Foxley Wood is a nature reserve in Foxley, England, the largest ancient woodland and coppice in Norfolk. The Norfolk Wildlife Trust, which manages this reserve, bought it in 1998, it is 123 hectares in size. It is a Site of Special Scientific Interest, a Nature Conservation Review site, Grade 2, a National Nature Reserve. Foxley Wood is 25 kilometres north-west of Norwich, 2 kilometres away from the Fakenham road, near Honeypot Wood; the nature reserve is the largest ancient woodland and coppice in Norfolk. The woodland is recorded in Domesday Book and parts of it are known to be over 6,000 years old. For the past 1,000 years, it was a source of wood; because of the drop in demand, Foxley Wood became neglected. In the 1990s it was owned and managed by the Forestry Commission, was acquired by the Norfolk Wildlife Trust in 1998, it is open to the public every day except Thursday. The woodland is rich in flora with over 250 species recorded; these include herb paris, early purple orchid, lily of the valley, common bluebell, dog's mercury, purple hairstreak, water avens and meadow brown.
Bluebells are among the main attractions for visitors in spring. Trees growing in the reserve include oak (found in the centre of the wood on sandy ground Conifers were planted throughout as timber, disturbing the original distribution of stand types. Areas have been indiscriminately sprayed with herbicides in the past. Fauna include insects such as dark bush-crickets, white admiral and ringlet butterflies, bird species such as sparrowhawks, tawny owls, great spotted woodpeckers and European green woodpeckers. Songbirds and sparrowhawks are popular sights. Besides conifer planting, spraying with herbicides, the cutting of all saleable trees, the wood is damaged by roads and ditches resulting from timber exploitation: "Foxley Wood has been badly damaged by modern forestry."
New Buckenham Common
New Buckenham Common is a common of which 20.9 hectares is a biological Site of Special Scientific Interest, located in New Buckenham, Norfolk. It is managed by the Norfolk Wildlife Trust; the Common is about 100 acres and is divided in half by'The Turnpike' B1113 road to Norwich. A stream crosses the Common, it is said to have remained unchanged for 800 years, was the subject of a dispute when in 1597 the neighboring parish of Carleton Rode claimed part of the common which led to a map, which records the settlement. The land is managed by the Norfolk Wildlife Trust. Much of the North Side is a Site of Special Scientific Interest with rare plants including Green Winged Orchids. There are clay pits where marl has been dug for building; the Common is an ancient grazing pasture grazed annually by cattle due to the continued tradition of about 79'Common Rights' that are managed by their owners and pooled for letting to the grazier to continue the tradition. The'Common Rights' entitle their owners to graze'a horse, mare or neat beast'.
There was great demand for the annual letting of the Common Rights, which were auctioned for the year's grazing, each Spring, because the grazing of cattle was popular amongst local farmers or householders who might own a beast as a group. Cattle became an important aspect of the region's farming economy after the decline of the wool and sheep trade in the 18th century; the Rights were allocated amongst local houses, in 1770, are therefore held as whole rights or 14th fractions of rights. By the mid 1960s the demand had fallen and the Rightholders formed a group and have continued to let the rights to a grazier direct; some of the Rights on this common were lost as they were not registered when required under the Commons Registration Act in the mid 1960s. Another common exists in New Buckenham: the village green, known as the Market Place
Site of Special Scientific Interest
A Site of Special Scientific Interest in Great Britain or an Area of Special Scientific Interest in the Isle of Man and Northern Ireland is a conservation designation denoting a protected area in the United Kingdom and Isle of Man. SSSI/ASSIs are the basic building block of site-based nature conservation legislation and most other legal nature/geological conservation designations in the United Kingdom are based upon them, including national nature reserves, Ramsar sites, Special Protection Areas, Special Areas of Conservation; the acronym "SSSI" is pronounced "triple-S I". Sites notified for their biological interest are known as Biological SSSIs, those notified for geological or physiographic interest are Geological SSSIs. Sites may be divided into management units, with some areas including units that are noted for both biological and geological interest. Biological SSSI/ASSIs may be selected for various reasons, which for Great Britain is governed by published SSSI Selection Guidelines. Within each area, a representative series of the best examples of each significant natural habitat may be notified, for rarer habitats all examples may be included.
Sites of particular significance for various taxonomic groups may be selected —each of these groups has its own set of selection guidelines. Conservation of biological SSSI/ASSIs involves continuation of the natural and artificial processes which resulted in their development and survival, for example the continued traditional grazing of heathland or chalk grassland. In England, the designating body for SSSIs, Natural England, selects biological SSSIs from within natural areas which are areas with particular landscape and ecological characteristics, or on a county basis. In Scotland, the designating authority is Scottish Natural Heritage. In the Isle of Man the role is performed by the Department of Environment and Agriculture. Geological SSSI/ASSIs are selected by a different mechanism to biological ones, with a minimalistic system selecting one site for each geological feature in Great Britain. Academic geological specialists have reviewed geological literature, selecting sites within Great Britain of at least national importance for each of the most important features within each geological topic.
