Martial arts films colloquially known as karate or kung fu films, are a subgenre of action films that feature numerous martial arts fights between characters. These fights are the films' primary appeal and entertainment value, are a method of storytelling and character expression and development. Martial arts are featured in training scenes and other sequences in addition to fights. Martial arts films include other types of action, such as hand-to-hand combat, stuntwork and gunfights; as with other action films, martial arts films are dominated by action to varying degrees. Films of the latter type are considered to be artistically superior films, but many films of the former type are commercially successful and well received by fans of the genre. One of the earliest Hollywood movies to employ the use of martial arts was the 1955 film Bad Day at Black Rock. Martial arts films contain many characters who are martial artists and these roles are played by actors who are real martial artists. If not, actors train in preparation for their roles or the action director may rely more on stylized action or film making tricks like camera angles, doubles, wire work and computer-generated imagery.
Trampolines and springboards can be used to increase the height of jumps. These techniques are sometimes used by real martial artists as well, depending on the style of action in the film. During the 1970s and 1980s, the most visible presence of martial arts films was the hundreds of English-dubbed kung fu and ninja films produced by the Shaw Brothers, Godfrey Ho and other Hong Kong producers; these films were broadcast on North American television on weekend timeslots that were colloquially known as Kung Fu Theater, Black Belt Theater or variations thereof. Inclusive in this list of films are commercial classics like The Big Boss, Drunken Master and One Armed Boxer. Martial arts films have been produced all over the world, but the genre has been dominated by Hong Kong action cinema, peaking from 1971 with the rise of Bruce Lee until the mid-1990s with a general decline in the industry. Other notable figures in the genre include Jackie Chan, Jet Li, Sammo Hung, Yuen Biao and Donnie Yen. Sonny Chiba, Etsuko Shihomi, Hiroyuki Sanada starred in numerous karate and jidaigeki films from Japan during the 1970s and early 1980s.
Hollywood has participated in the genre with actors such as Chuck Norris, Sho Kosugi, Jean-Claude Van Damme, Steven Seagal, Brandon Lee, Wesley Snipes, Gary Daniels, Mark Dacascos and Jason Statham. In the 2000s, Thailand's film industry became an international force in the genre with the films of Tony Jaa and the cinema of Vietnam followed suit with The Rebel and Clash. In more recent years, the Indonesian film industry has offered The Raid: Redemption. Women have played key roles in the genre, including such actresses as Michelle Yeoh, Angela Mao and Cynthia Rothrock. In addition, western animation has ventured into the genre with the most successful effort being the internationally hailed DreamWorks Animation film franchise, Kung Fu Panda, starring Jack Black and Angelina Jolie. In the Chinese-speaking world, martial arts films are divided into two subcategories: the wuxia period films, the more modern Kung fu films. Kung fu films are a significant movie genre in themselves. Like westerns for Americans, they have become an identity of Chinese cinema.
As the most prestigious movie type in Chinese film history, kung fu movies were among the first Chinese films produced and the wuxia period films are the original form of Chinese kung fu films. The wuxia period films came into vogue due to the thousands of years popularity of wuxia novels. For example, the wuxia novels of Jin Yong and Gu Long directly led to the prevalence of wuxia period films. Outside of the Chinese speaking world the most famous wuxia film made was the Ang Lee film Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon, based on the Wang Dulu series of wuxia novels: it earned four Academy Awards, including one for Best Foreign Film. Martial arts westerns are American films inexpensively filmed in Southwestern United States locations, transposing martial arts themes into an "old west" setting. List of martial arts films List of mixed martial arts films Combat in film Orange Sky Golden Harvest Samurai cinema Wuxia Martial Arts subgenre at Rotten Tomatoes martial arts at IMDb The 20 Greatest Fights Scenes Ever at Rotten Tomatoes The 50 Greatest Fight Scenes of Film at Progressiveboink.com The Five Best Fight Scenes Ever Filmed at Esquire.com
Hatzor Israeli Air Force Base titled Kanaf 4 is an Israeli Air Force military air base, located in central Israel near kibbutz Hatzor after which it is named. It was opened RAF Qastina in 1942 by the Royal Air Force of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in the British Protectorate of Palestine. RAF Qastina, after the nearby Palestinian village of the same name, was an RAF station in Palestine between 1942 and 1948. On the night of 25 February 1946, Irgun militants attacked the airfield and destroyed several parked RAF Handley Page Halifax transports. Two additional RAF airfields, RAF Lydda and RAF Kfar Sirkin, were attacked in what became known as the "Night of the Airplanes". Altogether, the attacks destroyed damaged several others. Following these attacks, the RAF closed some of its Palestine-based planes to Egypt. RAF Units stationed at RAF Qastina: No. 47 Squadron RAF Handley Page Halifax A.7 & A.9 No. 512 Squadron RAF Douglas Dakota No. 644 Squadron RAF Handley Page Halifax A.7 & A.9 No. 651 Squadron RAF Auster AOP6On 15 March 1948, as the British Mandate for Palestine drew to a close, the RAF evacuated the airfield and it was taken over by Haganah forces.
