Doctor of Civil Law
Doctor of Civil Law is a degree offered by some universities, such as the University of Oxford, instead of the more common Doctor of Laws degrees. At Oxford, the degree is a higher doctorate awarded on the basis of exceptionally insightful and distinctive publications that contain significant and original contributions to the study of law or politics in general; as of June 2016, the DCL has been suspended, pending a reform of the higher doctorates. The DCL is senior to all degrees save the Doctor of Divinity, traditionally the highest degree bestowed by the Universities; the degree of Doctor of Canon Law was replaced by the DCL after the Reformation. The degree of Doctor of Civil Law by Diploma is customarily conferred on foreign Heads of State, as well as on the Chancellor of the University.. The following other higher institutions provide for awarding a DCL: University of Durham, United Kingdom University of Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom University of Kent, United Kingdom McGill University Faculty of Law, Quebec Canada Louisiana State University Paul M. Hebert Law Center, Baton Rouge, United States Pontifical Lateran University, Rome Royal and Pontifical University of Santo Tomas, PhilippinesIn some other universities, the DCL is an honorary degree.
Doctor of Laws Lambeth degree Michael Faraday
The Bab Ballads is a collection of light verses by W. S. Gilbert, illustrated with his own comic drawings; the book takes its title from Gilbert's childhood nickname. He began to sign his illustrations "Bab". Gilbert wrote the "ballads" collected in the book before he became famous for his comic opera librettos with Arthur Sullivan. In writing these verses Gilbert developed his "topsy-turvy" style in which the humour is derived by setting up a ridiculous premise and working out its logical consequences, however absurd; the ballads reveal Gilbert's cynical and satirical approach to humour. They became famous on their own, as well as being a source for plot elements and songs that Gilbert recycled in the Gilbert and Sullivan operas, they were read aloud at private dinner-parties, at public banquets and in the House of Lords. The ballads have been much published, some have been recorded or otherwise adapted. Gilbert himself explained how The Bab Ballads came about: In 1861 Fun was started, under the editorship of Mr. H. J. Byron.
With much labour I turned out an article three-quarters of a column long, sent it to the editor, together with a half-page drawing on wood. A day or two the printer of the paper called upon me, with Mr Byron's compliments, staggered me with a request to contribute a column of "copy" and a half-page drawing every week for the term of my natural life. I hardly knew how to treat the offer, for it seemed to me that into that short article I had poured all I knew. I was empty. I had exhausted myself: I didn't know any more. However, the printer encouraged me, I said I would try. I did try, I found to my surprise that there was a little left, enough indeed to enable me to contribute some hundreds of columns to the periodical throughout his editorship, that of his successor, poor Tom Hood!. For ten years Gilbert wrote articles and poems for Fun, of which he was the drama critic. Gilbert's first column "cannot now be identified"; the first known contribution is a drawing titled "Some mistake here" on page 56 of the issue for 26 October 1861.
Some of Gilbert's early work for the journal remains unidentified. The earliest pieces that Gilbert himself considered worthy to be collected in The Bab Ballads started to appear in 1865, much more from 1866 to 1869; the series takes its title from the nickname "Bab", short for "baby". It may be a homage to Charles Dickens's pen name "Boz". Gilbert did not start signing his drawings "Bab" until 1866, he did not start calling the poems The Bab Ballads until the first collected edition was published in 1869. From on his new poems in Fun were captioned "The Bab Ballads". Gilbert started numbering the poems, with "Mister William" as No. 60. However, it is not certain which poems Gilbert considered to be Nos. 1–59. Ellis counts backwards, including only those poems with drawings, finds that the first "Bab Ballad" was "The Story of Gentle Archibald". However, Gilbert did not include "Gentle Archibald" in his collected editions, while he did include several poems published earlier than that. Nor did Gilbert limit the collected editions to poems with illustrations.