Each of these sites is described, with most published in the Geological Conservation Review series, so becomes a GCR site. All GCR sites are subsequently notified as geological SSSIs, except some that coincide with designated biological SSSI management units. A GCR site may contain features from several different topic blocks, for example a site may contain strata containing vertebrate fossils, insect fossils and plant fossils and it may be of importance for stratigraphy. Geological sites fall into two types, having different conservation priorities: exposure sites, deposit sites. Exposure sites are where quarries, disused railway cuttings, cliffs or outcrops give access to extensive geological features, such as particular rock layers. If the exposure becomes obscured, the feature could in principle be re-exposed elsewhere. Conservation of these sites concentrates on maintenance of access for future study. Deposit sites are features which are limited in extent or physically delicate—for example, they include small lenses of sediment, mine tailings and other landforms.
If such features become damaged they cannot be recreated, conservation involves protecting the feature from erosion or other damage. Following devolution, legal arrangements for SSSIs and ASSIs differ between the countries of the UK; the Isle of Man ASSI system is a separate entity. Scottish Natural Heritage publishes a summary of the SSSI arrangements for SSSI owners and occupiers which can be downloaded from the SNH website. Legal documents for all SSSIs in Scotland are available on the SSSI Register, hosted by The Registers of Scotland. Further information about SSSIs in Scotland is available on the SNH website; the decision to notify an SSSI is made by the relevant nature conservation body for that part of the United Kingdom: Northern Ireland Environment Agency, Natural England, Scottish Natural Heritage or Natural Resources Wales. SSSIs were set up by the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949, but the current legal framework for SSSIs is provided in England and Wales by the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981, amended in 1985 and further amended in 2000, in Scotland by the Nature Conservation Act 2004 and in Northern Ireland by the Nature Conservation and Amenity Lands Order 1985.
SSSIs are covered under the Water Resources Act 1991 and related legislation. An SSSI may be made on any area of land, considered to be of special interest by virtue of its fauna, geological or physiographical / geomorphological features. SSSI notification can cover any "land" within the area of the relevant nature conservation body, including dry land, land covered by freshwater; the extent to which an SSSI/ASSI may extend seawards differs between countries. In Scotland an SSSI may include the intertidal land down to mean low water spring or to the extent of the local planning authority area, thus only limited areas of estuaries and coastal waters beyond MLWS may be included. In England, Natural England may notify an SSSI over estuarial waters and further adjacent waters in certain circumstances (section 28 of The
Great Yarmouth known to locals as Yarmouth, is a seaside town in Norfolk, England. It straddles the narrow mouth of the River Yare 20 miles east of Norwich, it had an estimated population of 38,693 at the 2011 Census, making it the most third populous place in Norfolk. The town has been a seaside resort since 1760, was one of the great English seaside towns of the 19th century, it is the gateway from the Norfolk Broads to the North Sea. For hundreds of years it was a major fishing port, depending on the herring fishery, but its fishing industry suffered a steep decline in the second half of the 20th century, has now all but disappeared; the discovery of oil in the North Sea in the 1960s led to a flourishing oil rig supply industry, today it services offshore natural gas rigs. More the development of renewable energy sources offshore wind power, has created further opportunities for support services. A wind farm of 30 generators is within sight of the town on the Scroby Sands. Great Yarmouth rose to prominence and as a major centre of tourism in England when a railway was built in 1844 making it much easier and cheaper for visitors to reach Yarmouth, triggering an influx of settlers.
Wellington Pier was built in 1854, Britannia Pier opened in 1858. Throughout the 20th century, Yarmouth continued to be a booming resort, with a promenade complete with piers, fortune-tellers, public houses, donkey rides, fish-and-chip shops and theatres. In addition to its beach, Yarmouth's major attractions and landmarks include Britannia Pier, the Pleasure Beach, the Sea Life Centre, the Hippodrome Circus and the Time and Tide Museum, as well as the UK's only surviving Victorian seaside cast iron and glass Winter Garden; the town itself is on a 3.1-mile spit sandwiched between the North River Yare. Its well-known features include the main tourist sector on the seafront; the area is linked to Gorleston and Southtown by Haven Bridge and to the A47 and A149 by the Breydon Bridge. The urban area that makes up the town of Great Yarmouth has an area of 8.3 sq mi and according to the Office for National Statistics in 2002 had a population of 47,288. It is the main town in the larger Borough of Great Yarmouth.
The ONS identify a Great Yarmouth Urban Area, which has a population of 68,317, including the sub-areas of Caister-on-Sea and Great Yarmouth. The wider borough of Great Yarmouth has a population of around 92,500, increasing to 97,277 at the 2011 census. Great Yarmouth was 92.8% White British, with the next biggest ethnic demographic being Other White, at 3.5%, which consists of Eastern Europeans. Great Yarmouth lies near the site of the Roman fort camp of Gariannonum at the mouth of the River Yare, its situation having attracted fishermen from the Cinque Ports, a permanent settlement was made, the town numbered 70 burgesses before the Norman Conquest. Henry I placed it under the rule of a reeve. In 1101 the Church of St Nicholas was founded by Herbert de Losinga, the first Bishop of Norwich, consecrated in 1119; this was to be the first of several priories founded in what was a wealthy trading centre of considerable importance. In 1208, King John granted a charter to Great Yarmouth; the charter gave his burgesses of Yarmouth general liberties according to the customs of Oxford, a gild merchant and weekly hustings, amplified by several charters asserting the rights of the borough against Little Yarmouth and Gorleston.