On the morning of 16 August 1966, an Iraqi Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 landed at Hatzor, the culmination of Operation Diamond. Munir Redfa, an Iraqi Air Force pilot, had been persuaded by the Mossad to fly the flagship of the Soviet export aircraft industry to Israel; the MiG was the most advanced aircraft in Arab inventories at the time. Hatzor has a network of eight simulator pods which use satellite footage of countries including Lebanon and Syria to train pilots for deep strike missions. On April 2, 2017, the first two batteries of Israel’s latest missile defense system - the David’s Sling - went operational on the Air Base. 100st Squadron – operating Beechcraft B-200 "King Air" & Beechcraft A36 "Bonanza" 101st Squadron – operating F-16C 105th Squadron – operating F-16D 420th Squadron - operating Flightsimulator Network 2 Batteries of David's Sling Missile System List of Royal Air Force stations
Bronte Creek is a waterway in the Lake Ontario watershed of Ontario Canada. It runs through Hamilton and Halton Region, with its source near Morriston, passing Bronte Creek Provincial Park, on its way to Lake Ontario at Bronte Harbour in Oakville, where the creek is known as Twelve Mile Creek, it was known to the Mississauga First Nation as Esqui-sink, Eshkwessing or ishkwessin. Just south of the Queen Elizabeth Way at the Bronte Road exit, the creek has exposed an outcrop of Queenston Formation red shale with narrow, greenish layers of calcareous sandstone and silty bioclastic carbonate. List of rivers of Ontario Website: https://web.archive.org/web/20120423161414/http://www.ontarioparks.com/english/bron.html
The Castellieri culture developed in Istria during the Mid-Bronze Age, expanded into Friuli, Istria and the neighbouring areas. It lasted for more than a millennium, from the 15th century BC until the Roman conquest in the 3rd century BC, it takes its name from the fortified boroughs, which characterized the culture. The ethnicity of the Castellieri civilization is uncertain, although it was most of Pre-Indo-European stock, coming from the sea; the first castellieri were indeed built along the Istrian coasts and present the same Megalithic appearance characterizing in the Mycenaean civilization at the time. The Castellieri were fortified boroughs located on hills or mountains or, more in plains, they were constituted by one or more concentric series of walls, of rounded or elliptical shape in Istria and Venezia Giulia, or quadrangular in Friuli, within, the inhabited area. Some hundred castellieri have been discovered in Istria and Venezia Giulia, such as that of Leme, in the central-western Istria, of Elerji, near Muggia, of Monte Giove near Prosecco and San Polo, not far from Monfalcone.
However, the largest castelliere was that of Nesactium, in the southern Istria, not far from Pula. Livy, Ab Urbe Condita Strabo, book 5 G. Bandelli – E. Montanari Kokelj, Carlo Marchesetti e i castellieri, 1903-2003, Atti del Convegno internazionale di Studi, Trieste 2005. Roberto Bosi, L'Italia prima dei Romani, Milano 1989 Gianna Buti e Giacomo Devoto, Preistoria e storia delle regioni d'Italia, Firenze 1974 Giacomo Devoto, La civiltà dei castellieri, in Trentino-Alto Adige e Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Ed. De Agostini, Novara 1979 Ugo Di Martino, Le Civiltà dell'Italia antica, Milano 1984 Carlo Marchesetti, I castellieri preistorici di Trieste e della regione Giulia, Museo civico di Storia naturale, Trieste 1903. Aleksandar Stipčeviċ, Gli Illiri, Milano 1966 Autori vari, Storia di Roma Vol. I: Roma in Italia, Torino 1988 Autori vari, Popoli e civiltà dell'Italia antica, Vol. I di Antonio M. Radmilli, Roma 1974 Autori vari Friuli-Venezia Giulia ed. aggiornata, Roma 2005 Carni Prehistoric Italy Ancient peoples of Italy Adriatic Veneti
Bodegas Güell, in Catalan Celler Güell, is an architectural complex comprising a winery and associated buildings located in Garraf, in the municipality of Sitges, designed by the Catalan architect Antoni Gaudí. Gaudí received the commission for this work in 1882 from his patron Eusebi Güell, who had seen Gaudí's work at the Paris Expo in 1878; the original commission consisted of the winery and several hunting pavilions, but the latter were never built. The whole complex was located on the La Cuadra estate in Garraf and was the property of the Count Güell; the winery buildings were built between 1895 and 1897, under the direction of Francesc Berenguer, Gaudí's helper. The winery has a triangular frontal profile, with vertical roofs, steep sloping stone slabs, finished off with sets of chimneys and two doors that connect it to the old building. There are three floors: the ground floor for parking vehicles, an apartment on the first floor and a domed chapel on the top floor. Count Güell produced wine in the winery, served on the ships of the Compañía Transatlántica Española shipping line and was exported to Cuba.