By 1870 Gilbert's output of "Bab Ballads" had started to tail off corresponding to his rising success as a dramatist. The last poem that Gilbert himself considered to be a "Bab Ballad", "Old Paul and Old Tim," appeared in Fun in January 1871. In the remaining forty years of his life Gilbert made only a handful of verse contributions to periodicals; some posthumous editions of The Bab Ballads have included these poems, although Gilbert did not. By 1868 Gilbert's poems had won sufficient popularity to justify a collected edition, he selected forty-four of the poems for an edition of The “Bab” Ballads – Much Sound and Little Sense. A second collected edition, More “Bab” Ballads, including thirty-five ballads, appeared in 1872. In 1876 Gilbert collected fifty of his favourite poems in Fifty “Bab” Ballads, with one poem being collected for the first time and twenty-five poems that had appeared in the earlier volumes being left out; as Gilbert explained: The period during which they were written extended over some three or four years.
As it seemed to me that the volumes were disfigured by the presence of these hastily written impostors, I thought it better to withdraw from both volumes such Ballads as seemed to show evidence of carelessness or undue haste, to publish the remainder in the compact form under which they are now presented to the reader.. Gilbert's readers were not happy with the loss, in 1882 Gilbert published all of the poems that had appeared in either The “Bab” Ballads or More “Bab” Ballads, once again excluding "Etiquette." Some twentieth-century editions of More “Bab” Ballads include "Etiquette". In 1890 Gilbert produced Songs of a Savoyard, a volume of sixty-nine detached lyrics from the Savoy Operas, each with a new title, some of them reworded to fit the changed context. Many of them received "Bab" illustrations in the familiar style, he included two deleted lyrics from Iolanthe. The effect was that of a new volume of "Bab Ballads". Indeed, Gilbert considered calling the volume The Savoy Ballads. In 1898 Gilbert produced The Bab Ballads, with which are included Songs of a Savoyard.
Karl Marx was a German philosopher, historian, political theorist and socialist revolutionary. Born in Trier, Marx studied law and philosophy at university, he married Jenny von Westphalen in 1843. Due to his political publications, Marx became stateless and lived in exile with his wife and children in London for decades, where he continued to develop his thought in collaboration with German thinker Friedrich Engels and publish his writings, researching in the reading room of the British Museum, his best-known titles are the 1848 pamphlet, The Communist Manifesto, the three-volume Das Kapital. His political and philosophical thought had enormous influence on subsequent intellectual and political history and his name has been used as an adjective, a noun and a school of social theory. Marx's theories about society and politics – collectively understood as Marxism – hold that human societies develop through class struggle. In capitalism, this manifests itself in the conflict between the ruling classes that control the means of production and the working classes that enable these means by selling their labour power in return for wages.
Employing a critical approach known as historical materialism, Marx predicted that, like previous socio-economic systems, capitalism produced internal tensions which would lead to its self-destruction and replacement by a new system: socialism. For Marx, class antagonisms under capitalism, owing in part to its instability and crisis-prone nature, would eventuate the working class' development of class consciousness, leading to their conquest of political power and the establishment of a classless, communist society constituted by a free association of producers. Marx pressed for its implementation, arguing that the working class should carry out organised revolutionary action to topple capitalism and bring about socio-economic emancipation. Marx has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history, his work has been both lauded and criticised, his work in economics laid the basis for much of the current understanding of labour and its relation to capital, subsequent economic thought.
Many intellectuals, labour unions and political parties worldwide have been influenced by Marx's work, with many modifying or adapting his ideas. Marx is cited as one of the principal architects of modern social science. Marx was born on 5 May 1818 to Henriette Pressburg, he was born at Brückengasse 664 in Trier, a town part of the Kingdom of Prussia's Province of the Lower Rhine. Marx was ethnically Jewish, his maternal grandfather was a Dutch rabbi, while his paternal line had supplied Trier's rabbis since 1723, a role taken by his grandfather Meier Halevi Marx. His father, as a child known as Herschel, was the first in the line to receive a secular education, he became a lawyer and lived a wealthy and middle-class existence, with his family owning a number of Moselle vineyards. Prior to his son's birth, after the abrogation of Jewish emancipation in the Rhineland, Herschel converted from Judaism to join the state Evangelical Church of Prussia, taking on the German forename Heinrich over the Yiddish Herschel.
