an enemy city – Düsseldorf. Since 9 April 1956 Rome and Paris have been exclusively and reciprocally twinned with other, following the motto, Only Paris is worthy of Rome. Within Europe, town twinning is supported by the European Union, the support scheme was established in 1989
Svendborg is a town on the island of Funen in south-central Denmark, and the seat of Svendborg Municipality. With a population of 26,672, Svendborg is Funens second largest city, in 2000 Svendborg was declared Town of the year in Denmark, and in 2003 it celebrated its 750th anniversary as a market town. By road, Svendborg is located 195 kilometres southwest of Copenhagen,183 kilometres south of Aarhus,44.2 kilometres south of Odense, Svendborg is home to the “Naturama” museum, which holds a wide variety of stuffed animals from birds to bears. The largest container company in the world, A. P. Møller-Mærsk has its origins in Svendborg. In the light of discoveries, Svendborg appears to have been established in the first half of the 12th century or even earlier. Located at the head of a bay, the natural harbour encouraged seafaring, the first recorded mention of Svendborg occurred in 1229 in a deed of gift by Valdemar the Victorious, where he refers to the fortification as Swinæburgh. The name is thought to consist of the elements svin meaning pig, in 1236, the Greyfriars monastery in Svendborg was established.
The Greyfriars would be part of the city for the next 300 years, the ruins of the monastery were partly excavated beside the railway in 2007. In 1253, the city was granted town privileges by King Christopher I. In the Middle Ages, the city was fortified with walls, the defense system included a few of forts. Most historical facts about the defense system, including the locations of fortifications, are disputed. In spite of this, it is a theory that the three towers in the coat of arms are the three fortifications. Thanks to its seafarers, in the late Middle Ages Svendborg became one of the most important trading centres in Scandinavia, during the time of the Protestant reformation and the Counts Feud in the 1530s, the citizens of Svendborg joined forces with the King. Ørkild Castle, located just east of Svendborg, was property of the bishop of Odense, the tension resulted in the castle being seized and burned down by an angry mob in collaboration with the Kings forces. The Kings forces would later, after ending their campaign on Funen, return to pillage.
After 1536, Svendborg went through a period of progress becoming the islands main port. But it would not last for long, in the following 250 years, the city faced various setbacks in its development, such as plague, a major fire, and the effects of the Swedish wars when Svendborgs ships were destroyed. It was not until the end of the war with England, the population grew from a mere 1,942 people in 1801 to more than 11,500 in 1901