However, production stopped in 1936 due to lack of commercial success. There is a restaurant in the Bodegas Güell. Catalan Modernism Joan Bassegoda Nonell: Gaudí o espacio, luz y equilibrio, Madrid, 2002, ISBN 84-95437-10-4. Bodegasguell.es gaudiclub.com gaudiallgaudi.com
William E. Wallace, known as Ed Wallace to his friends and associates, was a preeminent physical chemist whose career coincided with the golden age of chemistry, he received a bachelor's degree in chemistry from Mississippi College in 1936, a Ph. D. in physical chemistry from the University of Pittsburgh in 1941. As many prominent scientists of his era, he worked on the Manhattan Project during the Second World War, but he returned to the University of Pittsburgh as a faculty member in 1945, he remained there for the rest of his career becoming the fourth chairman of the chemistry department from 1963–1977, a Distinguished Service Professor Emeritus. He formally retired from the university in 1983, he was associated with the Mellon Institute of Industrial Research, he started a research corporation in the Oakland section of Pittsburgh with offices on an upper floor of a building on North Bellefield Avenue, midway between the University of Pittsburgh and Carnegie Mellon University. He was accustomed to taking the stairs to his office, sometimes two at a time, while his younger colleagues struggled to keep up with him.
As chairman of the University of Pittsburgh Chemistry Department, he championed the construction of a new, high-rise chemistry building, dedicated in November, 1974, the move of the department from its former location in Alumni Hall. Wallace's research spanned many fields, including measurements of low temperature specific heat, investigation of magnetic and superconducting materials, metal hydrides; the latter are useful as hydrogen storage materials. A commonality of much of this research was low temperature. Liquid helium was used in great quantity, one room on the ground floor of the new chemistry building was equipped to recover helium gas from experiments and re-liquefy it. Wallace's main scientific interest was the synthesis and characterization of intermetallic compounds of the rare earths, which include the Lanthanide elements of the periodic table. For this research he assembled a huge team of graduate students and post doctoral associates from many countries, including Argentina, India, Romania and China.
He was the author of Rare Earth Intermetallics. He is credited, along with scientists from Bell Laboratories, with the discovery of the powerful rare-earth permanent magnets that are used extensively in permanent-magnet motors today. Ed Wallace succumbed to Parkinson's disease on October 28, 2004, his close associate, Raymond S. Craig a professor in the depatartment, died of prostate cancer on June 30, 2006. Department of Chemistry Newsletter, Issue 2, p. 12. Much of this article is a personal reminiscence of Devlin Gualtieri, a post-doctoral research associate of Ed Wallace from 1974-1977, he was co-author with Ed Wallace of the following: D. M. Gualtieri, K. S. V. L. Narasimhan, W. E. Wallace, Magnetic Properties of the Hydrides of Selected Rare-Earth Intermetallic Compounds with Transition Metals, A. I. P. Confer. Proc. 34, 219-221. D. M. Gualtieri and W. E. Wallace, Hydrogen Capacity and Crystallography of ErFe2-Based and ErCo2-Based Ternary Systems, J. Less Common Metals 55, 53-59. W. E. Wallace, S. K. Malik, T. Takeshita, S.
G. Sankar, D. M. Gualtieri, Magnetic Properties of Hydrides of the Rare Earths and Rare Earth Intermetallics, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 1486-1491. S. G. Sankar, D. M. Gualtieri, W. E. Wallace, Low Temperature Magnetic Properties of the Hydrides and Deuterides of Er2, in The Rare Earths in Modern Science and Technology, edited by G. J. McCarthy and J. J. Rhyne, Plenum, 1978, pp. 69–74. D. M. Gualtieri and W. E. Wallace, Absorption of Hydrogen by LaNi5, NdCo5, ErCo3 at Low Temperatures, J. Less Common Metals 61, 261-264. Chemistry Department, University of Pittsburgh