Non-religious, Heinrich was a man of the Enlightenment, interested in the ideas of the philosophers Immanuel Kant and Voltaire. A classical liberal, he took part in agitation for a constitution and reforms in Prussia, at that time being an absolute monarchy. In 1815, Heinrich Marx began working as an attorney and in 1819 moved his family to a ten-room property near the Porta Nigra, his wife, Henriette Pressburg, was a Dutch Jewish woman from a prosperous business family that founded the company Philips Electronics. Her sister Sophie Pressburg married Lion Philips and was the grandmother of both Gerard and Anton Philips and great-grandmother to Frits Philips. Lion Philips was a wealthy Dutch tobacco manufacturer and industrialist, upon whom Karl and Jenny Marx would often come to rely for loans while they were exiled in London. Little is known of Marx's childhood; the third of nine children, he became the eldest son when his brother Moritz died in 1819. Young Marx and his surviving siblings, Hermann, Louise and Caroline, were baptised into the Lutheran Church in August 1824 and their mother in November 1825.
Young Marx was educated by his father until 1830, when he entered Trier High School, whose headmaster, Hugo Wyttenbach, was a friend of his father. By employing many liberal humanists as teachers, Wyttenbach incurred the anger of the local conservative government. Subsequently, police raided the school in 1832 and discovered that literature espousing political liberalism was being distributed among the students. Considering the distribution of such material a seditious act, the authorities instituted reforms and replaced several staff during Marx's attendance. In October 1835 at the age of 17, Marx travelled to the University of Bonn wishing to study philosophy and literature, but his father insisted on law as a more practical field. Due to a condition referred to as a "weak chest", Marx was excused from military duty when he turned 18. While at the University at Bonn, Marx joined the Poets' Club, a group containing political radicals that were monitored by the police. Marx joined the Trier Tavern Club drinking society, at one point serving as club co-president.
Additionally, Marx was involved in certain disputes, some of which became serious: in August 1836 he took part in a duel with a member of the university's Borussian Korps. Although his grades
National Library of Israel
The National Library of Israel Jewish National and University Library, is the library dedicated to collecting the cultural treasures of Israel and of Jewish heritage. The library holds more than 5 million books, is located on the Givat Ram campus of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem; the National Library owns the world's largest collections of Hebraica and Judaica, is the repository of many rare and unique manuscripts and artifacts. The B'nai Brith library, founded in Jerusalem in 1892, was the first public library in Palestine to serve the Jewish community; the library was located on B'nai Brith street, between the Meah Shearim neighborhood and the Russian Compound. Ten years the Bet Midrash Abrabanel library, as it was known, moved to Ethiopia Street. In 1920, when plans were drawn up for the Hebrew University, the B'nai Brith collection became the basis for a university library; the books were moved to Mount Scopus. In 1948, when access to the university campus on Mount Scopus was blocked, most of the books were moved to the university's temporary quarters in the Terra Sancta building in Rehavia.
By that time, the university collection included over one million books. For lack of space, some of the books were placed in storerooms around the city. In 1960, they were moved to the new JNUL building in Givat Ram. In the late 1970s, when the new university complex on Mount Scopus was inaugurated and the faculties of Law and Social Science returned there, departmental libraries opened on that campus and the number of visitors to the Givat Ram library dropped. In the 1990s, the building suffered from maintenance problems such as rainwater leaks and insect infestation. In 2007 the library was recognized as The National Library of the State of Israel after the passage of the National Library Law; the law, which came into effect on 23 July 2008, changed the library's name to "National Library of Israel" and turned it temporarily to a subsidiary company of the University to become a independent community interest company, jointly owned by the Government of Israel, the Hebrew University and other organizations.
In 2011, the library launched a website granting public access to books, maps and music from its collections. In 2014, the project for a new home of the Library in Jerusalem was unveiled; the 34,000 square meters building, designed by the Swiss architecture firm Herzog & de Meuron, is scheduled for full completion in 2021. The library's mission is to secure copies of all material published in any language. By law, two copies of all printed matter published in Israel must be deposited in the National Library. In 2001, the law was amended to include audio and video recordings, other non-print media. Many manuscripts, including some of the library's unique volumes such the 13th century Worms Mahzor, have been scanned and are now available on the Internet. Among the library's special collections are the personal papers of hundreds of outstanding Jewish figures, the National Sound Archives, the Laor Map Collection and numerous other collections of Hebraica and Judaica; the library possesses some of Isaac Newton's manuscripts dealing with theological subjects.