The town is bound to send to the sheriffs of Norwich every year one hundred herrings, baked in twenty four pasties, which the sheriffs are to deliver to the lord of the manor of East Carlton, to convey them to the King. The hospital was founded in Yarmouth in the reign of Edward I by Thomas Fastolfe, father of Thomas Fastolf, the Bishop of St David's.. In 1551, a grammar school founded and the great hall of the old hospital was appropriated to its use; the school was closed from 1757 to 1860, was re-established by the charity trustees, settled in new buildings in 1872. In 1552 Edward VI granted a charter of admiralty jurisdiction confirmed and extended by James I. In 1668 Charles II incorporated Little Yarmouth in the borough by a charter which with one brief exception remained in force until 1703, when Queen Anne replaced the two bailiffs by a mayor. In 1673 during the Third Anglo-Dutch War the Zealand Expedition was assembled in the town. In 1702 the corporation founded the Fishermen's Hospital.
In the early 18th century Yarmouth, as a thriving herring port, was vividly and admiringly described several times in Daniel Defoe's travel journals, in part as follows: Yarmouth is an antient town, much older than Norwich. It is plac'd on a peninsula between the sea; the ships ride here so close, as it were, keeping up one another, with their head-fasts on shore, that for half a mile together, they go cross the stream with their bolsprits over the land, their bowes, or heads, touching the wharf.
Ranworth Broad is a 136-hectare nature reserve on the Norfolk Broads north-east of Norwich in Norfolk. It is managed by the Norfolk Wildlife Trust, it is part of Bure Broads and Marshes Site of Special Scientific Interest and Bure Marshes Nature Conservation Review site, Grade I. and National Nature Reverse It is part of the Broadland Ramsar site and Special Protection Area, The Broads Special Area of Conservation. Many species of birds can be seen from the floating Broads Wildlife Centre such as great crested grebes, gadwalls and cormorants. There are areas of woodland and reedbeds; the poet and critic Edward Thomas spent a holiday on a houseboat on Ranworth Broad with his son and a group of friends in the summer of 1913 at the invitation of the poet and writer Eleanor Farjeon, while Thomas's wife Helen was in Switzerland
Narborough Railway Line
Narborough Railway Line or Narborough Railway Embankment is a 7.9-hectare biological Site of Special Scientific Interest south-east of King's Lynn in Norfolk. It is a former railway embankment, now a nature reserve managed by the Norfolk Wildlife Trust, it is 1 kilometre south of Narborough, on the A47 going east from King's Lynn to Swaffham, it can be entered by a car park west of the reserve. It was documented in 1847 as an area with lots of chalk and flints; the area is made of chalk grassland, which grew when Great Eastern Railways engineers cleared the area. The underlying chalk was only exposed; the Lynn and Dereham Railway, which weaved a 26.5-mile route to East Dereham via Narborough and Swaffham, was given the Royal Assent on 21 July 1845. It opened in stages between 1846 and 1848; this became part of the Great Eastern Railway. Only the section of line between King's Lynn and Narborough was opened under the L&DR, on 17 October 1846; the remainder of the line was opened in stages by the L&DR's immediate successor, the East Anglian Railway.
The East Anglian Line was opened after three and a half years of construction. Narborough joined this, went to Lynn expanded to Narborough and to Swaffham; the railway was first used by the post office to deliver post around Norfolk. The railway operated between Dereham and King's Lynn and was closed in 1960; the railway was on the King's Lynn to Norwich line. In 1958, Narborough Railway Line hired their first full-time stationmaster, Rod Lock, who at the time was a relief stationmaster for the whole of Norfolk, he had to deal with the severe 1958 blizzards. At Narborough Railway Line there are 26 species of butterfly recorded and there are a large quantity of birds in the summer months; the reserve is closed. The most common birds are blackcap and common whitethroat. In the summer there are turtle doves and in the winter there are blackbirds and redwing. In the earlier half of the year, these are popular sights: grizzled skipper, brown argus, purple hairstreak, small scabious, kidney vetch, grayling, large thyme, marjoram autumn gentian and carline thistle.
In the half of the year, purging buckthorns are popular
Hethel Old Thorn
Hethel Old Thorn is a 0.025-hectare nature reserve south-west of Norwich in Norfolk. It is managed by the Norfolk Wildlife Trust; this is the smallest wildlife trust nature reserve in Britain, consisting of one ancient hawthorn tree, which may date to the thirteenth century. In 1755 its girth was recorded as 9 feet 1 inch, it has now decayed to a much smaller size, but it is still healthy