The collection, donated by the family of the collector Abraham Yahuda, includes a large number of works by Newton about mysticism, analyses of holy books, predictions about the end of days and the appearance of the ancient Temple in Jerusalem. It contains maps that Newton sketched about mythical events to assist him in his end of days calculations; the library houses the personal archives of Gershom Scholem. Following the occupation of West Jerusalem by Haganah forces in May 1948, the libraries of a number Palestinians who fled the country as well as of other well-to-do Palestinians were transferred to the National Library; these collections included those of Henry Cattan, Khalil Beidas, Khalil al-Sakakini and Aref Hikmet Nashashibi. About 30,000 books were removed from homes in West Jerusalem, with another 40,000 taken from other cities in Mandatory Palestine, it is unclear whether the books were being kept and protected or if they were looted from the abandoned houses of their owners. About 6,000 of these books are in the library today indexed with the label AP – "Abandoned Property".
The books are cataloged, can be viewed from the Library's general catalog and are consulted by the public, including Arab scholars from all over the world. List of national and state libraries Union List of Israel Judaica Archival Project Official website
National Library of Australia
The National Library of Australia is the largest reference library in Australia, responsible under the terms of the National Library Act for "maintaining and developing a national collection of library material, including a comprehensive collection of library material relating to Australia and the Australian people." In 2012–13, the National Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, an additional 15,506 metres of manuscript material. It is located in Parkes, Canberra, ACT; the National Library of Australia, while formally established by the passage of the National Library Act 1960, had been functioning as a national library rather than a Parliamentary Library since its inception. In 1901, a Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was established to serve the newly formed Federal Parliament of Australia. From its inception the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library was driven to development of a national collection. In 1907 the Joint Parliamentary Library Committee under the Chairmanship of the Speaker, Sir Frederick William Holder defined the objective of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Library in the following words: The Library Committee is keeping before it the ideal of building up, for the time when Parliament shall be established in the Federal Capital, a great Public Library on the lines of the world-famed Library of Congress at Washington.
The present library building was opened on 15 August 1968 by Prime Minister John Gorton. The building was designed by the architectural firm of Bunning and Madden in the Late Twentieth Century Stripped Classical style; the foyer is decorated in marble, with stained-glass windows by Leonard French and three tapestries by Mathieu Matégot. The building was listed on the Australian Commonwealth Heritage List on 22 June 2004. In 2012–13 the Library collection comprised 6,496,772 items, with an estimated additional 2,325,900 items held in the manuscripts collection; the Library's collections of Australiana have developed into the nation's single most important resource of materials recording the Australian cultural heritage. Australian writers and illustrators are sought and well represented—whether published in Australia or overseas; the Library's collection includes all formats of material, from books, journals and manuscripts to pictures, maps, oral history recordings, manuscript papers and ephemera.
92.1% of the Library's collection has been catalogued and is discoverable through the online catalogue. The Library has digitized over 174,000 items from its collection and, where possible, delivers these directly across the Internet; the Library is a world leader in digital preservation techniques, maintains an Internet-accessible archive of selected Australian websites called the Pandora Archive. The Library collects material produced by Australians, for Australians or about the Australian experience in all formats—not just printed works—books, newspapers, posters and printed ephemera—but online publications and unpublished material such as manuscripts and oral histories. A core Australiana collection is that of John A. Ferguson; the Library has particular collection strengths in the performing arts, including dance. The Library's considerable collections of general overseas and rare book materials, as well as world-class Asian and Pacific collections which augment the Australiana collections.
The print collections are further supported by extensive microform holdings. The Library maintains the National Reserve Braille Collection; the Library houses the largest and most developing research resource on Asia in Australia, the largest Asian language collections in the Southern hemisphere, with over half a million volumes in the collection, as well as extensive online and electronic resources. The Library collects resources about all Asian countries in Western languages extensively, resources in the following Asian languages: Burmese, Persian, Japanese, Korean, Manchu, Thai and Vietnamese; the Library has acquired a number of important Western and Asian language scholarly collections from researchers and bibliophiles. These collections include: Australian Buddhist Library Collection Braga Collection Claasz Collection Coedes Collection London Missionary Society Collection Luce Collection McLaren-Human Collection Otley Beyer Collection Sakakibara Collection Sang Ye Collection Simon Collection Harold S. Williams Collection The Asian Collections are searchable via the National Library's catalogue.
The National Library holds an extensive collection of manuscripts. The manuscript collection contains about 26 million separate items, covering in excess of 10,492 meters of shelf space; the collection relates predominantly to Australia, but there are important holdings relating to Papua New Guinea, New Zealand and the Pacific. The collection holds a number of European and Asian manuscript collections or single items have been received as part of formed book collections; the Australian manuscript collections date from the period of maritime exploration and settlement in the 18th century until the present, with the greatest area of strength dating from the 1890s onwards. The collection includes a large number of outstanding single items, such as the 14th century Chertsey Cartulary, the journal of James Cook on the HM Bark Endeavour, inscribed on t
Arthur William Devis
Arthur William Devis was an English painter of history paintings and portraits. He painted sixty-five of which he exhibited at the Royal Academy. Among his more famous works are a depiction of the Death of Nelson and a posthumous portrait of Nelson. Devis was born in London, the nineteenth child of the artist Arthur Devis and his wife Elizabeth Faulkner. Devis was the younger brother of the painter Thomas Anthony Devis and of the schoolmistress and grammarian Ellin Devis, among others, of author of Maria Edgeworth and Frances Burney, he followed his elder brother Thomas Anthony in becoming a pupil at the Royal Academy Schools in 1774 and like his brother exhibited at the Free Society of Artists, of which in 1768 their father had become president, at the Royal Academy. Early on he came to the notice of Sir Joshua Reynolds, he was appointed draughtsman on the British East India Company's packet Antelope in a voyage in 1783, under Captain Henry Wilson. In her he was injured in an encounter with Papuans near the Schouten Islands and was wrecked on the Pelew Islands before proceeding to Canton and thence to Bengal.
During his voyages, the artist received arrow wounds, one of which inflicted permanent injury on his lower jaw. He was back in London by 1795 and is recorded on 21 July 1797 as living at 27 George Street, Hanover Square, where he was insured by the Sun Assurance Office, he is noted for his involvement in the creation of the posthumous cult of Horatio Nelson. As she returned from Trafalgar, Devis went out to meet HMS Victory and was present on board the ship during the autopsy of Nelson's body conducted by Dr Beatty, the ship's surgeon. With the help of sketches he took at that time, he painted a heroic Death of Nelson, which proved a sensation. Devis painted Dr Beatty, was commissioned by him to produce a half-length painting of Nelson as vice-admiral, which he lent to Emma Hamilton. Either the original or a copy of this portrait was exhibited at the Royal Academy two years after the Battle and many copies were made of it. Lord Howe owned one, another ended up in the collection of the National Maritime Museum.
It appeared as an engraving in Beatty's published account of Nelson's death. Other work includes a portrait of King George III on horseback, a range of portraits of admirals and generals, along with historical subjects, such as the Babington Plot and the signing of the Magna Carta. Better known is his Master Simpson, a portrait of a small boy, James Alexander Simpson, carrying a dog, copied and exploited commercially. Despite some success in life, Devis seems to have had financial difficulties, including imprisonment for debt. By the will of his brother Thomas Anthony Devis, who died in London in 1810, he inherited all Anthony's printed books and prints. Devis himself died in London, at Caroline Street, Bedford Square, of apoplexy in 1822 and was buried in St Giles' churchyard. Whittle, Stephen. "Devis, Arthur William". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/7571. 49 paintings by or after Arthur William Devis at the Art UK site Media related to Arthur William Devis at Wikimedia Commons
Albury is a village and civil parish in the borough of Guildford in Surrey, about 4 miles south-east of Guildford town centre. The village is within Surrey Hills Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and part of it forms the 63 acres Colyer's Hanger SSSI, financially supported by Natural England. Farley Green, Little London and adjacent Brook form part of the secular parish. Albury civil parish spans the small village and three hamlets, which are Farley Green, Little London and adjacent Brook – spaced out by Albury Heath, Foxholes Wood, small fields and Albury Park. About a third of Blackheath Common on the Greensand Ridge is in the parish, which centrally nestles in the'Vale of Holmesdale'. Albury new village is at the point where the Sherborne flowing from near Newlands Corner via the Silent Pool joins the Tillingbourne that runs through the centre of the village and until the 20th century fed the flour mill at the Chilworth edge of the village, which has now given way to a small estate of houses.
The old village lies within Albury Park, described in History. There is another brook leading into Chilworth called Law Brook; the following is based on 2011 statistics: the population was 1,191. This was an increase of one since 2001. While 583 people were economically active: 372 commuted by motor vehicle and 61 commuted by public transport, the average Albury commuter travelled 17 kilometres; the village offers the Drummond at Albury inn. The nearest railway stations are just beyond the borders: Chilworth railway station 1 mile west and Gomshall railway station 2 miles east of the parish boundaries on the North Downs Line. Part of Albury holds the 63 acres Colyer's Hanger SSSI. Farley Heath in the southwest of the parish has remains of a Romano-Celtic temple within a temenos in a clearing by Heath Road containing an inner cella, nearby a pottery kiln and tumbled columns can be seen; the village appears in the Domesday Book as Eldeberie. It was held by Roger d'Abernon from Richard de Tonebrige.
Its Domesday Assets were: 2½ hides, 1 church, 1 mill worth 5s, 8½ ploughs, 1-acre of meadow, woodland worth 30 hogs. It rendered £9. Albury village is next to Albury Estate, an estate of 150 acres graded II* by Historic England. Within it is the Saxon church, The Mansion or Albury Park House, a few surviving houses of the old village. In 1842, Henry Drummond moved the rest of the village half a mile westward, built a new church, to what was the hamlet of Weston Street; the Duke of Northumberland owns the estate – the Mansion was once home to the Duke and Duchess. The gardens are designated Grade I and were designed by author and gardener John Evelyn noted for his mansion 6 miles east in Wotton, Surrey; the William IV public house in close-by Little London dates back to the 16th century. Albury History Society, founded in 1971, has archive recordings and links to historical information on its website. Fishing is available in the stocked Albury Estate ponds at Weston, Vale End, Albury Park and at Powder Mills, Chilworth with the Albury Estate Fisheries club.
Albury Cricket Club play at the Albury Heath ground that adjoins Albury Eagles FC, the clubs have a combined social events calendar, close to Albury and to Little London in Sandy Lane. The football club's stated aim is to cover the wider Tillingbourne community and has several U16, U13 and U9 teams; the parish of Albury has four churches: The parish church of St Peter and St Paul, built 1842 by McIntosh Brooks and apse added 1868 by Sir Arthur Blomfield. The Barn church, St Michael's in Farley Green Old St Peter and St Paul's Church, a church of Saxon origin with 12th-century tower, 13th-century chancel, 14th-century nave and 16th-century north porch, Drummond Chapel and south window with quatrefoil renewed by Pugin: in Albury Park in the care of the Churches Conservation Trust, a class I listed building; the Catholic Apostolic Church graded II* built by McIntosh Brooks, is by the Sherbourne brook at the northeast end of the village street near to where it joins the A25. The average level of accommodation in the region composed of detached houses was 28%, the average which were apartments was 22.6%.
The proportion of households in the civil parish who owned their home outright compares to the regional average of 35.1%. The proportion who owned their home with a loan compares to the regional average of 32.5%. The remaining % is made up of rented dwellings. Albury has one of the two active landfill sites in Surrey. There is a landfill liaison committee in existence, organised to work with the operator, SITA to keep the villagers aware of all issues; this landfill generates revenue for Albury Estate. Residents of the village suffer little if any effects, being more than 1 mile from it, however the parish council expressed discontent to the borough council when permission was granted for the use in the Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and will work with the estate to ensure complete restoration of the entire landscape when operations cease. Albury Parish Council Albury History Albury website Albury in the Domesday Book Surrey County Council. "Albury". Exploring Surrey's Past. Retrieved 11 January 2017